Dear Friends welcome, today we will start with the definition of grammar.
Grammar is the study of morphology, syntax, and phonology of the language. It may be also defined as the body of rules the govern the structure if a language.
Morphology studies the way in which morphemes join to form meaningful words.
Syntax studies the way the sequences of words are ordered into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Phonology studies the elementary speech sounds.
Thus, grammar is a set of constraints on the possible sequences of symbols expressed as a system of rules and principles for speaking and writing a language. The study of the internal structure of words (morphology) and the use of words in the construction of phrases, clauses, and sentences (syntax).
Fundamental Units of Language
There are five main units of grammatical structure: morpheme, word, phrase, clause, and sentence. A morpheme is the smallest unit. It is defined as the smallest meaningful unit that can not be further broken into meaningful constituents.
Morphemes join to form a word. Phrase and clause are groups of words. While phrase does not have subject and predicate, the clause does have its own subject and predicate.The sentence is also an ordered string of words that convey some meaning. It must have subject and predicate.
In a sentence, Ali sings, Ali is subject and sings is a predicate. All these things will be discussed later as separate topics.
Note that what is described above is called traditional grammar. The subject, predicate, etc are called grammatical functions. Parts-of-speech such as verb, noun, the adjective is called grammatical categories or word classes.
A fourth aspect of language includes semantics, the study meaning of words and the combination of the words into phrases, sentences, and larger linguistic units.