Global Warming – A Catastrophe In The Making
Global warming is written by Inam-ur-Rehman. The effects of global warming or climate damage include far-reaching and long-lasting changes to the natural environment, to ecosystems and human societies caused directly or indirectly by human emissions of greenhouse gasses. It also includes the economic and social changes which stem from living in a warmer world.
Many physical impacts of global warming are already visible, including extreme weather events, glacier retreat, changes in the timing of seasonal events (e.g., earlier flowering of plants), sea level rise, and declines in Arctic sea ice extent. The future impact of global warming depends on the extent to which nations implement prevention efforts and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean acidification is not a consequence of global warming, but instead has the same cause: increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.
SUMMARY IN ENGLISH
The earth’s average surface temperature has increased due to global warming which has increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. The Himalayan Region is covered of about 33000 sq km by glaciers which act as a mother to several streams and rivers and support economy and livelihood to millions of people in several countries of Asia, so it is called the ‘Water Tower of Asia. ‘Flood-plain lakes, high altitude Himalayan lakes, perennial rivers of Indus system, wetlands of different dimensions, ponds, snow-fed streams, springs, reservoirs are the main source of water in the Kashmir Valley. Water is the most precious natural resource as it saves our lives in many ways, such as, we drink it. It helps in the economy, in the development, livelihood and mainly keeps us clean from dust and dirt. It is used in agriculture.
Kashmir has been badly influenced by global warming. Since last two decades, many changes have been seen in the valley of Kashmir. Water is becoming scarce day by day due to the melting of Kolhai Glacier, the main source of water in Kashmir. The climate has totally been changed. It is difficult to distinguish between spring, summer and winter. Wetlands that were a part of water for irrigation in Kashmir has been concretized. It has also reduced the production of crops.
Global warming is the largest threat not only to humanity but also to all living organisms. Due to global warming, the largest glaciers are melting, which will cause the rise in the sea level and the change in the precipitation in air and certainly seasonal change. The weather will change from moderate to hot. This will lead to droughts and lesser production of yields. It will also lead to natural disasters.
Global warming has an adverse impact on J&K, because the demarcation between seasons that was well defined a decade ago, has vanished. It is now difficult to distinguish between autumn and winter. Its impact can be seen on the glaciers that are continuously melting. High-velocity storms are another factor of global warming in Jammu & Kashmir.
Scientists have considered the Kolhai glacier as one of the index glaciers in the Lider valley. It has been selected for long term monitoring. This Glacier is the water resource of whole community in this valley, so they have indexed a glacier in this region for assessing water resource availability for them. Scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI will recommend measures to bring down the glaciers recession rate.
As individuals, we should try to make awareness among the people about the drastic effects of global warming. Even individual should try to minimize the exhaust of the greenhouse gases.
Meaning of Important Words
Catastrophe: a disastrous end
Greenhouse gases: gases which cause the greenhouse effect, especially carbon dioxide
Retreat: to move away from a place
Permafrost: an area of land which is permanently frozen non-existent: describes something that does not exist or is not present in a particular place
Accumulate: time to collect a large number of things over a long period of
Devastating: destroying a place or thing completely or causing great damage
The Black Death: a form of bubonic plague pandemic in Europe and Asia during the 14th century which killed 50 million people
Subtropical: belonging to or relating to parts of the world that are immediately south or north of the tropics
Floodplain: an area of flat land near a river that is often flooded when the river becomes too full
Wetlands: large areas of land covered with swamp or marsh
Perennial: lasting or happening through the year
Complacent: extremely self-satisfied
Plethora: a very large amount of something
Simulation: a representation of a problem, situation, etc in mathematical terms, especially using a computer
Unprecedented: never having happened or existed before
Staggering: very shocking and surprising
Demarcation: a border or a rule that shows how things are divided
Stakeholders: a group of people who own a share in something
Consensus: a generally accepted opinion or decision among a group of people
Robust: (of a person or animal) strong and healthy, or (of an object or system) strong and unlikely to break or fail
Sustainable: able to continue over a period of time
Degradation: the process of wearing down
Receding Kolhai glacier: decreasing; becoming more distant
Icicles: long pointed sticks of ice that are formed when drops of water freeze
Adversely: having a negative or harmful effect on something
Abnoxious: very unpleasant or rude
Biota: the plant and animal life in a region
Katij: a migratory bird found in spring
Index (adj): indicative; classified
Tenable: (of an opinion or position) able to be defended
Questions and Answers
Q. 1. Working with the Text
1. Why has the Earth’s average surface temperature increased?
Ans. The Earth’s average surface temperature has increased because of global warming due to increased human activities like cutting down of trees and burning of fossil fuels.
2. Why is the Himalayan region called the ‘Water Tower of Asia’?
Ans. The Himalayan region is called The watery tower of Asia because of the presence of huge glaciers which provide around 8.6 million cubic meters of water annually to the subcontinent countries.
3. What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?
Ans. The main sources of water in the Kashmir valley are its lakes, river, wetlands, snow-fed streams, springs and reservoirs.
4. Why is water the most precious natural resource?
Ans. Water is the most precious natural resource as it has many uses which are very important for the sustenance of life on the earth. It is one of the basic components of life.
5. How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?
Ans. Global warming had lead to melting of many glaciers in Kashmir and reduction in snowfall. This had resulted in water scarcity. Global warming has also resulted in the frequency of flooding.
6. How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?
Ans. Global warming will lead to increase in temperatures and this in turn will lead to melting of the entire ice o the earth. This will lead to flooding of the earth, heat waves, droughts, changes in agricultural yields which will have a direct impact on the sustenance of life on the earth.
7. What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?
Ans. I think the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir is the indiscriminate felling of trees.
8. What has been the impact of global warming on J&K so far?
Ans. Global warming has had a great impact on the climate of Kashmir. Glaciers are receding at an alarming rate. Global warming has also led to occurrence of high velocity storms in the valley which have caused devastation to crops and fruits. Global warming has led to climatic variability in the valley which has led to erratic snowfall, hotter summers, and change of both precipitation and temperature. This has certainly affected livelihoods.
9. What role do the scientists play in J&K to deal with the problem of global warming?
Ans. The scientists have conducted studies on the glaciers of J&K and recommended measures to bring down the glaciers recession rate.
10. What do us as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?
Ans. We as individuals can do our bit by judiciously using our energy resources, minimizing the levels of pollution and growing more and more trees to help to deal with the problem of global warming.
Fill the blanks in the following sentences with appropriate compound word/s or phrases from the box below:
1. a) We live in a beautiful green house.
b) My uncle has built a green house next to his house, where he grows vegetables in winter.
2. a) Most PhD’s only prefer white collar jobs.
b) He was wearing a pink shirt with a white collar.
3. a) We live in the white house near the mosques.
b) The president of America lives in the white house.
4. a) My wife keeps her jewellery in a black box.
b) The black box has been found. It will now be possible to find out why the plane crashed.
5. a) He has a strong hold on his wife.
b) The southern part of the state is a strong hold of the robbers.
II Use the following phrases or expressions from the lesson in your own sentences: in progress, uncontrollable rate, across the globe, in the backdrop, at an alarming rate, an irritating change, bereft of, dried up, at the global level, heavy burden
In progress: The assembly was in progress when I reached the school Uncontrollable rate: Crime is spreading at an uncontrollable rate.
Across the globe: Pollution has left an impact across the globe.
Bereft of: The youth of today are bereft of moral values.
Dried up:The springs of Anantnag have dried up.
At the global level: People at the global level are facing a huge energy crisis.
In the back drop: in the backdrop of many scams, Indian leaders are losing their credibility
An alarmingly faster rate: The glaciers of Kashmir are melting at an alarmingly faster rate.
Heavy burden: The recent LPG price hike is a heavy burden on the common man.
III Other effects of global warming include heat waves, droughts, heavy rainfall, species extinction, etc.
In the above sentence, the word nearest in meaning to ‘extinction’ is ‘destruction’. Words having the same or nearly the same meaning are called synonyms. In each of the following sentences, a word has been italicized. Choose the synonym of the word from the four options given.
1. Sporadic rise in his temperature has caused us much worry.
a) frequent b) irksome c) irregular d) scattered
2. Reading of poetry is not congenial to his taste.
a) suited b) beneficial c) helpful d) preferable
3. The weavers have to do monotonous work.
a) repetitive b) exhausting c) irksome d) autonomous
4. The fishing boat pulled away from the wharf and chugged smoothly down the bay.
a) harbor b) shore c) quay d) anger
In the following sentences, use either infinitive or gerund in order to make them correct:
1. ______________ is good for health. (to laugh/ laughing)
2. Our turn__________ over, we left the library. (be/ being)
3. The old woman tried __________ to the hospital alone. (to go/ going)
4. ________ late for school is his habit. (to be/ being)
5. Hina, ___________ completed her work, left home. (to have/ having)
6. ___________ music is her hobby. (to listen/ listening)
7. I like ____________ Arabic literature. (to read/ reading)
8. His only aim was __________. (to cheat/ cheating)
9. ____________ is not allowed here. (to fish/ fishing)
10. Children love _____________ mud houses. (to make/ making)
1. Is there any water body in your neighbourhood? Write a paragraph on it.
Dal Lake lies in the Srinagar city. It is called the ‘Jewel in the crown of Kashmir’ the shore line of the lake is about 18 kms. Dal Lake is fed by Dachigam Telbal Nallah and many other streams. It receives an average annual rainfall of 655 mm in the catchment during the summer. There are two outlets from the lake namely, the Dalgate and Amir Khan Nallah that connect the Lakes of Nagin and Anchar. The Lake is natoed for lotus flowers. Floating gardens, called the ‘Red’ in the Kashmiri language are a special feather of the lake. Dal Lake is special feature of the lake. Dal Lake is also famous for fishing. Studies of the water quality of the lake indicate a decline in quality. All the discharge of the Srinagar city’s congested areas flows unchecked into the lake bringing it to the point of extinction.