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Air Pollution Essay 1

Air Pollution Essay

Air Pollution Essay

Pollution is the contamination of earth‘s environment with materials that interface with human health, the quality of life or the natural functioning of the ecosystem. Although some environmental pollution result of natural cause such as volcanic eruption, most are caused by human activities. Air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution are some of its major types.

Air pollution is a worldwide problem. It is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment which can occur naturally or artificially. Air pollution is a dangerous threat caused by many different productions such as car exhaust, nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, No3) and sulphur oxide (SO2)

The first major cause of air pollution in car exhaust about which lead to about 45% to 50% of the total air pollution. It is formed due to the production of unburned fuel in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons. These black gases produced by automobiles and industries may cause many health problems, such as asthma or in extreme cases, could eventually lead to difficulty in breathing. One of the hydrocarbons produced in carbon monoxide (CO) which is one of the most dangerous gases resulting in many health problems. It also affects children mostly by making them handicapped as it affects young people‘s brains. The second major cause of air pollution is nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxide is one of the harmful gases which is produced into the atmosphere due to various human activities like burning of fuel. NO is very dangerous when combined with rainwater, it forms nitrogen trioxide (NO3) which is acidic and causes a change in the soil pH.

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also adds to air pollution. It is emitted due to the burning of sulfur-containing fuels such as coal, fossil fuels, etc. Exposure to high concentration SO2 may result in different breathing problems.

Besides these harmful gases increasing the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) is also posing a threat to life as it causes greenhouse effect which has resulted in global warming.

Finally, the causes of air pollution can be many to name, but many of them can be reduced by humans by reducing the activities which produce these harmful gases.

The Last Ride Together Summary,Critical Analysis, Questions and Verification 2

The Last Ride Together Summary,Critical Analysis, Questions and Verification

Summary of Last Ride Together

The ‘Last Ride Together’ is a poem of unrequited love. The lover is rejected. But he does not blame his mistress. He is magnanimous and accepts the position in a brave and noble way. In order to show that he can control himself and make the situation easier for her he requests her for the last ride together. After a little hesitation, the lady grants his request. The lover is happy that he is not banished from her sight. He imagines that the world may perhaps end tonight and the happy moment may turn into an eternity. This is a remarkable reaction.

The two ride together. The lady lays her head on the lover’s breast. He feels that he has gained all the wealth of the world. Once he was sad but now he is full of joy. He wants to forget the past. He is not sorry for his failures. All make attempts but very few succeed. Success and failures are not important. Our achievements never match our expectations. He has been successful as his beloved is with him. There is always a difference between planning and achievements. Man fails to do according to his planning. Great men earn name and fame but in the end, they all meet death. After they are dead they are remembered only in a few lines.

The poet describes the achievements of brave soldiers, a poet, a sculptor and a musician in the sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth and stanzas show that the achievements of all these are not everlasting. In the final tenth Stanza Browning’s protagonist concludes that the life of the lover is the best. He is absorbed in the present life in love and joy with his beloved. The poem ends with optimism that this happiness of the lover with his beloved would be everlasting in his life after death in Heaven.

Critical Analysis

Last Ride Together is a dramatic monologue and it shows Browning at his best in the handling of this poetic form. It has also been called a dramatic lyric because it is not an expression of his own personal emotions, but that of an imagined character. It is spoken by a lover who loved his lady over a long period of time, and who, after making him wait for so long, finally rejected him, and turned to another lover. The lover then prayed to her to grant two requests of his. First, that she should remember his love of her, and secondly, that she should come with him for the last ride together. To his great joy, the lady consented.

Such is the love situation out of which the monologue grows. It is spoken by the lover as he rides by the side of his beloved for the last time. As they commence their ride, the beloved for a moment bends over him and places her head over his shoulders. It seems to him as if heaven itself had descended over him, so great is the bliss he experiences at the moment.

As they ride along, the lover experiences a heavenly bliss. His soul which had lost its happiness and on which grief had left its ugly marks and wrinkles, now smoothens itself out like a crumpled sheet of paper, which opens out and flutters in the wind. All his hopes of success in love, all hopes of a happy life with his beloved, were now dead and gone. His love was now a matter of the past. But the lover does not despair. He shares Browning’s optimism and says that it is no use to regret or to feel sorry for life which has been ruined. What is ended cannot be mended. It is no use speculating over his possible success if he had acted and spoken differently. It is just possible that had he acted differently, instead of loving him, she might have hated him. Now she is only indifferent to him. Now at least she rides by his side. He derives consolation from this fact, instead of brooding sadly over the dead past.

The lover then reflects over the lot of humanity in general and derives further consolation from the fact that he is not the only one who has failed in life. Such is the lot of men that all try, but none succeeds. All labor, but all fail ultimately to achieve their ends. How little of success and achievement, and how much of failure does the whole world show! He is lucky in the sense that at least he rides by the side of his beloved. Others do not get even that much of success. There is always a wide disparity between conception and execution, between ambition and achievement.

The only reward, even of the most successful statesman, is a short obituary notice and that of a heroic warrior only an epitaph over his grave in the Westminster Abbey. The poet, no doubt, achieves much. He expresses human thoughts and emotions in a sweet, melodious language, but he does not neglect any of the good things of life. He lives and dies in poverty. The great sculptor and musician, too, are failures. From even the most beautiful piece of sculpture, says a statue of the goddess, virus, one turns to an ordinary, but a living, breathing, girl; and fashions in music are quick to change. Comparatively, he is more successful, for he has, at least, been rewarded with the company of his beloved. At least, he has the pleasure of riding with her by his side.

It is difficult to say what is good and what is not good for man in this world. Achievement of perfect happiness in this world means that one would have no hopes left for life in the other world. Failure in this world is essential for success and achievement in the life to come. He has failed in this life, but this is a blessing in disguise. It means that he would be successful in the life to come. He can now hope for happiness in the other world. Because he did not get his beloved here, he is sure to enjoy the bliss of her love in life after death. Now for him, “both Heaven and she are beyond this ride.” Failure in this world is best. Further, so hopes the lover, “the instant may become eternity” and they may ride together forever and ever. Who knows what the world may end that very moment? In that case, they will be together in the other world and will be together forever.

Style and Versification

Browning’s style is a pictorial style; it is also rich in the use of imagery, similes, metaphors, etc. His images are usually starting in their originality and daring. Often they are drawn from the grotesque in nature. Nature is constantly used to illustrate the facts of human life. Often the concrete is used to clarify and bring home to the readers the spiritual and the abstract.

The beauty of form in poetry also depends on the style and diction of a poet. Browning was a highly original genius, his style is entirely individual, and so far want of a better name it is called Browning esque.

He uses the smallest number of words that his meaning allows. In the very beginning of his career, he was once charged with verbosity, and since then, “he contented himself with the use of two words where he would rather have used ten.” This dread of being diffuse resulted in compression and condensation which made him often, if not actually, obscure, at least difficult to understand.

Just as in his style, so also in his versification, Browning is often rugged and fantastic. Sometimes, this ruggedness is justified by the subject; sometimes the use of a broken, varying, irregular verse is essential to convey the particular emotion or the impression which the poet wants to convey. Browning had a peculiarly keen ear for a particular kind of staccato music, for a kind of galloping rhythm.

Often he uses double or even triple rhymes to create grotesque effects. The real fault does not lie with such artistic use of the rugged and the fantastic; the real fault arises when such use is not necessary when it is not artistically justified. And Browning’s search for novelty frequently betrays him into using such clumsy and irritating meters, and this clouds his intrinsic merits as a metrical artist.

“He is the greatest master in our language, in the use of rhyme, in the amazing variety of his versification and stanza forms, and in the vitality both of his blank verse and rhymed verse. Browning is far indeed from paying no attention, or little, to meter and versification. Except in some of his late blank verse, and in a few other cases, his very errors are just as often the result of hazardous experiments as of carelessness and inattention. In one very important matter, that of rhyme, he is perhaps the greatest master in our language; in single and double, in simple and grotesque alike, he succeeds in fitting rhyme to rhyme with a perfection which I have never found in any other poet of any age. His lyrical poems contain more structural varieties of form than those of any other preceding English poet.”


Browning’s philosophy of life is characterized by robust optimism. The universe and the beauty of Nature is an expression of the creative joy of God and so he finds the principal of Joy at the very Centre of Creation. This does not mean that he is blind to human imperfections; rather he builds hope for the future on these very imperfections. His is a philosophy of strenuous endeavor; true joy lies in the effort, and not in success or achievement. Rather failure here means success in the life to come. Faith in God, faith in the immortality of the soul, faith in the earnest endeavor are the cardinal points of Browning’s philosophy of human life.

The monologue lays bare before us the soul of the lovers he muses over his past failure in love, his bliss in the present, and his hopes for the future, we get a peep into his soul. He is a heroic soul who is not discouraged by his failure in love. He derives consolation from failure itself. He shares the poet’s cheerful optimism, his faith in the immortality of the soul, and believes, like him, that, “God creates the love to grant the love.” It is better to die, “without a glory garland around one’s neck,” for there is a life beyond and one should have some hope left for it, “dim-descried”.

Assessment Questions

Choose the correct answer from amongst the three alternatives given below each question :

The poem has :

(a) Eleven Stanzas

(b) Six Stanzas

(c) Ten Stanzas

The poem ends with :

(a) frustration

(b) love

(c) optimism

The speaker in the poem is :

(a) the lover

(b) the poet

(c) the listener

The lover rides with his beloved for :

(a) the first time

(b) the last time

(c) the eternity

The lover prays to his beloved to grant him :

(a) one request

(b) two requests

(c) nothing

The lover says that there is no need to:

(a) repent for a life that has been ruined

(b) wait for his beloved

(c) request his beloved

It is a poem of :

(a) frustration in love

(b) happy ending

(c) unrequited love

The lover in the poem is :

(a) not discouraged by failure in love

(b) encouraged by success

(c) discouraged by failure in love

The best reward according to the lover is :

(a) riding with his beloved

(b) an inscription on the tomb

(c) an award given by the King

The lover concludes that he is :

(a) unfortunate

(b) a hero

(c) fortunate

Answers to SAQs

(c) ten stanzas

(c) optimism

(a) the lover

(b) the last time

(b) two requests

(a) to repent for a life that has been ruined

(c) unrequited love

(a) not discouraged by failure in love

(a) riding with his beloved

(c) fortunate

Meaning of Words

since it is so: since you cannot love me

dearest : the lady love
at length : at last
avails : accepts
life seemed: the only desire of life
failed: to be unsuccessful
pride : privilege
thankfulness: to be thankful to his love for her company
hope : promise to love

blame : to consider improper

leave : permission

bent: looked down

that brow: the beautiful brow on her face

demurs : lingers

pity would be: the lady pitied her lover

softening through: wished to grant his request

fixed me: to be notionless in anxiety

for breathing: for a moment

balance: to be dependent on her reply

right: the lady granted his request

replenished: re-filled, got a new lease of life

not in vain: did not go waste

side by side: with one another

deified: enjoy the great happiness

may end: it may be the doomsday

hush: to be silent

western cloud: a cloud in the western sky

billowy bosomed: well-developed bosom

over bowed: enjoying in abundance

benediction : blessings

best: more than anything else

conscious grew: felt, experienced

passion drew: intensity of your love attracted

down on you: to feel heaven coming to you

lingered: remained near

soul: heart

smoothed out: expanded with joy

long cramped scroll: a sheet of paper which has been kept rolled up for a long time

freshing: to be happy

fluttering: to flutter in wind with joy

past hope: desires which could not be fulfilled

strife: to be worried, to regret

a life awy: a life that has been a failure

had I said that: had he expressed his love differently

had I done this: had he acted differently

gain: to get her love

who can tell: nobody can be sure
befell: happened

fail I alone: the lover is not the only person in the world who has been unsuccessful

strive: to struggle to achieve success

seemed: felt experienced as though

spirit flew: soul was soaring high to heaven

saw other regions, cities new: the entire landscape appeared to him entirely new and joyous

rushed by: passed by

either side: both the sides

vast : big, enormous

hand: action, achievement

brain : ideas

ever: all the time

paired: matched together

alike: in the same way

conceived: thought, formed plans

dared: had the courage to act upon his plans

will : determination

fleshy screen: limitations of the human body

leave: to swell

crown: success

heap of bones : the grave

scratch: engrave on stone

Abbey stones: raised engraved stone on the tomb

leave : permission

brains : thought

beat into a rhythm: express in rhythmical language

felt: to feel in heart

expressed: to put feelings in writing pace them rhyme: put them in poetical form

have you: did you achieve the best goals

ere : prematurely

one whit : even a little sublime : lofty ideals

turned a rhyme: composed even a line of poetry

joy: a source of pleasure

a score of years: a number of years your Venus: the statue of Venus sculptured by him

whence: from where

yonder : that

fords: wades through

Burn: a stream of water

acquiesce: accept

repine: to feel sorry grown

gray: to become old

sole : only

opera : musical drama strains : songs

gave my youth: devoted his youth in courting his beloved

in fine : in short

fit : desirable

bliss : happiness

sublimate : reach its perfection

sign the bond: enter into an agreement

bliss to die with: to die with some of his desires unfulfilled

dim descried: faintly visioned

planted: achieved

glory garland: having won success

could I decry such: had I achieved such success

try and test: views to be tested by actual experience

quest : search

Heaven: the life after death in Heaven

at life’s best: the successful life

eyes upturned: looking up towards the sky

life’s hower: the best life can offer

discerned : seen

abide: to be able to see

made eternity: to become everlasting

My Last Duchess: Summary, Analysis, Literary Devices, Style and Questions and Quiz 3

My Last Duchess: Summary, Analysis, Literary Devices, Style and Questions and Quiz

My Last Duchess

Introduction: The dramatic monologue “My Last Duchess’ is regarded as the best dramatic monologue in the whole range of English Literature. The speaker is the Duke of Ferrara, an important city and cultural center of Italy. The spirit of Renaissance, its intrigues, its sensuality, its greed, and cultural qualities are presented in it.

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Summary of My Last Duchess

In the parlance of an Italian Duke, who is the speaker in this short but vivid piece, had come the envoy of a count whose daughter he was negotiating to marry. The Duke was a widower, and taking his guest round the family portrait gallery, he paused before the portrait of his last Duchess and drew aside the curtain. He began to comment on the picture.

It was a fine portrait, so beautifully executed, that the form of his wife came to live in it.

Friar Pandolf who painted it had spent a lot of time and labour over that masterpiece.

At once, the Duke turned to inform his guest that he had deliberately named a Friar as the artist. This was because the look of deep and intense passion on the Duchess’s face always intrigued onlookers. It was clear that they sensed something behind that look other than love for her husband; they would have asked questions about it if only they had the courage. The mention of a Friar’s name helped to check fancies about an affair between the Duchess and the painter.

It was obvious to anyone that the look on her countenance was caused by something more than the mere presence of her husband in the studio. Its joy was so clear and bright. But it might have been caused by a casual remark from the painter; either a suggestion that her mantle should not cover her wrist so much or that it was impossible to reproduce on canvas the faint, evanescent flush that suffused her face. In her case, even such a formal, courteous remark was sufficient to call forth a bush of happiness.

She had an innocent, happy nature that could be pleased easily. Her earnest, impassioned, and yet smiling glance went alike to everyone. She who sent it knew no distinction of things or persons. Everything pleased her; everyone could arouse her gratitude. The same smile lighted her face again when he, her husband, showed her special favour as when some over-zealous fool plucked a branch of the cherry-tree rich with leaves and fruits and presented it to her. The bright sky at sunset or the white mule she rode seemed to arouse the same smile of pleasure too. It seemed to him from her manner of showing her gratitude for such simple things that she ranked his gift the “gift of a nine hundred years’ old name”, with that of everyone else.

Naturally, this outlook filled him with anger that turned soon to disgust. It was beneath his dignity to complain about such things. He could have admonished her and corrected her, and perhaps she would have submitted willingly to his wishes. But this would have meant lowering himself from his wonted dignity. All the time her attitude grew increasingly disgusting. So he decided to act. He gave the necessary orders, and she never smiled again. He put her in a state where she could worry or insult him no more. In plain words he got her killed.

Thus, having told the story of his last Duchess, the Duke turned to more immediate things. First, there was the dowry that his prospective bride was to fetch him: he knew that it would be adequate, coming as it did from such a munificent man as the count. Anyway, his main attraction was the beautiful lady and not the fortune she would bring.

With that, he turned to more down his guest. As a gesture of carelessness, intended to suggest his indifference to such things, he pointed in passing to a rare statute in bronze, the figure of Neptune taming his sea-horse.

Assessment Questions

Choose the correct answer from the three alternatives given below each question :

1. ‘My Last Duchess’ is:

(a) a dramatic monologue

(b) an autobiographical poem

(c) a dramatic lyric

2. ‘My Last Duchess’ was published in :

(a) 1863

(b) 1860

(c) 1842

3. The Speaker in the poem is (a) Duke of Ferrara:

(b) Claus of Innsbruck

(c) Duchess

4. The story of the poem belongs to :

(a) Nineteenth Century

(b) Sixteenth Century

(c) Twentieth Century

5. The Duke, in the poem, is talking to :

(a) the Count

(b) a court official

(c) a messenger

6. The portrait has :

(a) smile on the lips

(b) deep passionate look in the eyes

(c) glow on her face

7. The Duke :

(a) discards the portrait

(b) hates the portrait (c) is justly proud of it

8. The Duke had :

(a) graceful nature

(b) royal nature (c) childish and foolish nature

9. The Duchess was :

(a) unfaithful to her husband

(b) overpowered by her husband

(c) free to enjoy her life

10. The portrait was painted by :

(a) Fra Pandolf

(b) Claus of lunsbruck

(c) Neptune

Answers SAQs

1. (a) dramatic monologue

2. (c) 1842

3. (a) Duke of Ferrara

4. (b) sixteenth century

5. (c) a messenger

6. (b) deep passionate look in the eyes

7. (c) is justly proud of it

8. (c) childish and foolish nature

9. (b) overpowered by her husband

10. (a) Fra Pandolf


In this section, we will let you practice to analyse and appreciate a given text and also to understand poetic devices

Critical Analysis

My Last Duchess was published in Dramatic Lyrics in late November 1842. In the collection of 1849, it was made one of the Dramatic Romances and Lyrics, and in the rearrangement of the poems in 1863, it was put under Dramatic Romances. In the first publications, it was entitled Italy, and it was in the 1849 edition that the present title My Last Duchess was given.

Browning has represented the Duchess as a pathetic, stifled figure, rendered incapable by circumstances of giving expression to her talents and feelings. It has been suggested that it is based somewhat on the life that Elizabeth Barrett, later Mrs. Browning, lived in Wimpole Street. Her talents and passions were stifled by the tyranny of her father.

The Duke is addressing the envoy of a Count whose daughter he is going to marry. He draws his attention to the portrait of his last Duchess, now dead. He calls it a portrait done by Friar Pandolf, and then qualifies his statement with the remarks that he did so by design, because he had noticed that visitors were intrigued by the expression on the Duchess’s face, and almost wanted to ask what caused it. Most of them restrained that curiosity because they dared not wound his feelings.

The Duke means that often people, observing the expressions of passion on the Duchess’s face, were suspicious of an affair between her and the painter. He generally, therefore, attributed the painting to one Friar Pandolf, since a clergyman’s name would remove all suspicion. He was also particular that no one but he drew the curtain to display the portrait.

He remarks on her nature. Instead of understanding her amiable nature, he says that she was a silly childish woman who was readily impressed and pleased. She treated all favours alike with a smile ready for everyone. The Duke tells the envoy that the sweet smiles on the lady’s face were not for her husband alone. The bright redness visible on the lady’s cheeks was very unique. The Duke explains why the portrait of the Duchess has a blush on her cheeks. Many people think that the blush appeared on her cheeks because her husband the Duke was present there when the portrait was being made. The Duke tells the envoy that the blush on her face was not because he was present there. There was some other reason for it, perhaps some compliment by the artist occasioned that happy spot on her face. The artist might have complimented her on her dress. He might have said that her loose cloak covered her wrist too much.

The poem shows us the inside of a typical Renaissance character typified by an unscrupulous and proud Duke. Talking to the envoy of a Count whose daughter he wishes to marry, the Duke shows him the portrait of his previous wife who is dead. He remarks on her nature. Instead of understanding her amiable nature, he says that she was a silly childish woman who was readily impressed and pleased, who treated all favours alike with a smile ready for everyone.

The Duke was annoyed with the Duchess because she did not feel thankful to him for the honour he bestowed on her by marrying her. Even the gifts to her by other people and those given by him made her equally happy. She thanked both with equal warmth. The Duke failed to understand how she could equate his gifts with everybody’s gifts. The Duchess was graceful for the least kindness done to her and when she thanked the people, the Duke, though he did not get angry at that, did not however feel happy. Being absolutely unaffected by such feelings of gratitude towards others, the Duke naturally could not understand or appreciate her attitude.

The Duke did not mind that she thanked people for their good acts. But she did not give him a special treatment while thanking others. He was her husband and belonged to a family of 900 years standing and reputation. He was shocked that she treated him on par with other people. Thus she disgraced his royal name and lineage. It was a mean act by the Duchess. He could have pointed it to the Duchess who might have corrected if she thought it fit. But then he did not like to do that. It would have been his insult had he done so.

The Duke tells the Count’s envoy that the reputation which the Count has for splendid generosity is enough to guarantee that all his claims regarding dowry will be granted. The Duke further clarifies his remarks lest he should be misunderstood. He tells the envoy that even though his first and foremost attraction is the charming daughter of the Count, still he has mentioned about the dowry because he has great faith in the generosity of the Count. While going down he draws the envoy’s attention to a bronze-statue of Neptune-the sea-god. He tells the envoy that this pose of Neptune taming a sea-horse is a rare one. He also informs the envoy that the bronze-statue was made for the Duke by Claus of Innsbruck. The Duke wants the dowry to be worthy of his status, or at least what he considers it to be. It is significant that Browning makes him speak first of the dowry and then of the lady. That shows which is more important to him. Obviously, love has no place in such contracts entered into by him. We expect that in a short while he would treat his second wife in the way he treated the first. The same fate awaits her.

Dramatic Monologue

The Dramatic Monologue was used by Browning with amazing skill and success. Browning did not invent the dramatic monologue, but he made it specially his own, and no one else has ever put such rich and varied material into it.

In other words, he could dispense with all, ‘external machinery’ of action and plot, and concentrate his attention on, “the incidents in the development of a soul”. Unhampered by the limitations of the stage, he could now depict, “the phenomena of the mind”. Browning made this form entirely his own, because it suited his genius, and also because it had a number of other advantages. It is an oblique or indirect mode of expression, and so the poet could freely express his views without fear of hostile criticism. The views were expressed by other characters, and so they could not be imputed to him. Moreover, he knew that advice is given directly, “glances off athwart the mind,” while truths expressed indirectly set men thinking and so have their due effect. The form enabled him to exercise his dramatic bent freely, as well as to play effectively his role as a teacher.

The Dramatic Monologue is, ‘dramatic’, because it is the utterance of imaginary characters and not of the poet himself, and because in it character is developed not through any description on the part of the poet, but through a conflict between the opposite thoughts and emotions of the character himself. It is a ‘monologue’ because it is a conversation of a single individual with himself (Mono’ means ‘one’, and ‘Logue’ means ‘conversation’). The form is also referred to as monodrama.

The salient features of the dramatic monologue are best brought out through comparison and contrast both with the drama proper and the soliloquy. The dramatic monologue differs widely from the drama in its purpose and its method. In the drama the action is external; in the monologue, the action is entirely internal. The thoughts and emotions of the individual character are the actors, and his soul is the stage. The monologue develops character not through outward action and conflict as in the drama, but through the clash of motives in the soul of the speaker, and with this end in view, a moment of crisis is chosen, a movement when his personality is most active.

In each monologue, the speaker is placed in the most momentous or critical situation of his life, and the monologue embodies his reactions to this situation. Unlike a dramatist, Browning does not begin slowly with an action leading to the crisis, rather he plunges headlong into the crisis. For this reason, his monologues have an abrupt, but very arresting opening, and at the same time, what has gone before is suggested clearly or brought out through retrospective meditation and reflection. Thus My Last Duchess opens with a reference to a picture of the dead Duchess, with clear indications that it is being shown to someone. Similarly, Fra Lippo Lippi has a very dramatic beginning. This abrupt beginning is followed by self-introspection on the part of the speaker, and the whole gamut of his moods, emotions, reflections, and meditations is given. The speaker’s thoughts range freely over the past and the future and so there is no logical and chronological development. The past and the future are fused and focused in the present, and the unity is emotional rather than logical.

Form and Style

Browning was always weaving and modeling and inventing new forms. Among all his two hundred to three hundred poems, it would scarcely be an exaggeration to say that there are half as many different verse forms as there are different poems. As soon as a new idea entered his head, he tried to invent a new form to express it, and in this way, he created a large number of quite novel and quite admirable artistic forms. His business was, soul-dissection, and for this purpose, he developed and perfected the dramatic monologue, and used it most effectively.

The poet who invents such forms is a ‘maker’, in the true sense; he makes other poets. Browning was not indifferent to technical beauty, or beauty of form; he invented new forms, lovely in their own way, and it is an entirely different matter that others did not like the kind of beauty he created.

He always has a noble end in view and attains it completely. There is no characteristic of his work more admirable or more rare than the unity, the compactness, and completeness, the skill and care in construction and definiteness in the impression of each poem. For example, almost all the poems in the volume Men and Women are designed, constructed and finished with the skill of an architect. There is no doubt, as that often his composition is broken up and over-crowded. Too many side-issue are introduced, everything that he imagines is cast upon the canvas, there is too little of artistic selecting and ordering of material. But all this seeming lack of selection and restraint is not the result of carelessness, rather such details and digressions are perfectly appropriate in their place and contribute to the perfection of the whole. More often than not, they are integral to the purpose of Browning. They result from the richness of his thought, and not from faulty craftmanship. There is a marvelous sense of proportion in the importance assigned to various features in his dramatic monologues; every element plays a significant but not over-emphasized part: hence the unity of atmosphere and effect.

The beauty of form in poetry also depends on the style and diction of a poet. Browning was a highly original genius, his style is entirely individual, and so for want of a better name, it is called Browning-esque.

He uses the smallest number of words that his meaning allows. In the very beginning of his career, he was once charged with verbosity, and since then, he contended himself with the use of two words where he would rather have used ten. This dread of being diffuse resulted in compression and condensation.

Assessment Questions

Answer the following questions in 6 to 10 sentences :

1. ‘Browning did not invent the Monologue, but he perfected it? Elucidate.
Answer: Dramatic Monologue was not very popular and known to everyone before. Browning used it with intricate skill and perfection. He used this poetic form in critical situations in the life of a character. The reactions of the character are analysed and modified so as to reveal the real worth of the character.

2. Write a note on Browning’s art of characterisation.
Answer: Browning is basically a poet of situations. His poetic characters are varied and wide. His characters are as humane as that of Shakespeare. They belong not only to England but Italy, France, Germany, and Spain. The men and women who live and move in the new world of his creation are lifelike.

3. Comment on Browning’s style.
Answer: The poems of Browning show sparing use of adjectives. He uses mono-syllabic words wherever possible. His style is condensed with the use of abbreviations and omissions. For example, ‘in’, ‘on’ and ‘of’ become ‘i’, ‘o’ in his poetry. His style can be termed as telegraphic style. He uses Latin expressions and allusions to little known sources.

4. Discuss Browning’s diction and versification.
Answer: Browning always seems rugged and fantastic. His ruggedness is justified sometimes by the subject, whereas sometimes the use of a broken. varying, irregular verse is essential to convey the particular emotion or the impression which the poet wants to convey. Browning had a very keen ear for a particular kind of staccate music, for a kind of galloping rhythm. Often his verse sprawls like the trees, dances like the dust, it is top-heavy like the toad-stool. He uses double rhymes to create grotesque effects.

5. Comment on the distinctive features of Browning’s poetry.
Answer: Browning is a very original and skillful poet. He treats consonants as the backbone of his language, and hence, as the essential feature of his rhymes. He uses double and often triple rhymes to create humorous and satirical effects. He uses the measures most appropriate to his subject, whether it be a blank verse or the heroic rhyme verse.

Additional Questions of My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning

1. The poem is written in the first person. What is the name of an extended speech by one speaker to another character?

The poem is a dramatic monologue.

2. The poem’s lines do not end at the end of a line, but rather they continue into the next. What is the term for the use of sentences and other grammatical constructs that do not necessarily conclude at the end of a line?

The term is called enjambment.

3. Describe the Duke’s character.

Answers may vary. Example: He is egotistic and jealous. He was controlling over his last wife and hints that he plans on controlling his future wife as well.

4. To whom is the Duke speaking?

The Duke is speaking to an unseen audience, a servant of another lord whose daughter he is aiming to wed.

5. What is the tone of the poem?

The tone of the poem is one of unintentional revelation. The speaker is revealing, unconsciously, internal character flaws to his audience.

6. According to the speaker, what was it that brought a blush to the Duchess’s cheek?

The speaker says that the Duchess was “too easily impressed.” A kind word or deed from any man would draw a blush to the cheek, and kind words from her mouth, which made the Duke jealous.

7. How did the speaker feel about the Duchess’s behavior? What actions resulted from these feelings?

The speaker, her husband, did not like the fact that she gave the same smile and kind words to others as she did to her husband. After this had gone on for some time, the speaker says he “have commands,” and the “smiles stopped altogether.” Unfortunately, the smiles seemed to stop not only to others, but also to him.

8. Explain the significance of the statue of Neptune alluded to at the poem’s conclusion.

The statue represents the god of the sea taming a sea horse. The statue is meant to reflect the Duke’s own goals of taming his wife and seemingly succeeding, albeit through her death.

Let Us Sum Up

In this unit, you have acquired practice in

• understanding the trends and movements of literature in the Victorian Age.

• analysing and appreciating a poetic text; and

• understanding literary devices used by Robert Browning

Review Questions

1. The Last Duchess’ is a perfect example of Browning’s poetic acumen of writing a dramatic monologue.

2. Comment of the style and form of The Last Duchess


looking: appearance of the pointing

a wonder: a wonderful work of art

worked busily a day: the portrait was painted in one day

look at her: to admire the pointing of Duchess

piece : portrait

Fra Pandolf: the name of the painter who painted the portrait

Fra: from, friar, a monk

earnest : in good sense

By design : intentionally

read: examined carefully

pictured countenance: the face of the last duchess as shown in portrait
puts by: removes

I: the Duke

You: the messenger

seemed: appeared,

as if they durst: if they had the courage to do so

such a glance: you are not the first person to ask

spot of joy: a faint blush caused by pleasure

mantle : cloak

laps : covers

faint half blush: the reddish glow

such stuff: such remarks

were courtesy: they were merely courtesy

calling up: taking meaningless remarks seriously

it was all one: she has no sense of discrimination

too soon made glad: easily pleased

my favour: ornaments given by me

the dropping of daylight: an hour of sunset

officious fool: some foolish admirer of hers

terrace: a raised walk or drive

the approving speech: a few words of appreciation

ranked: considered of the same value

stoop to blame: loss of dignity by criticism foolish conduct

trifling: foolish, childish conduct

your will: your desires

to such a one: to a frivolous childish person like the Duchess

set her wits to yours: at once began discussing

forsooth: at once

made excuses: try to justify her conduct

chuse : choose

passed her: came across her

commands: ordered the duchess not to smile an everyone then all smiles stopped together: this indicates the tragedy

please you rise: will you please get up

the company: meeting

munificence: generosity, liberality

ample warrant: sufficient guarantee

just pretence: reasonable expectation or claim

disallowed : rejected

avowed: said, declared

fair : beautiful

starting: in the beginning

ibject : purpose, desire

Neptune: the sea-god in classical mythology

a rairly: a rare statue

Claus of Innsbruck: an imaginary sculptor

cast: produced

bronze: a metal compounded out of copper and brass





Independence Day is, of course, a red-letter day in the history of the largest democracy in the world. It is a national festival celebrated to commemorate the independence of India at midnight on 15th August 1947 after about two hundred years of slavery, suppression, and suffering. It is celebrated with pomp and show all over the country. There is rejoicing and merrymaking everywhere. When we celebrate it by hoisting the flag, fervently playing our National Anthem, distributing candy, we need to sail back into the past to remember and honor our nation’s builders. The festival is celebrated in the national capital Delhi, state capitals, district headquarters, schools and colleges where the leaders address congregations to highlight the importance of the day. Tributes are paid to the freedom fighters. National and state-level gallantry awards are conferred on the people who showed bravery and courage during the previous year.

In Delhi, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the historic Red Fort. It is broadcast and telecast live.

The Independence Day

The Independence Day

This day is observed as a public holiday. Public and private offices, educational institutions and business establishments remain closed to celebrate the festival. It is celebrated elsewhere in the world by Indians and also by the embassies of India in foreign countries.
We are fortunate enough to have been born in free India. We have the chance to inhale the fresh free air since our birth to the world. If we wish to know the aches of the misery of being slaves under the British rule, we should ask our older folks born before 1947. It was, in reality, a mountain task for each Indian those days to battle against those giant goliaths – the British rulers. We should not permit those difficult occasions and battles blur away from our memories. Therefore, it is befitting for us to celebrate such national celebrations and review those chivalrous deeds of our National legends. We recollect them today. Right from Mahatma Gandhi to the local patriotic leaders we owe our appreciation. When we pay our homage to those legends who sacrificed their valuable lives for our benefit we pledge that the freedom we obtained because of them shall stain or ruin in future. At the same time, we should not overlook the common people who sacrificed their lot for the great cause. There were peasants, landowners, businessmen teachers, scholars, writers and students who helped the country accomplish the long-cherished freedom.

The Independence Day speach

National Flag

Today we have progressed significantly in the path of free India. We have substantiated ourselves worthy of freedom. We are considered as the biggest vote democracy on the planet. How glad we were when Abhinav Bindra made our National Flag dance and Jana Gana Mana’ played at the background in Beijing? We are pleased with it and feel cheerful about all these positive things. But, would we say we are ignorant about the dark encompassing us? Is it accurate to say that we are successful in utilizing our freedom in the correct way? If this is true, then for what reason there is such huge numbers of bomb blasts, killings, assaults on government offices, cases against such huge numbers of lawmakers? Indeed what can a student do at this juncture? Would it be advisable for us to proceed to catch up the terrorists? Would it be a good idea for us to battle against the corrupt government officials? Or on the other hand, would it be a good idea for us to assume control over the nation and wage another war for freedom? No, we are not expected to do all these things. We must keep watching things happening around us. We will have our very own day. Prior to that, let us carry out our responsibility of setting ourselves up to be enlightened citizens of tomorrow. Let us provide ourselves an opportunity to carry out our obligations towards the nation and study hard to achieve the goal. Today we require the youth with a great deal of information and energy. Ignorance is the principal enemy for a democratic country. Let us remove illiteracy and take India to a splendid future.

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Independence Day essay




Undoubtedly, the modern age is the age of electricity. Life without the blessing of electricity would be all drab and dull. Electricity is one of the greatest wonders and blessings of science. It has proved the magic lamp of Alladin for us today. It has practically revolutionized the world. It has proved the basis for human progress and prosperity. The standard of progress of a nation and its industrial advancement is directly related to the quantity of electricity it generates. It is the key component to present-day innovation and without it, a large portion of the things that we utilize each day just couldn’t work, and could never have been made. Our cell phones, our computers, the Internet, our warming frameworks, our TVs, and our electric bulbs – almost everything totally depends on the electricity.

Importance of electricity


The wonders of electricity can be seen everywhere. It has brought about many favourable changes in our life. It lights our homes, offices, villages, towns, and cities. Our food is cooked, clothes are washed utensils cleaned and rooms swept.

In the extremely hot summers when it is suffocating in and out, electric fans refresh us with their cool breeze. During the spell of biting cold in winters the electric heaters warm our rooms to make us comfortable.

Electricity runs our small and big industrial units. These days almost all the mills and factories are run by means of electricity. The advancement in agriculture also owes it‘s essence to electricity. We irrigate our vast lands by electric water pumps. Agriculture-related industries are run by electricity.

It has also being used in the treatment of many diseases. The electric battery is used to treat nerve diseases. The X-ray and other related detectors help to locate the disease.

In fact, modern society would be extremely different. Imagine how different things without the Internet would be today. The World Wide Web has had an enormous impact on our life. It has made everyone more conscious of the globe in which they reside, and it has enabled them to learn about our environment and learn more about how everything works in modern society. It is our gateway for knowledge and enables us to find out almost anything in a matter of seconds. So electricity has made us an incredibly smart and conscious society.

To conclude, I shall write that the wonders and uses of electricity cannot be counted. Human civilization might coX-ray a sudden halt in the absence of electricity. We need to develop and harness it if the dream of a prosperous world has to be made a reality.

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Model Essay On Cow For Students 6

Model Essay On Cow For Students

Cow Essay 1 (200 words)

The cow is a domestic animal. It is a most important pet animal and many people keep it in their house for many purposes. It gives milk. Its milk is very healthy and nutritious food called milk. The milk is used to make butter, curd, cheese, cream, other many other dairy products. The cow also gives cow dung which is a useful thing for farmers. The farmers use the cow dung as manure in their crop fields. This increases their harvest. It is not a wild animal. It is tamed in many parts of the world. It is a sacred animal. Everyone regards cow like a mother. The cow is worshiped in India as a goddess since time immemorial. People in India brings her at home as a Dhan Lakshmi. The cow is considered as the holiest animal among all the animals. It is found in many varieties differentiating in the shape, sizes, and colours, etc. It has a large body, four legs, four teats, two horns, and a long tail. It has a wide and long body. It is humble and calm animal. The cow eats green grass, hay and food grains. We shall take good care of cows.

Essay on cow

Cow Image

Cow Image

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Cow Essay 2 (400 words)

God has bestowed us with many blessings. One of them is the cow. The cow is a useful and important animal. It is domesticated for various purposes by people in many parts of the world. It is gentle and calm by nature.

The cow has an enormous body. It has four legs, four teats, two horns, two ears, two eyes, and one long tail. In addition, it has one big nose, one big mouth, and one head. Its back is long and wide. It is found in various shapes, sizes, and colours. It is typically dark, white or brown in colour.

The cow gives milk which is healthy and nutritious. Milk is an important part of diet almost for everyone. It is very useful for growing children, weak people, and patients. It contains many essential nutrients such as calcium, protein, iodine, potassium, phosphorus, and vitamins B2 and B12. It is used to make many products such as butter, curd, cheese, cream, and many other dairy products. It has great commercial value.

The cow also provides many other useful things. Its cow dung is a very helpful thing for farmers. The farmers use cow dung as manure in their crop fields. It increases the production of their crops. Cowdung is also used as fire fuel in traditional chullas in many parts of the world. The cow is also tamed for meet and leather. The young one of the cow is called calf. After the cow dies, its skin is used to make bags, wallets, shoes, etc, and its bones are used in making buttons, combs, knives and similar other useful articles.

In India, the cow is considered a religious animal. In India, it is ritual and custom to worship Cow. Cow’s milk is used in the pooja, Abhishek and other holy purposes. The cow is called by everyone as Gou Mata ( Mother cow) to give her mother like status in the Hindu religion. The cow is the favourite animal of Lord Krishna. Its body is considered as the abode of many gods. So, it is a holy animal. Now it has become a political animal in India. Many people are of the opinion that it should be made a national animal of India. In many states of India, its killing is illegal.

The cow is a herbivore. It eats green grasses, food grains hay and other things. We should take good care of the cow and give her good quality of food and clean water. It is indeed a beautiful blessing.

Essay on cow

Cow Picture

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My School Laboratory Essay 7

My School Laboratory Essay


We are living in the world of science and technology. So, the need to understand scientific concepts and theories is extremely great. In response to this dire need, facilities for the study of physical sciences have been given great extension in both the higher and lower centers of education. But to understand the modern scientific concepts we can not do without a well-equipped laboratory. It‘s necessary that an educational institute has a good laboratory to cater to the needs of the students.

Our school is well known for imparting quality education, especially in science stream. The credit for this fame goes to our expert science teachers and the available sophisticated fine laboratory.

Our school laboratory is located in the third storey of the school building. It comprises of three separate halls specified for three main branches i.e. Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Each hall is quite spacious (big) to accommodate fifty students at a time. The halls are well ventilated and have a very good lighting arrangement. These are well electrified to meet the students, demands. The system is designed to cater for individual and group work.

Our laboratory is equipped with the most modern, standard and sophisticated equipment. The apparatuses are available in abundance. The chemicals and specimens available are always fresh and latest. Every scientific concept is clarified in the laboratory by our highly educated teachers. Occasionally, expert scholars and scientists are invited to demonstrate the latest concepts. It has helped in developing a scientific approach among young scholars.

I wish our laboratory be given further development and expansion so that it proves a source of inspiration for other educational institutions to establish such ideal laboratories.

My School Library Essay 8

My School Library Essay


Bread and butter may satisfy our biological hunger, but to quench the intellectual thirst we have to rely upon the storehouse of knowledge where one can get the brimming bowls of knowledge i.e. a huge collection of books, journals, newspapers, etc. What else than a library can prove such a storehouse?

A library is a room or building that holds together books, pamphlets, magazines, newspapers, cassettes, and videos. These products are called the inventory of the library. You can find all types of information in the inventory. A library might be big or tiny. Some people believe that libraries need to be big to operate well, but that is not the case. There are fewer than 200 books in many secondary schools and even fewer in most primary schools. To make the greatest use of school books you need to closely organize them, and setting up a library is the best way to do that.

Being reputed in catering to the all-round needs of its students, my school affords a full-fledged library for the benefit of its students and teachers. It contains books on English, Mathematics, Physical Science, Social Science, Urdu Persian, and Arabic. It has books on travel and adventure, history and geography, culture and civilization. It also possesses many storybooks, novels, general studies, books on current affairs, etc. The library room is quite spacious and airy. The almirahs containing books are arranged all along the walls. The walls of the room are decorated with portraits, charts, and maps. The photos and statues of great poets, renowned authors, historians, scientists, and national leaders give it an impressive look. There is a big and long table in the center of the room and chairs are placed all around it. Students sit and study here. There are hoardings arranged on one side which bear the writing, “Silence Please”, “Talk Less and Read Much” etc.

My school library is managed by the school librarian and an attendant. The librarian himself is a well-read person. He is a perfect gentleman He helps the students in selecting good and useful books.

My school has an optimal library room. There is perfect silence in the library room and both the students and teachers can study with ease and without any disturbance. The room is very large and airy. It has sufficient windows that provide excellent light and ventilation for reading. In the corner of the room, there are pillows and mats that have been placed for leisure reading.

My school library essay

My school library has stood in good stead to all of the students in enriching their knowledge and in developing in them quest to learn more and more.

The school administration is very much interested in the further development and expansion of the library. It is hoped that it will be a unique one in the near future. It will be a model to inspire other educational institutions to establish such ideal libraries.

In schools, the library is important to build on the interest of students in books. It is essential to provide information books which support students’ studies as well as continuing to develop students’ reading skills for life.

Dover Beach By Matthew Arnold: Summary, Critical Analysis, Questions and Theme 9

Dover Beach By Matthew Arnold: Summary, Critical Analysis, Questions and Theme

Summary and Analysis of “Dover Beach” (1867)

Introduction to the Poem: The poem “Dover Beach” was published in 1867. The poet has expressed pessimism in this poem. The world is full of misery. Even the Greek poet Sophocles sang it. But in olden times men had faith and love for each other, but that they have now lost and instead fight with each other. The poet is reminded of it by ebb and flow of the sea at the Dover beach.

Summary of Dover Beach

One night, the speaker of “a Beach” sits with a woman inside a house, looking out over the English Channel near the town of Dover. On the coast of France, they see the lights just twenty miles away, and the ocean is calm and peaceful.

When the light over in France suddenly extinguishes, the speaker focuses on the English side, which remains tranquil. He trades visual imagery for aural imagery, describing the “grating roar” of the pebbles being pulled out by the waves. He finishes the first stanza by calling the music of the world an “eternal note of sadness.”

The next stanza flashes back to ancient Greece, where Sophocles heard this same sound on the Aegean Sea and was inspired by it to write his plays about human misery.

Stanza three presents the primary metaphor of the poem, with “The Sea of Faith / Was once too, at the full, and round earth’s shore.” The phrase indicates that faith fads from society just as the tide is from the shore. Through melancholy diction, the speaker laments this decrease of belief.

In the final stanza, the speaker directly addresses his beloved who sits next to him, asking that they always be true to one another and to the world that is laid out before them. He warns, however, that the world’s beauty is only an illusion, since it is, in fact, a battlefield full of people fighting in absolute darkness.

Dover Beach by Matthew Arnold

Summary in Points

  • In the first stanza, the poet sees the calm sea in full tide at the Dover beach.
  • In the second stanza, the roar of the ebbing sea strikes a note of sadness in his mind.
  • In the third stanza, he says that Sophocles was reminded of human misery as he heard the roar of the sea-waves at the Greek coast.
  • In the fourth stanza, the poet talks, that once the sea of faith girdled this earth, but it is now retreating.

In the last stanza, he asks us to love each other as this world is really a joyless place.

Critical Appreciation

“Dover Beach” by Matthew Arnold is a lyric poem set in the vicinity of a Dover, along the southeast bank of England, where Arnold and his new spouse spent their honeymoon in 1851. It is accepted that the poet composed the first draft of “Dover Beach” while here, experiencing the English Channel toward the coast of France, around twenty-six miles away. Arnold and his wife are frequently viewed as the models for the speaker and audience in the poem, albeit any young man and woman could represent the two figures in the story, caught in a moment of their initial lives.

“Dover Beach” is most often classified as a dramatic monologue, a poetic form that Alfred, Lord Tennyson, and especially Robert Browning, found extremely attractive. The monologue, or poem spoken by a single voice, is made dramatic by the presence of a silent audience of one or more listeners, whose responses may be indicated by the speaker, or persona. In this way, the poet may be empowered to express views using another person’s voice, as William Shakespeare is known for doing.

This strategy may have been particularly attractive to Arnold, for the views of his speaker are diametrically opposed to his own education and upbringing. Matthew was six years old when he was moved into the Rugby School after his clergyman father Thomas Arnold became its headmaster or principal. As headmaster, Thomas Arnold gained a reputation for educational reform, based on his commitment to the high seriousness of making students aware of the moral as well as the social issues that would make them responsible citizens.

“Dover Beach” has often been read as a kind of seismological record of the shock waves in traditional religion brought about by the New Science in the mid-nineteenth century. The geology of Charles Lyell and others was forcing Europeans and Americans to rethink how life began on the planet. Lyell’s discoveries of fossils dating back more than one million years were making it increasingly difficult to accept the traditional notion in the book of Genesis that the world is the work of a creator a mere six or seven thousand years ago. By 1851, when “Dover Beach” was probably written, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russell Wallace, and other scientists had already theorized the essentials of evolution, but it would take Darwin another eight years to publish his findings. Even then, Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) only at the urging of his friends, who warned him that others would publish first if he did not set aside his concerns for the devastating moral and spiritual consequences of challenging the traditional story of how life began. It is probably no coincidence that Arnold himself postponed the publication of “Dover Beach” until 1867.
The poem begins with a naturalistic scene, clearly within the Romantic tradition established by William Wordsworth. Like Wordsworth, Arnold understands the elegance and power of simple language: “The sea is calm tonight./ The tide is full, the moon lies fair/ Upon the straits.” As often noted, the first stanza contains fourteen lines and the second and third stanzas have six and eight lines, respectively, suggesting the sonnet form, but without its more complicated meter and rhyme systems. From its initial visual images, the first stanza and the subsequent two stanzas move toward the dominance of auditory images. The shift is justified by the obviously limited opportunity to see, even with moonlight, but also by the strong impact of the waves breaking on the beach. By the first stanza’s end, the persona, or speaker, has established the poem’s central metaphor of the waves’ “tremulous cadence slow” to represent an “eternal note of sadness.” Additionally, a mere five lines into the poem, the voice has introduced a listener in the scene—telling the reader to “Come to the window”—setting up a tension: Who is the listener? What will be the effect of the melancholy poetic statement on that listener?

This “eternal note” draws the persona further from the directly visualized opening scene with its simple but strong language. The allusion to the ancient Greek tragic dramatist Sophocles offers a context for the speaker’s growing “sadness.” (Arnold was among one of the last generations for whom a classical education entailed learning ancient Greek and Latin to read the classics in their original languages.) The allusion also draws the poem into the more didactic strategy of a statement—asserting rather than implying meaning—and the deployment of something like allegory—a “Sea of Faith” once at its “flow” but now at its “ebb.” This third stanza also reveals evidence of the poet’s effort at elevating the language, producing the difficult opening lines in which that sea once “round earth’s shore/ Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled,” a choice of words guaranteed to confuse the modern reader. This “girdle” is appropriate to the classical context of Sophocles, but not to the modern world, where it denotes an article of intimate apparel. However, attempts of academics to clarify that meaning have distracted attention from the figurative logic of a sea as a “girdle,” or belt, as well as from the unfortunate combination of sounds in “girdle furled.” Another issue left unaddressed is the dominance of pessimism in the persona’s inability to attend to the logic of this “Sea of Faith”: Whatever ebbs will inevitably flow in the future.

The final stanza recalls the earlier reference to the listener—“Ah, love, let us be true/ To one another!”—to focus on the melancholy consequences of the weakening of faith. To the persona, and presumably the poet, the world truly is “a land of dreams,” pipe dreams with nothing to believe in, not just God and an afterlife but “joy,” “love,” and so on. This is Romantic love at its most radical. Without love between a man and a woman, the world is as confusing—and as lethal—as a night battle, fraught with friendly fire. In a sense, Arnold is announcing the big question for the modern world, intent on forcing love to bear the enormous weight of providing human lives with meaning: If love is all humans have, what do they do when they cannot find love, or keep it? It is a question that resonates through the novels, too, of Ernest Hemingway, such as in his A Farewell to Arms (1929), or in the contexts of wedding receptions, where some have to suppress the depressing thought, will this be one of every two marriages that end in divorce?

1. Theme :

Matthew Arnold’s ‘Dover Beach’ captures beautifully the poet’s deep dissatisfaction with his age and its loss of faith. He puts for the idea that the root cause of the miseries of men in the modern world is lack of faith. This is an idea prevalent in both the prose and verse of Arnold.

2. Expression :

The idea is expressed in the form of a beautiful metaphor. Humanity is presented as a sea-shore, faith as the sea. In the past ages, the heart of man was full of faith like a beach covered with sea-water at the time of the flow of the tide. Today the human heart is dry, like a beach at ebb-tide. Only the dry and soulless religious formulas, ceremonies and practices remain in it like pebbles on sea beach.

3. Naturalness :

This metaphor is sustained throughout the later part of the poem, except in the last three lines, where modern life is presented as a dark plain where a mad battle is on. The metaphor of the sea emerges naturally out of the poem in gradual degrees. Nothing is forced.
The poem has all the suggestiveness associated with great poetry.

4. Pictorial Power:

Apart from the idea that this poem puts forth, it is remarkable for the beautiful and effective picture of Dover Beach presented in it. With a few touches, the poet succeeds in presenting a picture of great beauty vivid and clear. The sound of the waves beating against the shore is also beautifully captured.

5. A Note of Sadness:

The poem has sad music about it sad like the slow, mournful beat of the waves described in it. It has that note of sadness and dissatisfaction that is so common in Arnold’s writings. All things considered, it is one of the most beautiful poems in the language – simple and suggestive weighed with a heavy sweetness, yet restrained in expression as well as the sentiment.

D.S. Tatke makes the following comment on this poem- then heightens the meaning in the next eight lines by using the images to express the last journey which everyone must make, so does Arnold in this poem build a beautiful picture of the calm sea and the moon-blanched shore and makes us aware of the fact that though from the distance the picture is so calm and peaceful yet those who live near enough always hear the grating roar of pebbles and the eternal note of sadness and then deepens the meaning by giving it a philosophic content.

6. Transition to Philosophic Meditation:

The transition to philosophic meditation comes in the second stanza. The third uses the image of the first stanza to express the present predicament – the loss of faith and the consequent gloom which is the most prominent note of Arnold’s poems. The fourth stanza is an appeal to a beloved woman to be true to each other for that alone can sustain them in this land of dreams whose reality is very different from its appearance.

7. Need for a Positive Faith:

The poem successfully expresses the fascination and the need Arnold felt for a positive faith and the reluctance with which he must accept the painful, unavoidable reality.

Note the perfect picture of the age with all its complexity in the last three lines of the poem –

“And we are here as on a darkling plain

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight

Where ignorant armies clash by night.”

His poems are marked by a restraint and, a conscious control. Neither excessively musical nor deliberately rugged the expression diction, imagery, rhythm – is marked by a perfect clearness, competence, and precision. He is far too meditative a poet to be lyrical. His best poetry is reflective, always burdened by thoughts of the predicament of his generation. In a letter written in 1869, Arnold claimed that his poems ‘represent the main movement of the mind of the last quarter of a century’.

‘Dover Beach’ is one of Arnold’s most famous poems. It is one of his most characteristic poems too. It has a sad tone and it expresses Arnold’s sorrow at the loss of faith in the modern

When we analyse the epithets used in the poem, we find that Arnold does not use colour epithets anywhere in this poem. Even in the first stanza where he describes the landscape, no colour epithet is used. But this deficiency does not in any way mar the literary merit of the poem. Arnold describes the landscape in a way that the reader is easily able to visualize the landscape and its varied colour. “On the French coast, the light / Gleams, and is gone.” We can very easily visualize the colour here. Where he speaks of the “moon-blanch’d sand” he makes us see the sandy place shining white in the moon-lit night without using colour epithet.

Another way in which he makes up the deficiency of colour epithets is by making us hear the sound of the waves striking the shore and then returning. He says:

“Listen ! you hear the granting roar

Of pebbles which the waves such back, and fling

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.”

He again says: “But now I only hear

Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,

Retreating to the beath

Of the night-wind down the vast edges drear

And naked shingles of the world.

Assessment Questions

Short Questions

1. What do you appreciate in this poem?
Answer: We appreciate the clarity of expression gravity, dignity of thought, proportion, and harmony.

2. When was the poem published?
Answer: The poem was published in 1867.

3. What does the poet express in the poem?
Answer: The poet has expressed pessimism in the poem.

4. What classic reference does the poem display?
Answer: Even the Greek poet Sophocles (classic) sang it.

5. What great lectures did the people of old age have?
Answer: They had faith and love for each other.

6. What is the poet reminded of in the poem Dover Beach?
Answer: The poet recalls the old age of faith and leaves by the ebb and flow of the sea which the modern man does not have.

7. What kind of faith does Arnold refer to?
Answer: Arnold has Religious faith.

8. Is Arnold a poet of Nature?
Answer: No, he is not a worshipper of nature like Wordsworth.

9. What does ‘Nature’ mean to Arnold?
Answer: To Arnold nature is quite indifferent to man. It is man’s love for each other that helps

Let Us Sum Up

1. By now you must have understood the poem and the poet’s intention of his creative impulse

2. Written in 1867.

3. A classical poem with a pessimistic or tragic appeal.

4. Compares the olden times modern times etc.

More Questions of Dover Beach” by Matther Arnold

1. Who is the speaker of this poem? Who is he talking to? What is their relationship?

The speaker of the poem is a young man. He is speaking to his love. The poem suggests that they are having a difficult relationship (“And we are here as on a darkling plain swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight”).

2. What is the relationship between the setting in stanza one and the description in stanza two of what Sophocles heard beside another sea?

In the first stanza, the sea is described as playing an “eternal note of sadness.” Similarly, the Aegean Sea brings misery to Sophocles’ mind. The relationship is that the sea is not a symbol of hope and independence, but rather of misery and of constraint.

3. What is the relationship of the first and second stanzas to the “Sea of Faith” described in stanza three?

The Sea of Faith, like the beaches and seas described in the first two stanzas, once was alive and present around the world. The difference is that the Sea of Faith represents hope and faith, while the new water represents misery.

4. The final stanza offers love as the solution for the problems that the speaker and his lover see in the world around them. Explain the meaning of love and its importance in this poem. Do you agree with Arnold’s idea? What does this poem suggest about love and the modern world?

Love, like the waters, is ever present, but also ever changing (ebbing and flowing). The speaker suggests that love is the solution since it is natural and unsought for. Love, too, is present. He urges his love to focus on the present calm, the present love, in hopes that it will lead to a bright future.

5. The poem’s concluding image calls to mind the chaotic night-battle at Epipolae when Athenian warriors, unable to see, killed friend and enemy alike. What, to the speaker, do the waters warn of?

The waters warn of humanity’s sad destiny by reminding him of the past.

Review Questions

1. Write a critical appreciation of the poem Dover Beach.

2. Who was Sophocles? How could he have heard in ancient Greece the same note of sadness in the sea as Arnold observed in Victorian England?

3. How are the ignorant armies, according to Arnold, clashing by night?

4. Where is the battle being fought?

5. Arnold employs no epithet of colour in Dover Beach. How does he make up for his deficiency?

6. What are the main characteristics of the Victorian Age to Which Matthew Arnold belonged?

7. What does the concluding stanza portray in the poem Dover Beach?

8. What kind of mental frame did Matthew Arnold have? Why ?.

9. Can you identify some chief pessimistic poets of the Victorian Age?

10. Write down the summary of the poem Dover Beach.

11. What were the circumstances that forced Arnold to criticize the modern man?

Note: For answers refer to the above notes.




Olliver Goldsmith was born on November 29, 1728, in Pallas, Forney Parish, Longford, Ireland. His was a clergyman’s son. He went to local college and then to Trinity College, Dublin in 1744. He arrived in London in 1756 after leaving the University and unsuccessfully attempting his hand on many activities. He worked as a college usher, a chemist’s store assistant, a medical practitioner, and a literary hack. His life became kinder after 1759. He became a prominent member of the circle of Johnson and became known as the author of poems, plays, and novels., an a

The very objective of this study is to place Oliver Goldsmith in the proper perspective as a writer in the eighteenth century- the age of enlightenment and reason. He was a great genius and tried his hand at fiction, prose, drama, and poetry. His contribution to English comedy is not negligible. He reacted sharply to the Sentimental comedy which was under the spell of French playwriters of the period. The objective is to highlight how dexterously he revived the spirit of Shakespearean comedy and recreated the atmosphere of Farquhar’s Beaus Strategem on the English stage. He brought the genre of comedy on the right track because it had deviated from the norms of depicting genuine humanity and humour, and had degraded itself into maudlin and lachrymose sentimentality.

Introduction to the Life of Oliver Goldsmith

Oliver Goldsmith had very humble origins. He spent his childhood in the little village Lissoy in the rural surroundings of Longford, Ireland. His father was a poor Protestant curate. He went to the village school. He also studied at Trinity College, Dublin. He became the postmaster of the arts of dissipation and practical joking. After his father’s death, his mother lived in abject penury. Goldsmith’s relatives helped him thrice to emigrate to find work for a living. He was sent to Edinburgh to study medicine. He spent two years there, ostensibly engaged in study, but his heart was in tramping about the countryside and the streets with his flute to support him. He traveled to various countries on the continent of Europe depending for food and lodging on humble cottagers. He had nothing to pay except to play upon his flute. For some time, he worked as a bookseller’s hack. He took to teaching and acting but he didn’t succeed in either of them.

He was in such straits that he ran errands and slept with professional beggars. He failed in the examination for the surgeon’s mate at a hospital and reverted to hack-writing. He was not an expert of any specific discipline but he did try his hands-on natural history, English history, and Roman history for writing. During this period, he developed a graceful picturesque style of writing. Surely a great writer was in the making. His work Letters of a Citizen of the World appeared anonymously in The Public Ledger in 1762. These letters were professed to be from the hand of Chinese philosophers visiting England. The contents consisted of a critique of contemporary genteel English manners.

Goldsmith made acquaintance with Dr. Samuel Johnson and was admitted to his literary circle which included Blake, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Garrick, etc. The publication of The Traveller established his reputation as a man of letters. It was a reflective poem which narrated his early experience. He came out with a short novel The Vicar of Wakefield: regarded as a classic of the period. He wrote a lengthy poem The Deserted Village (1770). It was haphazardly planned but it was full of exquisite passages. Credit goes to him for having written such comedies as- The Good Natur’d Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1774). In spite of his recurring income obtained from various booksellers for hack compilations, his debts amounted to 2000 pounds. He died of nervous fever in 1774 and was buried at the Temple. Dr. Samuel Johnson’s epitaph on Goldsmith reads- “He touched nothing that he did not adorn”- was the most correct and concise estimate of Goldsmith’s genius. Grace was a salient feature of his style. Goldsmith was duly admired as a poet by his contemporaries. Unfortunately, The Traveller is hardly read today but his poem The Deserted Village is more widely known. Both of these poems are products of his genuinely poetical and imaginative genius. These poems anticipate the Lyrical Ballads (1798)

The Vicar of Wakefield, a novel by Goldsmith was a landmark in the history of the England novel. Its characterization is very skillful. There was nearly always an undercurrent of decent humour. His play The Good Natur’d Man was like a gust of fresh air in a sickroom. Critics regarded it as a dramatic failure on the ground that the people were not ready to abandon lachrymosity for laughter. His play, She Stoops to Conquer was a grand success. It had all the elements which constituted the perfect farce and sentimental comedy. This was the kind of comedy that Goldsmith desired on the stage.

Goldsmith and his Age: His Career and Character

It was the fag end of the reign of George II. Thanks to Dr. Samuel Johnson, the pursuit of literature was becoming an independent profession. A man of letters was getting free from the patronage of the aristocracy. Whitehead was the Poet Laureate of England. Griffiths- a bookseller of Paternoster Row- engaged Goldsmith as a hack upon his Monthly Review. For boars, lodging and a little sum of pocket money, he wrote stray articles and reviews. When his landlord was carried off to prison for debt, Goldsmith, being very compassionate by nature, could not endure the distress of the man’s wife. He pawned his new clothes and handed her the money. Hearing this, Griffiths- thought of Goldsmith as a villain and threatened him with extreme measures. Goldsmith began to write articles for the Bee, The Busybody, and The Lady’s Magazine and made a literary reputation for himself: His book An Inquiry into the State of Polite Learning in Europe appeared in Europe. In course of time Bishop Percy,

Garrick, Smollett, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Dr. Samuel Johnson became his acquaintances. He has given a guinea article in the Public Ledger. His Chinese Essays were first published in it. He would have prospered if his extravagance had not kept him nearly always in debt. He was fond of hosting suppers and had developed a taste for fine clothes. He liked colored events. He was sponged upon for guineas and half-guineas by some rascals who knew that he was a man of kind disposition. A guinea could never remain for a single day in his pocket. He was in the employment of Newsbery (a bookseller). He worked very hard throughout the day and spent his evening in the company of Dr. Samuel Johnson at Sir Joshua’s, or at the Literary Club. When he left Newbery, he landed in trouble. James Boswell record in his Life of Dr. Johnson: “I received one morning” said Dr. Johnson “a message from poor Goldsmith that he was in great distress and as it was not in his power to come to me- begging that I could come to him as soon as possible. I sent him a guinea and promised to come to him directly. I accordingly went as soon as I was dressed and found that his landlady had him arrested for his rent at which he was in a great passion. I perceived that he had already changed my guinea and had got a bottle of Madeira and a glass before him. I put the cork into the bottle, desired he would be calm, and began to talk to him of the means by which he might be extricated. He then told me that he had a novel ready for the press, which he produced to me. I looked into it, and saw its merits; told the landlady I would soon return, and having gone to a bookseller, sold it for £60. I brought Goldsmith the money, and he discharged his rent, not without rating his landlady in a high tone for having used him so ill.” This novel was The Vicar of Wakefield and its publisher was the younger Newbery.

The novel proved to be the turning point in Goldsmith’s literary career. He presented the credentials of his creative genius in the form of this novel. Oliver Goldsmith was a man of infinite good humour: “Where he had aroused the scorn of the Club by foolish attempts at wise discourse, his simplicity would in a moment transform contempt into friendship.” Though he was guilty of vanity, recklessness, and obstinacy, he was entirely free from the “sins of the spirit.” He was essentially as lovable a person as his own Vicar of Wakefield. In his physical appearance, he was a shrewd-looking, low-statured man with five feet five inches, with a big round head, a pale scarred face with a bulging forehead and large pouting lips. His friend Dr. Samuel Johnson was a giant figure over six feet. Let me imagine when the two writers met in Fleet Street London, Goldsmith in his gaudy-coloured velvet and gold lace must have looked a curious personality. He was known as “Nall” or “Nolly” or “Goldy” or Poor Little Goldsmith” Beauclerk writes about him: “We were entertained as usual by Goldsmith’s absurdities.” Masson remarks, “He is a positive idiot except when he has a pen in his hand.” His friend Garrick commented upon Goldsmith’s grave: “Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness called Noll, Who wrote like an angel but talked like poor Poll.”

Socio-political Ethos of Goldsmith’s Time

As has been referred to earlier, literary patronage of the artist by aristocrats was coming to an end. Writers began to depend now more on their own resources and on the reading public, and no less on the booksellers as we have seen in the case of Goldsmith. He was aware of all the hard grind and drudgery of literary activities. The social content, therefore dominated literary themes. Goldsmith was highly conscious of his audience and reading public. In the last decades of the seventeenth century and the first decades of the eighteenth century, the writers did thrive under certain patronage. Someone supported the writers directly and even appointed them to some civil or ecclesiastical office. The writer did not make a living professionally by writing books. Goldsmith was one of those eminent writers who challenged and revolted against such patronage. Dr. Samuel Johnson famous letter to Lord Chesterfield in February 1755 was a declaration of the writer’s independence. Goldsmith had no patron and therefore, he had to face abject penury though the popular market was expanding. Alexander Pope in The Dunciad speaks of “caves of poverty and poetry.” Henry Fielding records the hand-to-mouth existence of a hack writer in Author’s Farce. Thomas Amory in his novel John Buncle tells us how Edmond Curil- the bookseller and his hacks sleep in relays- three in a bed. Dr. Samuel Johnson in his Life of Savage paints the sordid poverty and relentless struggle of writers. But soon the profession was on the way to independence. The writer could earn his bread and butter by writing in prestigious journals, newspapers, and magazines. The Spectator extended the circle of readers. Addison took upon himself the task of educating the public morality and healthy criticism and amused his readers by satire and curious chapter sketches. A. Pope’s translations of The Iliad and The Odyssey were sold like hotcakes. They were not dedicated to any aristocrat or a prime but to Congreve. The Gentleman’s Magazine was founded in 1731 and several other periodicals reviewing and popularizing contemporary literature were started. The eighteenth-century fiction had a large number of readers. Richardson’s success with Pamela and Clarissa, Sterne’s with Tristram Shandy and A Sentimental Journey< Macpherson’s Ossian were portents of an epoch of popular literary taste and sentiment.

The political and economic conditions of England fostered the growth of social consciousness along with literary proliferation. This was the trend of practical humanism. This period was known as the age of prose and reason. A general desire for social harmony prevailed as a sequel to the Civil War and the persecution of dissenters after Lord Monmouth’s rise in 1685. The remarkable feature of the period was the evolving social order with the reason being the key attribute. Economic progress was certainly responsible for the growth of social consciousness. Daniel Defoe speaks admiringly of the abundance of things, rising buildings, and new discoveries during this period. The organic conception of society linking together the high and the low, the illustrious and the obscure, emerged though the class distinctions had not entirely disappeared. More and more attention was given to the management of public affairs. John Locke desired that men should seek knowledge of material causes and effects of things and that they should develop such arts, engines, and inventions which could contribute to a happier state of society. The Bank of England was well established now. Traders, merchants, bankers, industrialists, etc preoccupied themselves with a new sophisticated economic order. They were as respectable in society as in the domain of literature. Sir Andrew Freeport in The Spectator is a remarkable character in the context. He is admired for indefatigable industry, strong reason, and a great experience.” James Boswell writes: “In this great commercial country, it is natural that a situation which produces much wealth should be considered very respectable.”

This was “The strongest assertion of the Middle class” which has emerged very strongly. The men of all sects and creeds were in fact, now willing to take up business as the very philosophy of life. England was heading for industrial property. The commercial prosperity got centered in London. It became an unfailing object of literary reflection. We find it in Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock, Belinda’s dressing table, loaded with “All Arabia” breathing from perfume boxes; tortoise-shell and ivory stuck in combs, the various offerings of the world have been assembled for her make-up. Commercial prosperity in the Royal Exchange is well reflected in Addison’s Spectator (Paper No. 9). Ken interest began to be evinced in foreign lands as one notices in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels. Throughout the eighteenth century, interest in the East was mounting: The South Sea Company was launched in 1711 and The South Sea Bubble burst in 1720. Commodore Anson Circumnavigated the globe during (1740-44), Byron’s grandfather commodore John Byron did it in (1764-66) Captain Wallis did it in 1775-78. Captain Cook made his several expeditions in 1768-71, 1772-75 and 1776-79. Eastern trade constituted a small part of British economy. Burke’s brilliant speeches refer admiringly to England’s Eastern trade and its brighter prospects. This trade was the channel for a wave of Oriental interest which spread in entire Europe. The European came to know of oriental wisdom and virtue and enlightened moral values.

Literary Trends in the Eighteenth Century England

From the imaginative and literary writings of the period we get a glowing perspective of the countryside. Daniel Defoe painted it rosy in his Tour; Thomson’s Seasons, Gay’s Rural Sports, Dyer’s Fleece,…….all breathe an atmosphere of growing prosperity. We may contrast it with Oliver Goldsmith’s The Deserted Village mourning the lost happy peasantry of his youthful days: Under the enclosure system, the private estates replaced the old communally formed open fields and a large number of the laborious were dispossessed.

It would be a blunder to forget that the evolving social order in the eighteenth century was accompanied by violence. It is worthwhile to refer to Anti-Roman Catholic Popish Plot and attempts to block James II’s succession and also Lord Shaftsbury’s plot against James II in favour of Lord Monmouth. Dryden has dexterously exposed it in his satires- The Medal and Absalom and Achitophel. Then came Lord Monmouth’s revolt, the anti-Dissenter riots, provoked by the Tory Occasional Conformity Bill, of which the literary offshoot was Daniel Defoe’s parody- The Shortest Way with the Dissenters and the bitter Tory campaign against Marlborough in which Jonathan Swift’s Conduct of The Allies accelerated his fall. Intrigues of parties, on the verge of Civil War in the Whig Replacement of the Stuart line by the Hanoverian one in 1714, personal animosities during the Prime Ministership of Walpole, John Wilkes’s disputed election to the Parliament and lastly the American War of Independence followed. The French Revolution in 1789 was a great event in France: The fort of Bastille was stormed by the masses. Queen Antoniette was guillotined. The age of Oliver Goldsmith was ripe for socio-political upheavals and drastic changes.

The literature of the period, therefore, reflects the irresistible desire of the people to maintain law and order. The reason was the very basis of desirable social order. Saint Evremond tells us: “We love plain truth; good sense has gained ground upon the illusions of fancy and nothing satisfies us nowadays but solid reason.: Dryden thought of “wit” as “propriety of words and thoughts adapted to the subjects”. Pope defined it as “what oft was thought but beer so well expressed.” Hume, harping upon the Aristotelian idea of the constant universals of human nature,” sought to explore it further. Therefore, wit in the eighteenth century meant not only stating and formulating the familiar truths but it was also impressing upon mankind with fresh ways of thinking and discovering new truths. We can understand why propriety, perspicuity, elegance, and cadence came to he highly valued both in poetry and prose: The discourse or content was to be happily-worded. Horace’s Art Poetica and Boileau’s Lirt Poetique ruled the day. Jonathan Swift in his Treatise on Good Manners and Good Breeding emphasized the value of good conversation and etiquette. Oliver Goldsmith in his Account of the Augustan Age bears witness to the accomplishment of these values: A happy union of literature and polite society marked the salient feature of the age.

These Augustans debt to the past cannot be underestimated. Though they lived their own lives, had their moral ideas, and developed their lifestyle. They showed deep respect for the way the things had been done in the glorious classical past. They regard their lives collective as an integral part of a majestic ideal of humanity. They tried their best to emulate the great masters. Dryden quotes Longinus in his Preface to Troilus and Cressida (1669): “Those great men whom we propose to ourselves as patterns of our limitation serve us as a torch which if lifted up before us, to enlighten our passage and often elevate our thoughts as high as the conception we have of our author’s genius.” It is stated in the 86th Guardian: “The ancient were fountains of good sense and eloquence.” Burke’s letter to a member of National Assembly(1791) speaks volumes of England’s disdain of Rousseauesque anarchy.

Goldsmith and his Contemporarily Drama and Fiction

Oliver Goldsmith was a playwright of no little importance. In his play She Stoops to Conquer, there is an undercurrent of hemour and satire. It marks a sort of relief from the turgidity of the heroic drama to lighter stuff.

The gaiety, cynicism and the strain of immorality of the Restoration period are fully reflected in this witty play. It satirizes the social behaviour of a certain class of English society. It is a sentimental comedy which reacts against Restoration wit and license. Goldsmith’s play She Stoops to Conquer incorporates a genuine spirit of comedy.

Satire came very handy to the Restoration playwrights and which was the legitimate element of drama had degenerated into farce. A new impulse now came to sustain the drama: it was sentimentalism. Sentimentality and bourgeois respectability went hand in hand. The desire to attack licentious morality of the period, the finer intelligence of Henry Fielding got deviated from the stage to the novel. He came out with Joseph Andrews and Tom Jones. Tom, the bastard, he sats the natural impulses of genuine humanity against hypocritical and calculating ‘vartue.’ While determining the grow of the sentimental movement we should take into account the bourgeois concept respectability and stiff calculating commercialism. It is to be noted that a counter-movement began at the same time. It is crystal clear in Richardson’s Pamela and Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones. Sentimentalism which encroached upon the drama and the fiction of the day expressed decadent morals. A weaker form of sentimentality implies unmanly pity, lack of moral strength, and puritanical hypocrisy. Jean Jaqucs Rousseau is sentimental but his sentimentalism is saturated with humanitarianism. Sentimentalism, which penetrated the comedy of the period, banished murth and laughter from the stage. Etherege, Wycherley, Farquhar, Congreve might be rather lax in their moral tone but they did catch the genuine spirit of comedy. They not only provoked mirth and laughter but they also recognized the social problems of the days.

It was hypocrisy masquerading as sentimentalism. The sentimental movement may be traced back to the early eighties of the seventeenth century. The political interest of the public during the last phase of Charles II, the reign of James II and the Rebellion contributed to the dramatic literature as the people had become highly aware of religious, political and moral forces interacting in society. The Puritan ascendancy and commercialism went side by side and the net outcome was hypocritical and calculating virtue. Henry Fielding with his unclouded reason was the first writer to react against it.

The Sentimental Comedy and Goldsmith’s Reaction Against it

The recurring theme of the sentimental comedy is that their licentious characters get reformed in course of time. Sir Richard Steele started the vogue of the Sentimental comedy. He threw all his weight on the side of morality as he believed in domestic happiness, in faithful love and in the goodness of the human heart. His play The Tender Husband emphasizes honorable love as the very basis of domestic happiness. The Sentimental comedy as a brand of drama was saturated with emotional sense and sentimental platitudes: it was divorced from realism. It was centered primarily on the middle class of society. It depicted the world of fops and dandies and fashionable ladies and exposed all follies and vices of society. Sentimental comedy was, thus, a degenerated mode of drama. In it, we had tears in a place of laughter, melodramatic situations instead of intrigue, heart-breaking heroines and passionate lovers, and honest servants instead of rogues, gallants and witty damsels. The role purpose of the sentimental comedy, it seemed, was to make men and women charitable honourable. Sheridan and Oliver Goldsmith were the pioneers of anti-sentimental movement and reached sharply against the sentimental comedy. As early as 1759, Goldsmith condemned it in The Present State of Polite Learning She Stoops to Conquer(1773) stormed the sentimental comedy more successfully than The Good Natured Man(1768) did Sheridan’s play The School for Scandal is it equally brilliantly. Oliver Goldsmith rightly conceived amusement to be the primary objective of comedy. Sheridan comments the humour- ‘guaint and sly’ gay invention and satire should be the proper stuff comedy. The Sentimental comedy which substituted emotional tension and tears for mirth and laughter, and trotted forth mawkish sentiments was called into being by bourgeois pseudo-morality, humbug, and horror of vulgarity. It was called genteel comedy as it rejected the absurdities of the vulgar, the follies and vices as ‘low’. Goldsmith reacted against this mode of spurious comedy in which the virtues of private life are exhibited rather than vices exposed, and the distresses rather than faults of mankind make our interest.

In these plays, the characters were good and exceedingly generous and extravagant.

If they happened to have faults of foibles, they were applauded. Thus follies instead of being ridiculed were commended. Goldsmith reacted against this genteel comedy. He proposed to restore humour and nature to comedy. He regarded humour and comic situations as the very sine que non of comedy. Lachrymose and Maudlin sentimentality was no substitute for humour and character. She Stoops to Conquer by Goldsmith revived the spirit of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night with Sheridan’s play The School for Scandal the English drama reached the culmination of anti-sentimental movement.

A Pointwise Summary of the Contents of this unit:

1. Oliver Goldsmith was an eighteenth-century writer. He had a versatile literary genius

2. He was an Irish by birth. He started from scratch, as he had very humble origins.

3. He worked as a bookseller’s hack as a young man.

4. He contributed his articles to the newspapers and journals.

5. He tried his hand at writing poems, plays, fiction, essays, etc.

6. He came in close contact with Dr. Johnson and his circle of scholars.

7. Goldsmith had an extraordinary sense of humour.

8. He was a man of sweet disposition and remained in debt in spite of lucrative income He hosted suppers to his friends and spent rather extravagantly.

9. He was called ‘Nolly’ or ‘Goldy’ among his chums.

10. Dr. Johnson admired his literary genius and sense of humour.

11. Goldsmith was not patronized by any prince or nobleman.

12. The eighteenth century was a period of developing trade and commerce. It was also a period of political and religious upheavals.

13. The Sentimental comedy, which excluded mirth and laughter, depended largely on lachrymose and maudlin emotion. It did not depict genuine humanity and nature. The French influence was rather morbid on the English drama.

14. Goldsmith and Sheridan reacted sharply against the Sentimental Comedy.

15. Goldsmith revived the spirit of Elizabethan/Shakespearean comedy with humour and depicted genuine human reality.

16. His play She Stoops to Conquer was a brilliant success.

17. Goldsmith had wonderful potentialities as a novelist. His novel The Vicar of Wakefield speaks volumes of his mind.


Penury: Abject poverty. For example, Goldsmith lived in penury in his early days.

Lsd: Pound shilling and penny. (Please note that LSD is a drug)
genteel: Polite in an exaggerated manner.

hack: A hack was the helper who performed odd jobs in offices. Goldsmith was himself a bookseller’s hack.

lachrymosity: A tendency or instinct to be moved to tears. For example, women become lachrymose in emotional moments.

disposition: nature or temperament. For example, Goldsmith was a man of a kindly disposition.

Guinea: a gold coin. sentimental:emotional. licentious: sexually immoral.

Curate: An assistant to a Vicar.

Vicar: A church priest.

Protestantism: A Christian sect which came into existence in protest of the corrupt practices of Roman Catholic church in the sixteenth century.

Guillotin: A French device of execution: The person to be executed was made to stand on a platform and a sharp blade operated with a liver and chopped off his head like a fruit.

Self Assessment Questions

1. Who was the bookseller’s hack? What was his work?

Answer: Oliver Goldsmith.

2. Tell us the titles of at least two plays by Goldsmith.
Answer: The Good Natur’d Man and She Stoops to Conquer.

3. Why was Goldsmith in debt?
Answer: He was a man of sweet disposition and remained in debt in spite of lucrative income. He hosted suppers to his friends and spent rather extravagantly.

4. Name a few renowned friends of Goldsmith in London.
Answer: Bishop Percy, Garrick, Smollett, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Dr. Samuel Johnson.

5. Who was called ‘Noll’ or ‘Nolly’ or ‘Goldy’!
Answer: Oliver Goldsmith.
6. Who wrote the famous biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson?
Answer: James Boswell.

7. Refer to a few socio-political events of the eighteenth century in England.
Answer: Growth of social consciousness along with literary proliferation well establishment of Bank and trade propered.

8. What is Goldsmith’s grievance in The Deserted Village?
Answer: The Deserted Village mourning the lost happy peasantry of his youthful days: Under the enclosure system, the private estates replaced the old communally formed open fields and a large number of the laborious were dispossessed.

9. What do you mean by genteel comedy?
The Sentimental comedy which substituted emotional tension and tears for mirth and laughter, and trotted forth mawkish sentiments was called into being by bourgeois pseudo-morality, humbug, and horror of vulgarity. It was called genteel comedy as it
rejected the absurdities of the vulgar, the follies and vices as ‘low’.

10. Why is Sheridan associated with Goldsmith?
Answer: She Stoops to Conquer by Goldsmith revived the spirit of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night with Sheridan’s play The School for Scandal the English drama reached the culmination of anti-sentimental movement.

Sum Up

Goldsmith recorded his ideals against the Sentimental comedy in his Essay on the Theatre: or A Comparison Between Laughing and Sentimental Comedy 1772. He attacked the Sentimental comedy in his preface to The Good Natur’d Man and placed his cards plainly upon the table.

He was a versatile genius: He tried his hand poetry. He wrote The Deserted Village and The Traveller. He wrote a novel The Vicar of Wakefield and a number of essays; and plays- The Good Nautr’d Man and She Stoops to Conquer. He would have achieved greater success if he had devoted himself entirely to drama. However, his achievement as writer of comedies is remarkable. In the play, She Stoops to Conquer he recreates the atmosphere of Farquhar’s Beaux Strategem and revitalizes a breath of genuine humanity to drama stifled with excessive emotions.

Review Questions

1. Describe the life of Oliver Goldsmith as a Bookseller’s hack.

2. Write a note on Goldsmith’s friendship with Dr.Samuel Johnson.

3. What were the personal qualities of Goldsmith?

4. Comment upon the socio-political conditions in eighteenth-century England.

5. Write an essay on the eighteenth century Drama with reference to comedy.

6. Why did Goldsmith react to the Sentimental Comedy?

7. Make an assessment of Goldsmith as a writer.

Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll Summary and Questions 11

Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll Summary and Questions

Jabberwocky Summary

Jabberwocky is an epic poem told through nonsense phrases. The poem describes a father’s quest for his son involving the slaughter of a beast (The Jabberwock). The poem describes the son’s progress from his departure to his effective return.

In Lewis Carroll’s poem “Jabberwocky,” the poet produces an epic tale using only seven four-line stanzas with twenty-eight nonsense phrases. Despite the reality that there are countless nonsense words, the reader can still make sense of the nonsense by evaluating how the nonsense words are used with the ordinary words to determine the occurrences of this epic poem.

Each stanza contributes to the plot line of a young boy whose father warns him of all the nonsense he faces in life and how he must attack this nonsense in order to learn the real meaning of life. Moreover, the mood shifts throughout each stanza as the tension starts to construct and is lastly released upon the Jabberwock’s slaughter.

The second stanza starts the quest of the epic hero. It’s here that the dad warns the child to be careful about something called a Jabberwock that has “jaws that bite and claws that catch” and other awful stuff like a Jubjub bird and a Bandersnatch.

The son begins his quest in the third stanza by taking his “vorpal sword in hand” and searching for the Jabberwock. He was “rested by the Tumtum tree” and meditated along the lines.

The encounter with the Jabberwock happens in the fourth stanza when the hideous creature arrives from the forest making weird noises and assaults the child. “The Jabberwock, with eyes of flames, came whistling through the tulgy wood and burbling as it arrived.” The hero, the son, triumphs in the third stanza when he kills the Jabberwock by cutting off his head. “The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

In the fifth stanza, the hero, the kid, triumphs when he kills the Jabberwock by cutting his head off. “The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head, he went galumphing back.” to his father.
The child returns home in the sixth stanza and the father is overjoyed; they are celebrating. “Oh, fragile day! Callooh! Callay!” The father shouts at the end of the epic venture.

The last stanza is a repetition of the first stanza with life returning to the starting environment, suggesting perhaps that life has returned to normal. The morning’s unsettled and uncomfortable feeling could now be gone because of the Jabberwock’s slaying.

Mood of The Poem

The mood of this poem changes throughout in relation to the setting characters’ actions. In the beginning, there seems to be a sense of normalcy. The mood seems to be serene with the toves, borogoves, and moms living quietly as they do every day, but there may be a feeling of apprehension in the shadows of these creatures.

In the second stanza, there is a change when the father warns the son about Jabberwock. The scary picture of this monster that has “jaws that bite and claws that catch” generates a frightening mood as the reader understands that the child ventures out to hunt this creature. The child begins his quest and the poem moves back to a peaceful moment when the child rests and reflects on what’s in store for him.

The mood changes to frightening when the jabberwock viciously interrupts this peaceful scene when he arrives with flaming eyes “whiffling through the tulgey wood, “with flaming eyes the courageous son stands his ground and in an exciting climax, he beheads the jabberwock with a “snicker-snack” with his “vorpal” blade and victoriously “galumphs” home. once again, we feel peaceful but happy as the father praises the child for completing a rite of passage into adulthood passage. Things finally come back to normal, and the toves, borogoves, and moms end the day as quietly as they started.


bryllyg – The time of broiling dinner, i.e. the close of the afternoon
slythy – smooth and active
tove – a species of Badger
gyre – to scratch like a dog
gymble – to screw out holes in anything
wabe – the side of hill
mimsy – unhappy
borogove – an extinct kind of parrot
mome – grave
rath – a land turtle
outgrabe – squeaked

Questions and Answers of Jabberwocky

1. Using the vocabulary above, write out the first stanza of the poem in a more standardized version of English.

Answers may vary. Example: It was evening, and the smooth active badgers were scratching and boring holes in the hillside, all unhappy were the parrots, and the grave turtles squeaked out.

2. The poem is an example of nonsense poetry. The term comes from nonce, or a made-up word. Carroll, however, claims that all the words actually have standard English roots. Choose any two of the words above and explain what you believe their English derivatives to be.

Answers will vary. Examples: Brillig (broil); slithy (slimy and lithe); gyre (from the old English gyaour meaning dog); mimsy (miserable).

3. What is the poetic form of “Jabberwocky”?

The poem is written in traditional ballad form.

4. The poem makes substantial use of alliteration. Find three examples of alliteration.

Answers: Here are some examples of alliteration used in the poem: “gyre” /“gimble”;
“the”/“that”/“the”/ “that”;

5. Why do you think this poem ends with the same stanza as it began?

Answers may vary. Example: Carroll may have done so to reinforce the ridiculousness of the poem. He may also have wanted to show that the world, which began in this poem as a relative calm place, was once again a place free of fright, thanks to the killer of the Jabberwocky.

6. Most of the nonsense words in this poem are nouns or adjectives. Why do you think Carroll chose to use nonsense words to replace these parts of speech in his poem?

Answers may vary. Carroll may have been hoping to show that, with actions intact, what characters look like, see and say can be left to the imagination of his readers so that the story told can be different for each person.

7. What is the key idea of the poem?
Answer: There is a sense in the nonsense that surrounds us, but we are able to overcome difficulties in spite of the nonsense.

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images 12

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images

Birthday Wishes

Are you looking for some beautiful birthday wishing messages and quotes? Then you have reached the right place. Here you will find an exhaustive list of birthday wishing messages which we have collected from across many sites especially social sites which people have sent to their friends or relatives and made available for you. Read these messages and send them to your nears and dears.

It is beautiful feeling when you come to know that someone likes you , someone thinks about you, someone cares you and someone needs you but it feels much better when you know that some loves you to the extent that he never ever forgets your birthday. HAPPY BIRTHDAY!

Read Also: A Birthday Poem

Birthday cake

Decorated cakes, flying papers, multi colours of balloon, magnetic blossoms, fantastic people, singing, dancing, love and laughter. What it describes? Happy Birthday!

A smile on your curved lips sets everything straight, vanishes sorrows, and wipes wrinkle away. Hope you share lots and receive lots of it for days to come. Happy Birthday!

I am aware that it is your birthday today. I am sure you will give me treat in a big hotel. So, I shall express my feelings to you there because I don’t like to pour out my feelings in SMS. Until we meet in person , hold this one : Happy Birthday!

Friendship is about putting out the positive when everything seems negative, being accepted for who you are, being able to pick up right where you left off, sharing, speaking, and laughing. Friendship is about us, and I’m thankful for that. And I hope you’ve got the wonderful birthday ever!

Some people like SunDAY. Others like MonDAY. Still, there are some that thank God it’s FriDAY, but I like and thank God it’s your birthDAY. Happy Birthday!

Happy Birthday

If lovers are like moon, and brothers are like stars, then I realized that without moon, but not stars, the sky looks nice. Happy Birthday!

It’s just another day, but the best day of the year is this one! Happy birthday, dear friend of mine!

Wishing you all the fun and enthusiasm that are bestowed just by birthdays. Happy Birthday!

Wishing u a day soft as silk.

White as milk.

Sweet as honey.

Full of money.

May all ur dreams come true.

Happy Birthday,!

Let God adorn each GOLDEN RAY OF THE SUN reaching you with wishes of Success, Happiness and Prosperity. Wish you a wonderful Birthday!

This message has no fat, no cholesterol, no additive. This is all-natural except for a lot of sugar, but it can never be as nice as a reader. Smile and wish you a Happy Birthday!

Forget about the past, you can’t change it.

Forget about the future, you can’t predict it.

Forget about the present, I didn’t get you one.
Happy birthday!

I think you’ve climbed elevated hills, went on thorny routes, sailed on raging waters and ran on hazardous roads. Let’s face it; Your God has always been faithful to you all the way. Enjoy the day, it’s worth it. Happy Birthday!

Birthday quotes

Friendship is a vital asset to life, so I respect and love you for what you are. It’s your birthday and my heart is your greetings filled with great regards for you. Wish you a sweet and healthy birthday!

May this birthday be your greatest birthday ever, a fireworks explosion of happiness, full of light and laughter. May this birthday live forever in your memory, creating happiness and peace whenever you remember it. Happy Birthday!

May everything be pleased and bright from morning to night be yours on your birthday. And then may the same thing hold true throughout the year so that every day will be filled with the finest things for you in life. Blessed birthday for you!

A big cake for you with beautiful thoughts, wishes a, d prayers to make you happy on your birthday. Have a wonderful birthday!

Dear, you are such a special friend who deserves a special day for being who you are and bringing happiness in every manner. You make me smile and laugh with everything you do, so today I can give you a special birthday wish. Happy birthday!

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images 13

To the world, you may be ONE person. But to me, you are the WORLD. Have a wonderful birthday!

Happy birthday! May this birthday shower in your every happiness you desire and it be your best birthday ever! Thank you for being my friend.

Birthday wishes which you can use on a birthday card:

Birthday is the most extraordinary day in one’s life, appreciate it without limit.

The sun is sparkling all the more splendidly to wish you happy birthday.

Wish you an exceptional and spectacular birthday.

Cheerful birthday to the most wonderful individual on the earth.

Give this day a chance to be loaded with every one of the shades of the rainbow.

I believe that today is the start of an incredible year for you. Happy Birthday.

A companion is somebody who comprehends your past, trusts in your future, and acknowledges you simply the manner in which you are even if you are getting older. Happy Birthday!

An extraordinary friend and a happy birthday, that is the thing that you are and what I wish for you.

A lighter and We’re going to require a flamethrower to illuminate your candles.

A genuine friend remembers your birthday but not your age.

Age is a number, but life is your calculator

One more year has passed. May you have all that you wish to work out as expected. Wish you a wonderful birthday

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images 14

One more year has passed and let me simply state the amount we rely on you instead of tally the years, I wish you a Happy Birthday.

One more year older, one more year astute. All things considered, at any rate, we are growing up to be what you intended to be the hottest young girl around. Happy Birthday lovely.

All the best for the most joyful day loaded up with adoration and laughter. Happy Birthday.

The Best Birthday greeting for you….sorry, however, that was everything I could afford.

Birthday events are uncommon events and they call for exceptional celebrations. Give us a chance to commend your birthday today.

Birthday celebrations travel every which way, so you have to Go. I wish you a great Bday!

Extinguishing another flame should imply that you have experienced one more year with bliss and you had made this world a superior place. Make each day of your life and each light count. HappyBday!

“Happy Birthday! I hope you have the most joyful birthday. Make the most of your extraordinary day!”

“Happy Birthday Sis! When all is dim, and there is no light, what is trust? Expectation is continually having a sister to cherish you. Much obliged to you for everything.”

Happy Birthday. I wish you well and I wish all your birthday wishes.. work out as expected!”

“A birthday is the most exceptional day. Appreciate it without limit. Happy Birthday my Friend.”

“Good companions care for each, dear companions understand one another, however, true companions, stay perpetually, stunning, beyond distance, beyond time.”

“Age resembles underwear; it creeps up on you!” Have an incredible birthday!

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“Happy birthday! Anyway, uncommon true love might be, it is less so than true friendship.”

“The Lord favor you and keep you, the Lord make his face sparkle on you and be benevolent to you; the Lord turn his face toward you and give you harmony.”

Happy Birthday! Wishing you a birthday as brilliant as your grin.”

“Happy Birthday my friend. Why we need closest friends since they giggle at a similar moronic things we do. Since they give us legit guidance. Since they will be there for us, regardless of whether they’re a great many miles away. Since they celebrate with us when we’re getting it done, yet at the same time love us at the very least.”

“This birthday wish is warm as they can be. I need to demonstrate to you the amount you intend to me. I’ll send you embraces and wishes. – favor your direction, Smile a ton since it’s your birthday!”

“I realize that you have been honored with so much and I wish you considerably more favors your birthday and the days to come.” Happy Birthday to you

Happy birthday amusing expressions “Life is too short to ever be not kidding constantly. Along these lines, on the off chance that you can’t snicker at yourself, call me… I’ll giggle at you.”

Do you accept? In Miracles. I do in light of the fact that having you in my life appears to be a marvel each Singe day. I love you! ”

“In the end, it’s not the years throughout your life that check, it’s the life in your years. – Abraham Lincoln.”

“You are such a delightful person all around.”

“May each sparkling light on your cake change into a desire that will transform into the real world. You are one extraordinary person and you don’t merit anything however the best.”

“I will content you multiple times in succession and feel no disgrace. You’re my friend, you truly pursued this.” Happy birthday my friend!

“My love for you knows no limits. My regard for you is similarly colossal. You are my definitive passionate help and my best friend. Each memory from the gone years makes me happy that you are my friend. Happy Birthday. ”

“Walking with a friend in obscurity is superior to strolling alone in the light.”

“On your birthday, we wish for you that anything you desire most throughout everyday life, it comes to you, simply the manner in which you envisioned it, or better. Cheerful Birthday!”

Daughter, I Wish simply the best for you throughout everyday life. May you conquer each issue life tosses your direction, and may you generally be sure about the substance of affliction. Cheerful Birthday”

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Happy birthday quotes interesting “Those aren’t grey hairs you see. They’re strands of birthday sparkle becoming out of your head. Happy Birthday!”

“It’s an uncommon time to celebrate with dear ones and have a great deal of fun. What’s more, as you have a great time, getting a charge out of every snapshot of your day, may wonderful shocks and endowments of love and companionship come your direction!”

“A basic wish from my heart You are and will remain a section My life is genuinely fragmented Without you my affection I adore you to such an extent As unadulterated as your otherworldly touch Have a cherishing day Happy birthday!”

“May every day be loaded up with the glow of God’s adoration and the calming solace of family and companions. May every day deliver a sweet memory of the past. May everything excellent be yours on this uncommon day. HAPPY BIRTHDAY!”

“Dear Bestie, regardless of what number of companions I have, regardless of the amount I converse with them or invest energy with them, generally recall, that nobody can supplant you. You were, are, and will consistently be basic. You remain as a cherished memory to me until the end of time.”

Happy Birthday to perhaps the closest companion! Here’s to one more year of giggling at our own jokes and keeping each other normal!!”

Birthday Messages, Wishes, Quotes and Images 17

“I recall the day you were born. Merry Birthday, Son. You are such a gift. I love you!”

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