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Deforestation – Summary, Questions, Causes, Effects, Consequences and Solutions

DEFORESTATION: CAUSES, EFFECTS, CONSEQUENCES, AND SOLUTIONS

Afforestation means growing more and more trees. Trees are very important. They give us many amenities. If we to live happily, we have to preserve our forests. Who does not desire a lot of greenery around him or her? Isn’t it very nice to sit under a shady tree on a very hot day? Sometimes you may have seen huge trees lined on each side of the road. It is very cool to travel on such a road. Unfortunately, we often see people cutting down trees. What happens when trees are cut down? That is what this chapter tells you. Let us read the text to find out.

Forests are an important part of our life. It provides invaluable products such as industrial wood and fuelwood. Forests also provide a range of services like soil generation, soil and water conservation, purification of air and water, nutrient recycling, maintenance of biodiversity, providing a habitat for animals, mitigation of climate change and absorption of carbon. But forests are being destroyed due to several factors. The destruction of forests is usually in response to the need for more land for growing crops and rearing livestock and results in the creation of completely new ecosystems. Deforestation involves the cutting down, burning and damaging of forests. It is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodland.

Deforestation causes and impacts,

Causes of Deforestation

A variety of causes lead to deforestation. The world is becoming so densely populated in some places that forests are having to be cleared to make room for more recreational and living space. As human population size increases, larger areas of land have to be cultivated to supply food. In addition, cutting trees for fuel will lead to further deforestation.

The development of cash crops and cattle ranching is another reason for deforestation. In some forests, commercial logging for tropical hardwood such as teak and mahogany also leads to deforestation.

Impact of Deforestation

Clearing of forests affects local communities, who lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines and areas of livestock grazing. Forests act as watersheds. Here they catch large amounts of rain. An intact forest canopy softens the impact of intense rainfall in many ways. It releases large amounts of water back to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration and Channels water gently through the vegetation to the soil. Infiltration into the soil is high and there is a long delay before water flows into the streams and rivers. If the forest canopy is removed, the soil surface bakes hard in the intense heat. Rainfall cannot easily penetrate the surface and is rapidly lost from the area in the surface run-off. Thus when the forest disappears, there is no regulation of the flow, into rivers. As a result, floods and droughts alternate in the affected areas.

Deforestation exposes soil to wind, evaporation, and erosion. Soil fertility goes down due to the rapid leaching of essential mineral nutrients. The topsoil is eroded and this accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and the coastal zone. The increased sedimentation harms downstream fisheries. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil increases the risk of landslides.

When forests are cleared and the trees are either burnt or they rot, carbon is released as carbon dioxide. This leads to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Since carbon dioxide is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, the earth becomes hotter.

Deforestation affects the local climate of an area by reducing the evaporative cooling that takes place from both soil and plant life. When a large forest is cut down, the regional rainfall pattern may be affected.

Forests have species-rich and diverse wildlife communities. Deforestation, degradation, and fragmentation of forests affect many species and lead to the extinction of some with the consequent loss of genetic variation and potential resources.

Removal of forests also leads to desertification. This is a general term for the degradation into dry land areas so that formerly productive land becomes useless.

Effects of deforestation

Alternatives / Solutions

An important alternative to deforestation is afforestation. It involves the planting of more trees The Union and State governments have launched several afforestation programs The Social Forestry Programme sees the use of public and common land to produce firewood, fodder, and timber for the use of rural community. Urban foresty Programme consisting of planting trees in urban areas has also helped in building forests. People’s movements like the Chipko Movement has done much to prevent deforestation. Another proposed solution for deforestation is to reduce the consumption of forest-based products. Alternatives are introduced which includes the use of the world’s forests in such a way that they continue to provide resources in the present, without depriving future generations of their use.

Future of World’s Forests

Forests are being destroyed due to a variety of factors and it is going to be very difficult to save them. None of the remaining forests of the world are free from intervention. The loss of forests is, however, only a symptom of deeper and possible unstoppable degradation of the Earth’s environment.

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Meanings and Explanations

When the essay opens you are introduced to the topic. You are told about the importance of forests and about deforestation in general:

invaluable: for which value cannot be fixed; priceless
soil generation: synthesis of soil or production of soil
conservation: preservation or protection of soil and water
biodiversity: different forms of plants and animals
habitat: living place
mitigation: make milder
factors: reasons
livestock: farm animals (the cattle)
indigenous: belonging naturally to a place (native to region)

The causes of deforestation and enlisted here.

densely populated: thickly populated
cattle ranching: cattle breeding
logging: cutting and preparing timber
teak and mahogany; names of trees

We have just gone through the causes of deforestation. Now we shall see what happens due to deforestation.
Forests act as water reservoirs: They collect and conserve a large amount of rainwater. Forests act as watersheds.
intact, forest canopy: entire forest cover formed of the uppermost layer of leaves of trees.
evaporation: loss of water as vapour into the atmosphere
transpiration: loss of water as vapour from the surface of the leaves
infiltration: penetrate into or enter
intense: severe
surface runoff: flow away or flow off along the surface
leaching: removal
siltation: formation of silt or sediments (broken down fragments of rocks or any matter that accumulates in the bottom of a liquid)
sedimentation: formation and accumulation of sediments
landslide: sliding down of a mass of land from a mountain
Greenhouse effect: The earth’s atmosphere contains 0.03% Carbon Dioxide. Due to several reasons like pollution, deforestation, etc. the amount of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere increases. This results in the trapping of heat near the earth’s surface, This trapping of sun’s heat in the lower atmosphere due to high levels of Carbon Dioxide is called the greenhouse effect.
regional: of a particular region
Degradation: lower in grade; reduction in level or quality
fragmentation: the process of breaking into pieces or fragments
desertification: formation of deserts

Are there alternatives to deforestation? The paragraph you are going to read tells you about the alternatives to deforestation.

solution: answer
resource: stock or supply that can be drawn on
depriving: dispossessing
fodder: dried hay or straw for cattle

We have come to the end of the essay If we are not careful about our forests we are going to be in deep trouble.
intervention: Comprehension of the act of interfering in other’s state of affairs.

Short Answer Questions

1. Why are forests called an important part of our life?
A: Forests provide invaluable products such as industrial wood and firewood. Forests also provide a range of services like soil generation, soil and water conservation, purification of air and water, etc.

2. What is meant by deforestation?
Ans. Deforestation is the cutting down, burning or the permanent damaging of forests.

3. Why are forests being destroyed?
Ans. Forests are being destroyed to get more land for recreational and living space. It is also destroyed to grow crops and rear livestock and to gather fuel. Development of cash crops, cattle ranching and cutting trees for hardwood also causes deforestation.

4. What does destruction of forests lead to?

Ans. Destruction of forests leads to the creation of completely new ecosystems.
5. What are the causes of deforestation?
Ans. Forests are cleared to get more land for recreational and living space to grow crops, rear livestock and to gather fuel. Development of cash crops, cattle ranching and cutting trees for hardwood. also causes deforestation.
6. How does clearing of forests affect local Communities?
Ans. Local communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines and areas of livestock grazing.
7. How do forests act as watershed?
Ans. Forests act as a watershed by catching large amounts of rain.
8. What does an intact forest canopy do?

Ans. An intact forest canopy softens the impact of intense rainfall. It channels water gently through the vegetation to the soil and therefore infiltration to the soil is high.

9. What happens when the forest canopy is removed?
Ans. When the forest canopy is removed the soil surface becomes hard in the heat. Thus rainwater cannot get into the surface and is lost in surface runoff. Water flow into the river is also not regulated resulting in flood or drought.
10. What happens When the soil is exposed?
Ans. Evaporation of moisture and soil erosion leads to the loss of soil fertility due to leaching of essential mineral nutrients.
11. What happens When the top soil is eroded?
Ans. It accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and coastal zones. This harms downstream fisheries and increases the risk of landslides.

12. How is increase in carbon dioxide harmful?
Ans. It is a major contributor to the green house effect. Through the green house effect, the earth becomes more and hotter.

13. How does deforestation affect the climate?
Ans. It reduces the evaporated cooling that takes place from both soil and plant life. The rainfall pattern may also be affected.

14. What happens to wild life due to deforestation?
Ans. Many species of plants and animals become extinct. Many genetic varieties are lost.

15. How are deserts formed?
Ans. Removal of forests leads to the formation of deserts. The dry land area becomes degraded so that productive land becomes useless.

16. What is afforestation?
Ans. The process of planting trees is called afforestation.

17. What is Social Forestry Programme?

Ans. It is a programme where the public and common land is used to produce firewood, food, and timber for the use of local community.

18. How has Urban Forestry programme helped in building forests?
Ans. Urban Forestry Programme has helped in building forests by planting trees in urban areas.
19. What are the alternatives to deforestation?

Ans. The reduction of the consumption of forest-based products and planting of more trees is a way of reducing deforestation.

20. What is the loss of forests a symptom of?

Ans. The loss of the forest is a symptom of deeper and possibly unstoppable degradation of the Earth’s environment.

Paragraph Questions and Answers

1. What is the importance of forests?

Answer: The forests are an important part of our life. We get different products like industrial wood and firewood from the forests. The forests help in producing the soil and conserving soil and water. It also supports the purification of air and water. Different varieties of plants and animals find shelter in the forests. The forests also help in the mitigation of climate change and the absorption of carbon.

2. Why are forests being destroyed? OR
3. What are the causes of deforestation?
Answer: As the population increases, more space is needed to live and for recreation. Food production should also increase. People use the forests to gather firewood. Development of cash crops and cattle ranching is another reason for deforestation. Sometimes trees are cut in large numbers for timber. This also contributes to deforestation.

4. What is the impact of deforestation?
Answer: When forests are cleared the local communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines, and livestock grazing. When there are no forests, there is no regulation of the flow of water into rivers. Also, rainfall does not penetrate into the soil. All this causes flood and drought. Soil is exposed to evaporation and erosion. Essential materials are lost and landslides occur. The burning of trees increases the carbon dioxide level which will lead to green house effect. The climate is affected. Many species of animals and plants become extinct. This will also lead to the formation of deserts.

5. What are the alternatives to deforestation?
Answer: One alternative to deforestation is to plant more trees. This is called afforestation. The union and state governments have launched several afforestation programmes. Another alternative is to reduce the consumption of forest-based products. The world’s forests should be used economically such that the forests will continue to provide resources in the present and for the future. Peoples movements like the Chipko Movement has done much to prevent deforestation.

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Wonders of Science Essay

Wonders of Science Essay in English

OR

Science As Blessing Or Curse

“Society lives by faith and develops by science” –Amiel

It is rightly said that the dreams of yesterday had been made possible by the various inventions of science. Today we can fly like birds in the air and swim like fish in the sea with the help of great inventions made by science. We travel a lot of distance of years in days and that of days in minutes by the various inventions of science. We can live in warm and comfortable rooms in the severe winter and in cool and pleasant rooms in the hot summer with the help fascinating inventions of science. Science has really brought miraculous changes in every aspect of life. The wonders of science are more fascinating than Alladin’s miraculous lamp, Shah Jahan’s dream marble and the Great Wall of China.

Science is the key which unlocks for mankind the storehouses of nature” –Samuel

Wonders or blessings of science.

The inventions of science have led to the development of fast means of transport. Railway, ships, and aerplanes have enabled us to travel from one place to another in the shortest possible time. Time and space have been destroyed and the world has become a smaller unit. Space travel has become a possibility and the brave astronauts have landed on the moon. That day is not far when a regular space ship service from the earth to moon and back would become reality.
Electricity is one of the greatest wonders of science. It works like Alladin’s lamp. It turns darkness into brightness. It not only removes darkness but also runs our machines and enables us to send messages to different parts of the world by wireless waves. Science has enabled the modern man to have a sweet talk with his relatives, friends and beloved on the mobile phone. The refrigerators, washing machines, the cooking gas, and the electric kettle have reduced the housewife’s work. Nuclear power is being used to launch rockets and missiles which can send a man into space.

Horrors of science

Science had given us multiple means of entertainment. Radio, transistor, smartphone, cinema, and television provide us good entertainment. They save from feeling bored. Science has also enabled us to conquer Nature. The sea has been measured. Rivers have been tamed and many powerful dams have been made across them.

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Science has worked wonders in the field of disease. Now even the most dangerous diseases are cured. With the help of X-rays, it has become very easy to locate the injury or the fracture of the patient. The inventions of penicillin, antibiotics, and radium have proved very useful. Operations are performed in a painless manner. Many dangerous diseases like T.B. and cancer are no longer considered dangerous. Plastic surgery enables an ugly woman to become a beautiful belle. The discoveries of science can give us a new heart. Dr. Bernard of South Africa made history when he transplanted the heart of a dead person into the body of a living person. An Indian born scientist Dr. Har Gobind Khorana has made the gene, the smallest unit of life in the laboratory. This is an amazing achievement in science. It has the production of the test tube baby.
Science has revolutionized the world of existing machines. Computers and smartphones are doing the work calculations of thousands of clerks. There are thinking machines which can do brain work, and which can handle records. The invention of tractors, threshers, and harvesters has made the task of agriculture a pleasant one. Scientific research in agriculture had improved the quality of seeds, cattle, and manure. Better fertilizers are available. They have increased food production many times more than before.

Science has also brought remarkable improvement in the sanitary condition of towns and cities. Underground sewerage, better roads, and flush system are the achievements of science. Insecticides, pesticides, and disinfectants which are the products of science, have eliminated the harm done by locusts and pests to crops.

“Nothing is good or bad but thinking makes it so” –Shakespeare

This it is clear that science had brought many blessings to mankind. If science is used in a proper manner, it can reduce the suffering of man. Though science has brought countless blessings to mankind yet the question is raised whether it is curse also. It makes life comfortable but it is also the devil. It can reduce the whole into ashes in no time. No doubt atomic energy has brought a revolution in human civilization, but at the same time, nuclear weapons can destroy the whole world in no time. The example of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is before us. Science has produced many deadlier weapons which made wars very horrible. The man was never so insecure as he is today.

Science as blessing or curse

Science has also polluted our atmosphere. Our seas, river, and lakes are dead and dying. There are no values and morality. The advanced countries and exploiting poor countries. Man has developed materially but he has made no moral progress.

In reality, there is nothing wrong with science, it is up to man to the knowledge either for development or destruction. The fault does not lie with the science but with the user. Main has misused science for his selfish gains. So, it is up to man to use the enormous power of science for the promotion of peace and happiness of mankind. It should never be used for a negative or evil purpose. The wonders of science ought to be used for the welfare of mankind.


Essay On Student Unrest

Student Unrest Essay

“A hot temper leaps o’er a cold decree” – Shakespeare

The phrase student unrest usually refers to demonstrations, the occupation of campus buildings and even some minor riots by students. It is shown in schools in the form of riots, demonstrations, protests, costs, harassment, etc. Sometimes it becomes a disturbing trend in the socio-political life of the society. It is essential that the unrest of students be checked before it reaches an alarming level and it poses a great threat to our social development. Student unrest is not a peculiar problem, it also occurs in Europe and America. However, in Advanced Countries, the unrest of students is not conducted in a violent manner. Students protest using means such as display posters, peaceful rallies and letters to parliament. Students in Ghana need to learn how to protest in a non-violent manner. Students must be free to exercise their rights, but they must not take things too far. Students are our leaders of tomorrow, So they must be disciplined so that they will continue on that path when they grow.

Student Unrest

The universal unrest among youth in general and students, in particular, is becoming one of the most striking features of modern society. The strikes and agitations, processions and demonstrations, gheraos and defiance of authority are actually the expressions of the unrest in the minds of students.
Unrest among the youth is a thing which is neither unnatural not undesirable. Youth, by virtue of its mental and emotional makeup, is impulsive and excitable, restive and impatient. Shakespeare considered youth as hot, bold and wild.

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There is nothing dangerous in unrest by itself. In fact, unrest paves the way for progress. It stands for dynamism. It is the unrest in the minds of men that have generated revolutions in the world. It gives birth to new ideas and ideals which have a permanent impression on the minds of the people. As such students unrest should be welcome to us as teachers, parents, and statesmen. However, the unrest among students today has assumed a dangerous proportion. The students defy law and order and disobey even their parents. The damage and destroy public property. They burn buses and government buildings and detain railway trains. The appeals of teachers, the lathis teargas and even the bullets of the police do not frighten them. As a result, colleges and universities are closed for an indefinite period.

The student unrest is a problem of great magnitude. There are scholars who believe that the unrest in the student community is a part of the general unrest in the country and the world. Today, India is passing through a period of great stress and strain, reconstruction and transformation. The old order and values have collapsed and a new order is taking its place. Standing between two worlds, one dead and other yet to be born, the students view and review the various developments in the country. The modern student is not a weak, docile and submissive creature. He scrutinizes everything with a critical mind. He feels unhappy and discontented in a setup where crooks and dishonest people thrive. All these things create unrest in the minds of students.


The Importance of Character

The importance of Character

Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world.
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) says that among all human beings, he loves the one whose character is the best. The character may be defined as the sum total of qualities that a man possess. It is the greatest and most powerful factor in human life. Punctuality and discipline are the surest qualities of fine character. A man of character is one who can make his influence felt among his fellow human beings. He stands out from the common run of mankind by virtue of his distinctive qualities. Most people have no individuality of their own. They are just sheep. They are colorless shadows, without any special mark to distinguish them from others. But a man of character is easily recognized by his behavior, opinions, and bearing. All the great men of history were men of a character otherwise they would never have achieved name or fame.

The importance of Character

The first essential of character is moral courage. Moral courage means the courage to face hatred, oppression, criticism for the sake of what we believe to be right. It requires a lot of courage to follow a course of action at which most people laugh. A person who breaks social customs and conventions must have courage. A girl from an orthodox Hindu must have mountains of courage before she decides to marry a boy of a low caste.
A man of character does not believe in duplicity or diplomacy or treachery to achieve an end. Honesty, fidelity, and reliability are paramount ingredients of character. A man of character does not like corrupt policies. He does not like underhand means. He fights for the right cause. He is a champion of the underdog. He is a believer in justice and fairness. He does not like to grow rich by unfair means and by corrupt practices.

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A man of character has firm determination and strong will power. He knows how to carry out his plans without the fear of defeat or disappointment. He has tenacity and perseverance. He does not care for obstacles and difficulties. He is rewarded for his perseverance. Garibaldi bore several hardships before he liberated his country from the foreign yoke. Columbus had the fitness of will. He discovered America despite stronger opposition from fellow sailors to sail further.
David Livingstone was inspired by the strong determination in his discovery of exploration of the dark African content.
Another essential feature of character is the capacity to act, to execute, to do things and to give them a practical shape. We may be great idealists. If we lack the will to translate our ideas into action we would be dreamers.

A man of character is never governed merely by sentiment. He knows when to strike the nail on the head. A man of character is consistent in his actions. He is not an opportunist. His actions are not governed merely by self-interest. He is guided by certain principles. He does not give up those principles unless he is convinced that they are false. He is not a turncoat, not a weathercock. But he is elastic enough to adjust himself to changing circumstances. A man of character is not a time server who can easily shift his point of view solely to personal advantage.

Character demands a certain faith in one’s powers. Without this faith, no faith worth the name is possible. All other qualities are nothing besides this hopeful attitude to life. Faith and confidence are basic qualities with which to assert one’s character.
This character is a good combination of several qualities. It is the sum total of moral courage, honesty, and integrity, firm determination, capacity for action, consistency, and faith in one’s ability. All great men of the world possessed these qualities in ample measure.


SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT BY GEORGE ORWELL- Summary, Explanation, and Questions

SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT BY GEORGE ORWELL

Introduction: The British Empire is evidently the dominant historical setting for “Shooting an Elephant.” During the nineteenth century, the empire expanded quickly, spreading its territories to far off places like New Zealand and India. Burma (now Myanmar ) was the place where Orwell was located and the place was gained by the British in 1886. Burma obtained its freedom from Britain in 1948, a moderately short time after “Shooting an Elephant,” an affirmation of Orwell’s observation in the story that “the British Empire is dying.” Here George Orwell narrates an incident he had with an elephant when he was serving as a young police officer in Burma. The elephant had gone mad and killed an Indian coolie.

Orwell’s task was to shoot the elephant and thus prevent more damage. This story gives us the point of View of a white man, a colonial. It sensitively probes the subtle relationship between the colonizer (whites) and the colonized (natives).

Shooting An Elephant Summary

About the Author: George Orwell (1903 – 1950) whose real name was Eric Arthur Blair was a noted British author, Journalist, novelist, a cultural commentator, and a noted essayist. His short life did not prevent him from producing many works Which are now considered masterpieces. His works Animal Farm and 1984 further glorified his fame.

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Meanings and Explanations

I had halted …………. home
In this paragraph ‘we see Orwell coming face to face with the elephant, whom he will have to shoot, for the first time. Here he describes the thoughts that came into his mind as he watched the elephant. He says that he had first decided to watch the elephant for a little while and not shoot him if he did not turn savage.

halt: stop
must”: an attack of frenzy
mahout: the man who looks after elephant
savage: wild

But ………. laughed at

In this paragraph, Orwell describes his feelings as he sees the Burmans watching him. He was the only white man in the whole crowd. These were the days when the British used to rule to rule over many parts of the world; Orwell expresses his view that the Westerner who ruled over the East Was actually controlled by those whom he ruled over. He had to act in order to save his Sahib image or the impression the natives had about him as a sahib would be lost. He was thus a mere dummy playing his role.
glanced: looked
immense: huge
garnish: showy
conjurer: magician
rifle: gun
momentarily. : for a moment
irresistibly: without any resistance
futility: uselessness
dominion: here, power
unarmed: Without weapons
native: people originally belonging to the place
absurd: not reasonable
puppet: a doll, (here) one who acts according to another’s instructions
perceived: saw
tyrant: an oppressor
conventionalised: traditional
sahib: master
trail feebly: follow behind slowly

But ……….. better aim
Here we understand that Orwell was against shooting the elephant. But in his mind, he knew that he had to shoot the elephant. Otherwise, the Burmans would attack him or laugh at him. He gives many reasons why he had to kill an elephant. He makes plans on how to shoot the elephant.
preoccupied: lost in thought
squeamish: ” easily made nauseous”. (nausea => vomiting sensation)
beast: animal
charged: attacked
poor shot: not able to shoot properly
toad: big frog.
pursued: to go after; followed
trampled: to be smashed underfoot
alternative: option, choice
cartridges: Charges for gun
magazine: gun from which shots can be fired without reloading

The crowd ……………… I lay
Orwell does not have much experience in shooting elephants. Therefore he aims incorrectly. The reaction of the crowd is also explained here. In these two paragraphs, Orwell also tells us what happens to the elephant when it is hit.
still: silent, without moving
innumerable: countless

glee: great joy
mysterious: not very clear, secret
stirred: moved
altered: Changed
stricken: wounded
shrunken: to reduce in size
immensely: greatly
paralyzed: unable to move
knocking: striking, making him fall
sagged: to sink, to lose strength
senility: the weaknesses of old age
collapse: fall
desperate: hopeless
upright: straight
agony: great pain
jolt: strike
remnant: remains, what is left behind
tower: to rise in air
toppling: falling
Skyward: towards the sky
trumpeted: the cry of the elephant

I got up …………. afternoon
Here Orwell gives you a vivid description of the last few moments of the elephant’s life. He also tells you about what the Burmans did to the elephant.
obvious: very clear
rattling: short, hard sounds
jerk: shake
torture: extreme pain
remote: far away
dreadful: very painful
stripped: to remove covering; here remove flash and skin

Afterward ………….. fool
These were many opinions among the people about the shooting of the elephant. Orwell ends his essay by telling you the truth as to why he shot the elephant.
furious. very angry
legally: according to law
pretext: reason
grasped: understood
solely: only

Comprehension Short Answer Questions

1 What was the author’s first thought as he looked at the elephant?
Ans: As soon as the author saw the elephant he thought that he should not shoot it.
2. Why did Orwell think that he ought not to shoot the elephant?
Ans: Orwell thought that he should not shoot the elephant because it was a working elephant and therefore very precious. Also, the elephant looked very peaceful as he stood eating.
3. Why is it a serious matter to shoot a working elephant?
Ans: A working elephant is equal to a huge and costly piece of machinery. Hence it is a serious matter to shoot a working elephant.
4. How did the elephant look from a distance?

Ans: The elephant looked no more dangerous than a cow from a distance.
5. What did Orwell think about the ”must” of the elephant?
Ans: He thought that the “must” was already passing off. If that was the case then he would merely wander harmlessly until the mahout came back and caught him.
6. What did Orwell plan at first?
Ans: Orwell decided that he would watch the elephant for a little while to make sure that he did not turn savage and then go home.
7. Describe the crowd that gathered around Orwell?
Ans: It was a huge crowd of at least two thousand people. It looked like a sea of yellow faces above colourful clothes. They were happy and excited about shooting the elephant.
8. What did the natives think of Orwell?
Ans: The natives did not like Orwell but with the rifle in his hand he was worth watching.
9. How did Orwell realize that he would have to shoot the elephant after all?
Ans. The people around him expected him to shoot the elephant. In order to fulfill their expectation, he realised that he would have to shoot the elephant after all.
10. Why does Orwell call the White man’s dominion over the East, futile?
Ans. The White man thinks that he is the real master over the natives. But according to Orwell, he is only a puppet who has to work according to the will of the native.
11. What is the actual condition of the White man?
Ans. The White man has to spend his life in trying to impress the natives. Therefore he has to do everything as the native expects him to do.
12. How does Orwell describe every White man’s life in the East?
Ans. According to Orwell, every White man’s life in the East was one long struggle not to be laughed at.
13. State two reasons why Orwell did not want to shoot the elephant?
Ans. Orwell had never wanted to shoot a large animal like an elephant. Besides he had to consider the owner also.
14. What did the Burmans say about the elephant?
Ans. The Burmans said that the elephant took no notice of anyone if he was left alone. But he might attack if anyone went close to him.
15. What were Orwell’s plans about shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell planned to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behavior. If he attacked, Orwell would shoot. If he did not then he would, leave him alone till his mahout came back to take him.
16. Why does Orwell dismiss the idea of walking up to twenty-five yards of the elephant?
Ans. The mud was soft and Orwell was a poor shot with the rifle. If the elephant charged then Orwell would find it difficult to escape.
17. What was the sole thought in Orwell’s mind as he watched the natives?
Ans. The sole thought in Orwell’s mind was that if anything went wrong the two thousand Burmans watching him would pursue him and kill him.
18. What was the only alternative according to Orwell?
Ans. The only other alternative was to shoot the elephant.
19. What did the crowd do when Orwell loaded his rifle?
Ans. The crowd grew very still and let out a deep, low and happy sigh. They were like people in the theatre watching the curtain go up after a long wait.
20. What was the right way of shooting an elephant?
Ans. In shooting an elephant one should shoot to cut an imaginary bar running from ear hole to ear hole. Orwell aimed several inches in front of the elephants ear-hole thinking that the brain was in front. He Was actually Wrong.

21. What did the crowd do when Orwell shot the elephant?
Ans. The crowd let out a devilish roar of glee.

22. What happened to the elephant at the first shot?
Ans. A terrible change came over the elephant. He became stricken and looked very old. He fell to his knees and his mouth slobbered.
23. What happened to the elephant at the second shot?
Ans. At the second shot he did not collapse but stood up slowly with his legs sagging and his head drooping.
24. What happened to the elephant at the third shot?
Ans. At the third shot, the last drop of strength went away from his body. He trumpeted for the first and only time. Then he fell down with a crash
25. What was the condition of the elephant after the three shots?
Ans. The elephant did not die. He was breathing heavily and painfully with his mouth open.
26. Why did the author send for his small rifle?
Ans. The author wanted to put an end to the agony of the elephant.
27. What did the Burmans do to the elephant?

Ans. The Burmans brought dahs and baskets and stripped the elephant’s body almost to the bones by the afternoon.

28. What was the owner’s reaction to the incident?
Ans. The owner was furious but as he was only an Indian, he could do nothing.
29. What does Orwell say about the legal aspect of the shooting?
Ans. Legally Orwell had done the right thing as he had killed a mad elephant whose owner had failed to control it.
30. What did the Europeans say about the shooting?
Ans. Among the Europeans, opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right and the younger men said that it was a shame to kill a working elephant which was more valuable than the coolie it had killed.
31. Why does Orwell Say that he was glad that the coolie had been killed?
Ans. Orwell was glad that the coolie had been killed because it put him legally in the right and gave him a reason for shooting the elephant.

32. What does Orwell say about the killing in the end?
Ans. He wonders if others knew that he had done it to avoid looking like a fool.

Paragraph Questions & Answers

1. What were Orwell’s first thoughts as he saw the elephant?
Ans. As soon as Orwell saw the elephant, he knew that he ought not to shoot the elephant. He knew that it was a serious matter to shoot a working elephant. A working elephant was as valuable as a costly piece of machinery. Moreover, at a distance, the elephant looked very peaceful. Orwell thought that the ”must” was already passing off and therefore he would watch the elephant for a while to see if it turned savage and then go home.

2. What does Orwell say of the crowd that had gathered around him?
Ans. The crowd was immense. At least two thousand people were there and the number was growing. Orwell describes it as ”a sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes.” They were happy that the elephant was going to be shot. Though they did not like Orwell, they watched him as he had a rifle in his hands. Orwell knew that he would have to shoot the elephant because these people expected him to shoot it.

3. Why does Orwell say that the White man’s dominion in the East is futile?
Ans. As Orwell stood in front of the people with the rifle in his hands, he understood the hollowness and futility of the White man’s power in the East. The White man was like a puppet in the hands of these people. To appear to be powerful and to maintain the sahib image, he has to do what the natives expected him to do It was like wearing a mask.

4. Why does Orwell say he does not want to shoot the elephant?

Ans. As Orwell watched the elephant he knew that he did not want to shoot the elephant To kill the elephant would be like murdering it. He was against the killing of large animals. Besides, the elephant’ s owner had to be considered If the elephant was alive it was worth a hundred pounds If it was dead, then the owner would only get five pounds for its tusks.
5. What were the steps Orwell considered before shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell knew perfectly well what he ought to do. He decided to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behaviour If the elephant attacked, he would shoot. If not, then Orwell would just Watch him till the mahout Came back. But he soon gave up the idea because the mud was very soft. If the elephant attacked he would not be able to run fast in the mud and he was surer to be killed.

6. Describe the first three shots of Orwell and its impact on the Elephant.
Ans. At the first shot, a terrible change came over the elephant. It did not stir or fall, but every line of its body changed. It looked shrunken and very old as if the bullet had paralysed it. It sagged to its knees and its mouth slobbered At the second shot, it did not fall but stood very slowly to its feet, legs sagging and head drooping. The third shot took away all strength from its body. Its hind legs collapsed and it seemed like a huge rock that was falling. It fell down with a crash It trumpeted for the first and only time.

7. Describe the last minutes of the elephant’s life.
Ans. The elephant was not dead even after the three shots He was breathing loudly with a rattling noise. His mouth was wide open. Orwell continued to shoot him but he did not die. He did not even jerk. Blood poured out from him body Orwell took his small rifle and shot him in the heart and throat. But the elephant looked like he was in a world where no other pain could reach him. It took the elephant half an hour to die.
8. What are the varied opinions regarding the shooting of the elephant?
Ans. There were endless discussions regarding the shooting of the elephant. The owner was very angry. But he was only an Indian and could do nothing. Besides, Orwell had done the light thing legally by shooting the mad elephant that had killed a coolie. The European opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right. But the younger men said that Orwell should not have killed the elephant for killing a coolie because the elephant was more precious than the coolie.

Vocabulary and Usage

(i) Pick out words from the text relating to (a) elephants (b) guns
Answer
elephants – trunk, tusk, trumpet, mahout, ”must”, savage.
guns – rifle, cartridge, magazine aim, trigger, bullet

(ii) Make a list of the similes used in the text

a) as much chance as a toad under a steam roller (meaning no chance at all).
b) to tower like a huge rock toppling (to describe the enormous elephant swaying with pain)
c) a happy sigh as of people who see the theatre curtain go up at last. (to describe the feeling at the commencement of a long-awaited event).
(iii) replace the italicised phase with one word.

a) According to law, she is my wife.
A: Legally, she is my wife.
b) He looked towards the sky to see if it would rain.
A: He looked skywards to see if it would rain.
c) When she saw the snake, she was unable to move.
A: When she saw the snake, she was paralyzed
d) They stood without moving until the bear had gone.
A. They stood still until the bear had gone.


THE TREES BY PHILIP LARKIN: Summary and Questions

THE TREES BY PHILIP LARKIN

Introduction: We all know that Nature is a great teacher. Human life repeats many aspects of nature. The cyclic pattern of life in nature is reflected in human life also. This poem takes a philosophical look at nature and life. What is the general tone of the poem? Is it grief or a kind of acceptance? What lesson about life does this poem give us?
Read the poem very carefully and try to understand it on your own before seeking the help of the notes given below.

The trees are coming into leaf
Like something almost being said;
The recent buds relax and spread,
Their greenness is a kind of grief.

Is it that they are born again
And we grow old? No, they die too.
Their yearly trick of looking new
Is written down in rings of grain

Yet still, the unresting castles thresh.
In full-grown thickness every May,
Last year is dead, they seem to say, Begin afresh, afresh, afresh

The trees by Philip Larkin

About the Author: Philip Larkin (1922—1985), is the most significant poet of Britain in the post-second World War period. He is an urban poet writing in a very simple style. A lonely observer of events and things around him, he rejected any idealized image of life.

You must have read the poem now, what does it communicate to you? You would have found certain words and expressions difficult. It is only natural. To have a more complete understanding of the poem, refer to the stanza wise meanings and explanations given below.

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Meanings and Explanations

Lines 1-4

Coming into leaf: An idiomatic way of describing fresh leaves appearing on a tree.
Like something… said: The poet uses a curious example to describe the growth of new leaves. He compares it to someone about to say something. The fresh leaves are the message. (This comparison using ‘like’ or ‘as’ called a simile.)
recent: not long ago
bud: a flower or leaf that is not yet fully open. (Here it is a leaf bud)
The recent buds relax and spread: The opening and spreading of closed leaf buds into leaves imaginatively referred to as a relaxing. The buds described as if they are human and enjoying good leisure.
grief: sorrow
Their greenness …… grief: This line gives a shock. The new life of the buds (suggest by their “greenness”) also reminds the poet of death (suggested by the word “grief” ). The explanation of this contradictory meaning (paradox) is offered in the next stanza

The poet describes the coming of new life in nature during the spring season. The buds grow into leaves. This greening of nature is referred to in negative terms as an event bringing sorrow.

What is the link between new life and sorrow? Think about it.

Line 5-8

grain: pattern made by the lines of fibres in wood.

The poet asks the question whether trees are different from human beings because the trees can continuously renew themselves by growing fresh leaves, whereas human beings grow old only to die. He answers saying that it is not so. Although new leaves appear on the tree every year, this happens after the tree sheds old leaves. Hence with every year the tree ages. Therefore, the aging process of the tree can be measured by counting the number of rings on the trunk. This is commonly called as the grain of the wood. Thus the tree only seems to remain fresh. He, therefore, calls it a “trick” in line 7. How is the aging of a tree different from the aging of human beings?

Line 9-12

Unresting: continuous movement of the leaves caused by the wind. The tree never rests because it is constantly renewing itself.

Castles: large fortified (strengthened against attack) buildings. Here the trees are referred to as castles. Why? The castle is a metaphor for tree. This use of language is metaphorical.

Thresh: separate the grain from its husk by beating the grain-bearing bundle of plants over a surface. Here it points to violent movement.
May: spring season
Last year ……… afresh: shows how the trees renew life every year.

The poet, however, comes to accept the fact that life in nature can begin afresh every year, whereas man as an individual must grow old and die. May is the month when trees are full of leaves and flowers. The continuously renewing trees (“castles”) sway violent (“thresh”) in the wind. The poet may have used the term “‘thresh” because of the way thickly growing trees in a forest rub against each other strongly. The rich covering of tree is compared to lofty castles. What do castles and trees have in common? For one, they are both tall and strong. Secondly, both suggest something regal (royal or majestic). Third, they can have an association with old times or the distant past. The trees seem, to the imaginative mind of poet, to convey the message of cyclicity and renewal as it says “being afresh”.
Do you now have a better understanding of the poem? Let us now try to answer the questions on the poem, shall we?

Comprehension Short Answer Questions :

1. What phrase does the poet use to describe the appearance of fresh leaves on the tree?
Ans. The poet uses the expression “coming into leaf”
2. What is simile ‘?

Ans. A simile is a way of expressing something in which a thing is described by comparing it with something else usually using the words ‘as’ or ‘like’ as in the example, ‘eyes sparkling like diamonds.’

3. What simile does the poet use to describe the emergence of leaves on trees?
Ans. According to the poet, the leaves appear “like something almost bein said”.
4. Why does the poet use the adjective “recent” to describe buds?
Ans. The adjective “recent” is used to suggest the quick change from leaf bud to leaf.
5. How do the leaf buds transform into leaves?

Ans. The leaf buds “relax and spread” into leaves
6. Why does the “greenness” of the leaves bring about grief?
Ans. The “greenness” of the new leaves also remind the poet of the passing of time and aging implied in each renewal of life.
7. Don’t the trees grow old?
Ans. Yes, they do even though they seem to get a new life every year, they are in fact. growing old.
8. What is the “yearly thick” the trees play on us?
Ans. The trees fool us into thinking that they are born again every year.
9. How do the trees show their age?
Ans. The number of rings of grain on the trunk of trees give away their age.
10. What is the metaphor used to describe the trees?
Ans. The trees are metaphorically described as castles
11. What is a metaphor?
Ans. A metaphor is an expression in which a person action or thing is described as if it really were what it merely resembles.
12. What is the difference between a Simile and Metaphor?
Ans. A Simile says that one thing is like another. A metaphor says that one thing is the other,
E.g. a) My love is like a red red rose. (Simile)
b) My love is a red red rose (Metaphor)

13. What do trees and castles have in common?
Ans. Both trees and castles are tall and strong, majestic-looking and old.
14. Why are the trees referred to as “unresting”?
Ans. The constant movement of the trees due to the wind makes the poet refer to them as “unresting”
15. What does May signify?
Ans. May is springtime When the trees become covered fully with leaves and branches after winter When they are bare
16. What is the message of trees to man?
Ans. The constantly renewing trees seem to tell us to begin afresh as the previous year is dead and gone.

Paragraph Questions and Answers.

1. What does the poet say about trees?
Ans. The poet describes the way trees come to life every year during the spring season. The emptiness of the winter season is transformed as the trees break out into leaves and flowers. The leaf- buds relax and spread out to become big leaves. This greening of the trees brings sorrow because it is a reminder of passing time and aging. Every year there is a renewal of life, at the same time the tree ages and this is recorded in the rings of grain. During the month of May, the trees appear in full growth

2. How does the poet treat the theme of the passage of time?
Ans. Every object in nature submits to change as time passes. In the case of the trees, their change is cyclic and the pattern of change is repeated every year. The spring season finds the trees renewing themselves. New leaves appear and spread greenness. This renewal of life is a rebirth. This does not mean that they do not age, every year the trees look new but this is the only a trick. They also age and this is recorded in the rings of grain. Nature, thus shows us how life and death are close to each other, almost continuous.
3. Examine the poet’s attitude to nature and how he uses it to reflect on life.
Ans. The poem “The Trees” looks at a very common feature in nature-how the trees shed old leaves while new leaves are forever appearing again. This “yearly trick” of looking new hides the fact the trees also grew old The age of trees is recorded in the rings of grain on the tree trunks. Thus, the greenness of the trees brings to mind sorrow as it points to change and aging. This pattern of cyclicity of life and death can be seen in life too. To the poet, this feature in nature suggests how life and death are continuous. Nature serves to show us this fact.


Modilie-The Word In News |What Does It Mean?

In India, there is a word in news on social media and the word is ‘Modilie’. What is the meaning of the word? Here is all about the word.

Actually, there is no such word in the English dictionaries. It is a fake word. The word has been used to mock Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi by Congress President Rahul Gandhi. Rahul tweeted it was a new word in the English dictionary and also attached a photoshopped screenshot of a word entry to a replica of the Oxford Dictionary website.

Oxford Dictionary denied Rahul Gandhi’s claim that the word “Modilie” was added to dictionaries and confirmed that the image showing the’ Modilie’ entry is fake and does not exist in any of their Oxford Dictionaries.

It’s a bluff by Rahul Gandhi.

A website ‘Modi Lies – The most accurate list of PM Modi’s many lies’ has also been created to mock PM Modi. Previously, Rahul Gandhi has referred to Finance Minister Arun Jaitley as ‘Jaitlie’.

Now another word ‘Rahulie’ is going round to mock Rahul Gandhi.

Modilie: Rahul Gandhi explains meaning of new English word…….”To lie incessantly and habitually” and ‘to lie without respite’ are the other meanings of the word , which has been formed by a combination of the words Modi and lie, claimed the Congress leader.

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Essay on Mahatma Ghandhi

Essay on Mahatma Ghandhi

“An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind” – Gandhi

While Mahatma Gandhi commonly known as bapu is viewed as the father of the Indian freedom movement, he also spent twenty years battling discrimation in South Africa. It was there that he built up the idea of satyagraha, a peaceful method (non-violent) for challenging treachery and injustice. Gandhi’s integrity, simplistic lifestyle and minimal dress endeavored him to the people of India. He spent much of his life working to improve poor people’s lives and free India from British rule.

Mahatma Gandhi was a mediocre student in his youth. He was shy and soft-speaking, though there was a short period of minor rebellion by his own admission! He married Kasturba (also spelled Kasturbai) at the age of 13-a marriage arranged. Kasturba bore four sons to Gandhi and supported his efforts unconditionally until her death in 1944.

On 30th january 1948, the 78-year-old Gandhi spent his last day as he had many others. A young extremist Hindu named Nathuram Godse stepped before him and bowed. Gandhi bowed back. Godse then rushed forward and shot Gandhi three times. Although Gandhi had survived five other assassination attempts, this time he fell to the ground, dead. His assassination was an international catastrophe.

A period of mourning was set aside at the United Nations General Assembly. The teachings of Gandhi were to inspire others, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Nelson Mandela. Gandhi, a lifelong Hindu practitioner, was a passionate theologian and read about all major religions extensively. When asked if he was a Hindu later in his life, he answered: “Yes, I am. I am also a Christian, a Muslim.

Gandhiji’s entire life was full of lesson. Simple living and high thinking was the hallmark of his personality. He was peace loving. He set a great example of an ideal citizen for our country. The need of the hour is to read and spread the philosophy of Gandhiji and that way we will happily live our lives We should not believe in violence. We should keep our surroundings clean as this great leader taught us that. We shall not sit idle but work hard for the welfare of ourselves and for the betterment of the world. Gandhiji message is for everyone. This best to celebrate his birthday is to disseminate the philosophy of Gandhiji.

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Epic Poetry: Some Features and Examples

Epic Poetry Some Features and Examples

An Introduction To Epic

An epic also called heroic poem is a verse narrative usually long which deals with a serious subject. It is told in a formal and elevated style. It is centred on heroic or quasi-divine figures on whose action depends the fate of a tribe, a nation or the entire human race as in the instance of John Milton’s The Paradise Lost. Epics maybe traditional or literary.Traditional epics are called folk epics. The traditional epics were the written version of oral poems about a tribal or national hero during a warlike age. Among these are the Iliad and

Odessey that are attributed to Homer, the Greek poet. Literary epics were composed in deliberate imitation of the traditional epics. Virgil’s Latin poem the Aeneid is of this kind.

This epic later served as a model for Milton’s Paradise Lost.

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Some features of epics

The hero of an epic is a figure of great national importance. In the Iliad, the hero is the Greek warrior Achilles, who is the son of the sea nymph Thetis, and Virgil’s Aeneas is the son of the goddesses Aphrodite.

The setting of the poem is ample in scale and may be worldwide or even larger.

Odysseus wanders over the Mediterranean basin and in Book XI he descends into the underworlds as does Virgil’s Aeneas.

The action involves superhuman deeds in battle such as Achilles’ feats in the Trojan War, or a long, ordous and dangerous journey such as the wanderings of Odysseus on his way back to his homeland in the face of opposition by some of the gods.

In the great actions, the gods and other supernatural beings take an interest or an active part. The Olympian gods in Homer is an instance.

An epic poem is a ceremonial performance, and is narrated in a ceremonial style which is deliberately distanced from the ordinary speech and proportioned to the grandeur and formality of the heroic subject.

The Epic Conventions

The narrator starts by stating his argument for epic theme, invokes a muse or guiding spirit to inspire him in his great undertaking.
The narrative begins in media-res or in the middle of the story. There are catalogs of some of the main characters introduced in a formal detail The term epic is often applied to narratives that differ from this model in many respects but manifest the epic spirit and grandeur in the scale, scope and profound human significance of their subject. In this broad sense Dante’s “Divine Comedy” and Edmund Spencer’s “The Fairie Queene” are often called epics.


Mothers’ Expectations From Her Children: A Beautiful Message For All Amazing Mothers.

Parents expectation from their child: A beautiful message for all amazing mothers.

In this post, I am sharing a very beautiful short dialogue between a mother and her son. I love the message of the story and therefore wish to share it on this special day what we call Mothers’Day.

This story tells us what a mother expects from her children when they are grown up. It makes the point that when the job of a mother as mentor and guide for her child is over, she expects her child to be a fine human character, that is, to be honest, to be kind and sympathetic, to be compassionate, to respect others, to maintain self-respect, to be responsible, to be giving and to be caring.

She doesn’t want worldly luxuries from her children. When her children are grown up, she expects them to treat her with respect and love, and treat others also with respect, and be the best human beings.

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Read the story and if you like the message share it.

Mothers Day

Mother(to her son): I battled with death when I was bringing forth you. I spent restless nights when you were ill and crying. I never ate without stuffing you first. I never felt disgusted upon washing your potty. I bore such huge numbers of torments to bring you to the phase that you are in today. “How will you repay me, my son”?

Son: When I grow up, I will get a decent line of work and gain a lot of cash for you so you can enjoy the delights of this world. I will give you all the thing whatever you desire.

Mother: Your dad is doing this as of now and I don’t expect this from you as well. By the time you are earning, I’ll be old and won’t need any worldly luxury.

Son: I will find a pious and carrying lady for you and wed her so she can cook for you and take care of you.

Mother: That isn’t her obligation my child and neither should you wed for this purpose. It isn’t necessary on her to do any service to me, neither do I anticipate this from her. Your marriage must be for you not for me. Your partner must be a companion and solace for you as you go on in the journey of life.

Son: Then tell me, mother, what shall I do for you? How can I repay you?

Happy Mothers Day

Mother(with tears in her eyes): Visit or call me often. A mother only requires this much from you while she is alive.

Then, when I die, give me your shoulder and bury me. Whenever you pray, supplicate for me. Be generous and give out charity me.

Remember that in the hereafter, every good deed will benefit me, so always be good and kind.

Fulfill the obligations of all those around you.

Never forget the people who are needy, orphan and sick.

“The sleepless nights and pains I took to bring you up were for my creator, not a favor to you. The merciful God blessed me with you as a beautiful gift and as a means to attain His pleasure. All your good deeds become my repayment.” I need nothing more.

Will you do it for me, my dear child?

Son: ( The child was too sentimental to speak anything and tears rolling down on his face)

Mothers Day Celebration,

A beautiful message for all the amazing Mothers out there.

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Masculine and Feminine Gender: Rules and List

Masculine and Feminine Gender: Rules and List

Gender is from Latin genus meaning kind or sort. The difference of sex in nature is called the difference of gender in grammar. We know all living things are normally either of the male or female sex.
The noun that denotes male is called Masculine Gender; as, man, husband, brother, son, boy king, hero, lion, etc.
The noun that denotes female is called Feminine Gender; as, woman, wife, sister, daughter, girl, queen, heroin, lioness, etc
The noun that denotes either male, as well as the female, is called Common Gender; as, friend, child, pupil, parent, servant, thief, baby, infant, neighbour, monarch.
The noun that denotes a thing of no sex, that is, a thing without life is called Neutral Gender; as, book, pen, room, tree, window, street, door, table, desk, etc.
Neutral literally means ‘neither’.

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Masculine and feminine gender

PERSONIFICATION

Objects without life are often personified especially in poetry or elevated prose. They are spoken of as if they were living beings. We then regard them as masculines or feminines as per the following rules:
The masculine gender is often applied to objects known for strength or violence; as, sun, summer, winter, ocean, thunder, death, time, war, etc
Example

  1. The sun shed his beams on rich and poor alike.
  2. Winter had spread his white blanket everywhere.

The feminine gender is often applied to objects remarkable for beauty, gentleness, or grace; as, moon, earth, spring, autumn, nature, liberty, justice, mercy, peace, hope, virtue charity, modesty, etc.

Examples

  1. The moon has hidden her face behind a cloud.
  2. Spring had spread her mantle of green over the earth.

Note: Ship is often spoken of the feminine as;
The ship lost her boats in the storm.

WAYS OF FORMING THE FEMININE
There are four ways of forming the feminine of masculine nouns, these are given as follows:
1. By using an entirely different word.
2. By using a prefix or adding a word before or after.
3. By using a suffix -ess to the masculine.
4. Foreign feminines

By using an entirely different word.

MusculineFeminine 
BachelorSpinster
BoyGirl
FatherMother
Man Woman
BrotherSister
BuckDoe
Bull,OxHeifer
RamEwe
WizardWitch
SalemanSalewoman
ColtFilly
CockHen
DrakeDuck
Dog Bitch
DroneBee
EarlCountess
Friar,MonkNun
GanderGoose
HartRoe
StagHind
GentlemanLady
HorseMare
HusbandWife
ForemanForewoman
KingQueen
LordLady
MilkboyMilkmaid
LadLass
FoxVixen
SireDane
NephewNiece
UncleAnt
SirMadam
SonDaughter
PapaMamna
BoarSow
SailorSeamaid
StallionMare
WindowerWidow
By using a word before or after.
MusculineFeminine
Bull-calfCow-calf
Buck-rabbitDoe-rabbit
Cock- sparrowHen-sparrow
He-goatShe-goat
Jack-assShe-ass
GrandfatherGrandmother
PeacockPeahen
DairymanDiarymaid
ManfriendWomanfriend
BoybfriendGirlfriend
He-bearShe-bear
Tom-catShe-cat
Dog-foxShe-fox
LandlordLandlady
ManservantMaidservant
GreatuncleGreataunt
WashermanWasherwoman
Begger- manBegger-woman
Step-fatherStep-mother
Brother-in-lawSister-in-law
Step-sonStep-daughter
ForemanForewoman
SalesmanSaleswoman
TragedianTragedienne
By adding the suffix -ess to the muculine
MasculineFeminine
AuthorAuthoress
BaronBaroness
CountCountesd
GiantGiantess
GodGoddess
HeirHeiress
PoetPoetess
PriestPriestess
Prior
HostHostess
JewJewess
TutorTutoress
ManagerManageress
MayorMayoress
PatronPatroness
PeerPeeress
ProphetProphetess
ShepherdShepherdess
StewardStewardess
ViscountViscountess
LionLioness
PrincePrincess
sorcerersorceress
In the following examples, the suffix -ess is added after omitting the last syllable of the masculine.
MasculineFeminine
ActorActress
BenefactorBenefactress
ConductorConductress
DirectorDirectress
EnchantorEnchantress
FounderFoundress
HunterHuntress
InspectorInspectress
InstructorInstructress
NegroNegress
AbbotAbbess
MurdererMurderess
ProprietorProprietress
ProtectorProtectress
GovernorGoverness
MarquisMarchioness
AdventurerAdventuress
CatererCateress
DukeDuchess
EmperorEmpress
PreceptorPreceptress
SongsterSongstress
TempterTemptress
TigerTigress
SeamsterSeamstress
TraitorTraitress
VotaryVotaress
MasterMistress
WaiterWaitress
Note The suffix -ess is the commonest suffix used to form feminine from masculine and is the only one which we now use in forming a new feminine noun.

MasculineFeminine
AdministratorAdministratrix
BeauBelle
CzarCzarina
ExecutorExecutrix
SignorSignora
ProsecutorProsecutrix
TestatorTestatrix
SultanSultana
FrancisFrances
HeroHeroine
TragedianTragedienne

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

In this post, I am discussing one of the classifications of nouns. This classification states whether the nouns are ‘countable’ or ‘uncountable’.

Countable Nouns: Nouns which can be counted but not measured are called countable nouns. They are also called count nouns, e.g. boy, pen, book, cat, toy, door, garden, etc

  1. He is a smart boy.
  2. I like this pen.
  3. The book is informative.
  4. I have a cat.
  5. He gave me that toy.
  6. Open the door.
  7. He entered the garden.

Uncountable Nouns: Nouns which cannot be counted but measured or weighed are known as uncountable nouns. Some examples are given as under:

  1. Carry this luggage to my room.
  2. Corruption is cancer in society.
  3. The news about his sudden death is just a rumor.
  4. You should drink pure water.
  5. Blood is red.

The italicized words in the above sentences are uncountable nouns.

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IMPORTANT POINTS
Countable Nouns take plural forms when we refer to more than one of these e.g. boys, pens, books , cats toys, doors, etc . While uncountable nouns are not used in the plural. We can not say milks, educations, rices, musics bloods, etc.

Countable Nouns can be used in the way as one book, two books, three books, etc. While in case of uncountable nouns, we can not say one rice , two rices, bone sand, two sands, etc

We can use a/an with singular countable nouns e.g., a beach, a student, an apple. We can not normally use a/an with uncountable nouns. We do not say ‘a sand’ or ‘a music’.We can say:

  • a speck of dust.
  • a drop of water.
  • a piece of music.
  • a game of tennis.
  • a sheet of paper.
  • a pile of rubbish.
  • a lump of sugar.
  • a bar of chocolate.
  • a block of concrete/ice.
  • a piece of land/paper.
  • a grain of rice.
  • a blade of glass.

Observe the are linked to each other by ‘of’.

Countable and uncountable nouns

POSITION IF NOUNS OR NOUNS PHRASES

SUBJECT
Rahil is handsome.
The girl in the green dress run away.
The boy who is dancing is a dancer.

OBJECT ( Direct)
I know Asif.
They completed their work quickly.
She likes the garden full of flowers.
She loves the man who was singing.

OBJECT (Indirect)
Father gave Mohsin a new pen.
He teaches us grammar.

COMPLEMENT
He found her a good pencil.
He has curved hair.

OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
She sat on the wooden log.
We went to Gulmarg.

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