Christopher Marlowe: Dr. Faustus
The Elizabethan Age
The Elizabethan Age denotes the period of Queen Elizabethan’s reign (1558-1603). This was the period of great development in England, especially in the fields of commerce, naval power and nationalistic feelings e.g. the event of the defeat of Spanish Armada (1588). It was also a great age of English literature.
Though the Renaissance had reached England a little earlier yet it did not have its flowering till the Elizabethan Age. The age has such writers as Sidney, Marlowe, Spencer, Shakespeare, Raleigh, Bacon, Ben Jonson and many other writers who excelled in prose, drama, lyric and narrative poetry.
Literature in this age was greatly influenced by two movements –
Reformation and Renaissance.
The most striking feature of the Elizabethan Age is the rise of Romantic drama. Further, while in France the literary arts were meant for aristocratic class, in England the Renaissance in literature and other arts was rooted in the masses. Another important feature was the introduction of new form of expression e.g. the sonnet form in English Literature by Wyatt.
Some of the important works of the age include Spencer’s Faerie Queene and Epithalamion, Bacon’s Essays, Thomas Browne’s Religio Medici, Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy and Jonson’s Every Man in His Humour.
But the two among the most important writers of the age were Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare.
Thus, we see that Elizabethan Age saw the upsurge in literature as a result of the Renaissance. This age is considered the most illustrious age in the history of English literature. Poetry, drama and a rich variety of prose flourished during the era. Though some patterns and themes lingered on, the high tone of most of the literary forms, particularly drama, weakened suddenly at the beginning of the 17th Century.
Christopher Marlowe (1564-93) was the son of a poor Canterbury shoemaker. Through the kindness of a patron he was educated at the King’s School, Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. In London he lived in a low-tavern atmosphere of excess & wretchedness. He had excellent classical achievements as is clear from his works but he had a violent temperament. From 1587 he wrote plays for London theatres. In 1592 he was deported from Netherlands for attempting to issue forged gold coins. Different descriptions of Marlowe’s death have been provided by different writers. According to documents in Public Record Office, in 1593 he was killed in a Deptford tavern after a quarrel over the bill. He was only 29 when he died. The ending of Dr. Faustus is applicable to his own life:
Cut is the branch that might have grown full straight,
And burned is Apollo’s laurel-bough
That sometime grew within this learned man.
In spite of his violent life Marlowe was an admired and influential figure.
Shakespeare’s early histories are strongly influenced by Marlowe and a rich tribute is paid to him in As You Like It . Dr. Samuel Johnson praised him for his “mighty line”. Peele , Nashe, Chapman, G.Harvey & Drayton also praised Marlowe. His career has been short but brilliant. He is the most important contemporary of William Shakespeare in English drama.
Some of his important works are the following:
- Tamburlaine – 1590
- The Tragedie of Dido, Queen of Carthage – 1594
- The Massacre at Paris – 1594
- Edward II 1594
- Dr. Faustus 1604
- The Jew of Malta 1633
In addition to these plays, he wrote a poem called Hero and Leander (1592) in which the Renaissance movement is clearly reflected. The poem was completed later by George Chapman. He also wrote one of the finest pastoral lyrics in English: the Passionate Shepherd of His Love.
Introduction to the Play: Dr. Faustus
Dr. Faustus is Marlowe’s most famous play which uses the dramatic framework of a morality play. Its characters have allegorical significance & personification of moral qualities. It is a presentation of a story of temptation, fall, and damnation. Marlowe has dramatized the medieval legend of a man who sold his soul to the Devil. He became identified with a Dr. Faustus who was a necromancer of the 16th Century. It echoes the fall of Adam and Eve through temptation by the Devil.
Summary of the Play: Dr. Faustus
The Tragical History of Dr Faustus is a drama is blank verse and prose by Christopher Marlowe. The protagonist of the play, Dr Faustus, does not choose the sciences and many other disciplines of knowledge but studies magic. He opines that a mighty magician is a mighty god. With the help of necromantic books he calls up Mephistopheles and gets knowledge about God, Devil, Heaven and Hell. He makes a contract with Mephistopheles to surrender his soul to the Devil, for 24 years of pleasure life. During these 24 years of contract Mephistopheles shall attend on him, provide him whatever Dr. Faustus demands. This contract is fulfilled through a number of scenes.
Since the drama was written in the form of a play on morality, good and evil are personified and have allegorical significance. Time and again, conflict takes place in the mind of Dr. Faustus, when the Good Angel advises him to shun the path of evil and to remember Christ. God can forgive the sinner, but whenever Faustus thinks of God, he is tortured by evil spirits, or tempted and tempted by seven deadly sins. The middle part of the game is full of farce, frolic and comic scenes. At the request of his friends and with the help of Mephistopheles Faustus, Helen of Troy is called and wants to enjoy kissing her. He addresses Helen in the well-known lines: “Was this the face that launched a thousand ships and burnt the topless towers of Ilium…” As the time of the completion of 24 years of pleasure life is about to come to an end, Dr. Faustus’ mind is greatly anguished. He’s got to surrender his soul to the devil. As the time of the contract comes to an end, the Devil takes away his soul, and the play comes to an end.
The Pope :: An Old Man
Cardinal of Lorraine :: Scholars, Friars, and Attendants
The Emperor of Germany :: Duchess of Vanholt
Duke of Vanholt :: Lucifer
Faustus :: Beelzebub
Values :: Mephistopheles
Cornelius :: Good Angel
Wagner, servant to Faustus :: Evil Angel
Clown :: The Seven Deadly Sins.
Robin :: Devils
Ralph :: Spirits in the shapes of Alexander
Horse-Courser :: the Great, of his Paramour, and of Helen.
A Knight :: Chorus.
Extracts from the Play
Extract I [Act I sc(i). ll 42-95]
If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there is no truth in us.
Why, then, belike we must sin, and so consequently die:
Ay, we must die an everlasting death. What doctrine call you this, Che sera, sera,
What will be, shall be ? Divinity, adieu !
These metaphysics of magicians,
And necromantic books are heavenly;
Lines, circles, scenes, letters, and characters;
Ay, these are those that Faustus most desires.
O, what a world of profit and delight,
Of power, of honour, of omnipotence,
Is promis’d to the studious artizan!
All things that move between the quiet poles
Shall be at my command: emperors and kings
Are but obey’d i’ their sev’ral provinces,
Nor can they raise the wind, or rend the clouds;
But his dominion that exceeds in this
Stretcheth as far as doth the mind of man; A sound magician is a mighty god:
Here, Faustus, tire thy brains to gain a deity
Faust. Wagner, commend me to my dearest friends, The German Valdes and Cornelius; Request them earnestly to visit me.
Wag. I will, sir
Faust. Their conference will be a greater help to me
Than all my labours, plod I ne’er so fast.
Enter GOOD ANGEL and EVIL ANGEL
Good Ang. O, Faustus, lay that damned book aside,
And gaze not on it, lest it tempt thy soul,
And heap God’s heavy wrath upon thy head!
Read, read the Scriptures: – that is blasphemy.
Evil Ang. Go forward, Faustus, in that famous art
Wherein all Nature’s treasure is contain’d:
Be thou on earth as Jove is in the sky,
Lord and commander of these elements.
Faust. How am I glutted with conceit of this !
Shall I make spirits fetch me what I please,
Resolve me of all ambiguities,
Perform what desperate enterprise I will ?
I’ll have them fly to India for gold,
Ransack the ocean for orient pearl,
And search all corners of the new found world
For pleasant fruits and princely delicates;
I’ll have them read me strange philosophy,
And tell the secrets of all foreign kings;
I’ll have them wall all Germany with brass,
And make swift Rhine circle fair Wittenberg;
I’ll have them fill the public schools with silk,
Wherewith the students shall be bravely clad;
I’ll levy soldiers with the coin they bring;
And chase the Prince of Parma from our land,
And reign sole king of all the provinces;
Yea, stranger engines for the brunt of war, Than was the fiery keel at Antwerp’s bridge,
I’ll make my servile spirits to invent.
Extract II [Act I sc(iii), ll 26 – 114]
Faust. I see there’s virtue in my heavenly words:
Who would not be proficient in this art ?
How pliant is this Mephistopheles,
Full of obedience and humility !
Such is the force of magic and my spells:
Now, Faustus, thou art conjuror laureate,
That canst command great Mephistopheles:
Quin Regis Mephistopheles fratris imagine.
Enter MEPHISTOPHELES (like a Franciscan friar)
Meph. Now, Faustus, what wouldst thou have me do ?
Faust. I charge thee wait upon me whilst I live,
To do whatever Faustus shall command,
Be it to make the moon drop from her sphere,
Or the ocean to overwhelm the world.
Meph. I am a servant to great Lucifer,
And may not follow thee without his leave:
Faust. Did not he charge thee to appear to me ?
Meph. No, I came hither of mine own accord.
Faust. Did not my conjuring speeches raise thee ? Speak.
Meph. That was the cause, but yet per accident;
For, when we hear one rack the name of God,
Abjure the Scriptures and his Saviour Christ,
We fly, in hope to get his glorious soul;
Nor will we come, unless he use such means
Whereby he is in danger to be damn’d.
Therefore the shortest cut for conjuring
Is stoutly to abjure the Trinity,
And pray devoutly to the prince of Hell.
Faust. So Faustus hath
Already done; and holds the principle,
There is no chief but only Beelzebub
To whom Faustus doth dedicate himself.
This word “damnation” terrifies not him, For he confounds hell in Elysium:
His ghost be with the old philosophers ! But, leaving these vain trifles of men’s souls, Tell me what is that Lucifer, thy Lord?
Meph. Arch-regent and commander of all spirits.
Faust. Was not that Lucifer an angel once?
Meph. Yes, Faustus, and most dearly lov’d of God.
Faust. How comes it, then, that he is prince of devils?
Meph. O, by aspiring pride and insolence;
For which God threw him from the face of heaven.
Faust. And what are you that live with Lucifer ?
Meph. Unhappy spirits that fell with Lucifer,
Conspir’d against our God with Lucifer,
And are for ever damn’d with Lucifer.
Faust. Where are you damn’d ?
Meph. In hell.
Faust. How comes it, then/, that thou art out of hell ? Meph. Why, this is hell, nor am I out of it:
Think’st thou that I, who saw the face of God,
And tasted the eternal joys of heaven,
Am not tormented with ten thousand hells, In being depriv’d of everlasting bliss ? O, Faustus, leave these frivolous demands, Which strike a terror to my fainting soul !
Faust. What, is great Mephistopheles so passionate
For being deprived of the joys of heaven ?
Learn thou of Faustus manly fortitude.
And scorn those joys thou never shalt possess.
Go bear these tidings to great Lucifer:
Seeing Faustus hath incurr’d eternal death
By desperate thoughts against Jove’s deity.
Say, he surrenders up to him his soul,
So he will spare him four and twenty years,
Letting him live in all voluptuousness;
Having thee ever to attend on me,
To give me whatsoever I shall ask,
To tell me whatsoever I demand, To slay mine enemies, and aid my friends,
And always be obedient to my will.
Go and return to mighty Lucifer, And meet me in my study at midnight,
And then resolve me of thy master’s mind.
Meph. I will, Faustus.
Faust. Had I as many souls as there be stars,
I’d give them all for Mephistopheles.
By him I’ll be great emperor of the world,
And make a bridge through the moving air,
To pass the ocean with a band of men;
I’ll join the hills that bind the Afric shore, And make that country continent to Spain, And both contributory to my crown: The Emperor shall not live but by my leave, Nor any potentate of Germany.
Now that I have obtain’d what I desir’d,
I’ll live in speculation of this art,
Till Mephistopheles return again.
Extract III [ Act II sc. (i), ll 43-108]
Meph. As great as have the human souls of men.
But tell me, Faustus, shall I have thy soul ?
And I will be thy slave, and wait on thee,
And give thee more than thou hast wit to ask.
Faust. Ay, Mephistopheles, I give it thee.
Meph. Then, Faustus, stab thine arm courageously,
And bind thy soul, that at some certain day
Great Lucifer may claim it as his own;
And then be thou as great as Lucifer.
Faust. [Stabbing his arm] Lo, Mephistopheles, for love of thee,
I cut mine arm, and with my proper blood
Assure my soul to be great Lucifer’s,
Chief lord and regent of perpetual night ! View here the blood that trickles from mine arm,
And let it be propitious for my wish.
Meph. Write it in manner of a deed of gift.
Faust. Ay, so I will . [Writes]. But, Mephistopheles,
My blood congeals, and I can write no more.
Meph. I’ll fetch thee fire to dissolve it straight.
Faust. What might the staying of my blood portend ?
Is it unwilling I should write this bill ?
Why streams it not, that I may write afresh ?
Faustus gives thee his soul: all, there it stay’d !
Why should’st thou not ? is not thy soul thine own ?
Then write again, Faustus gives thee his soul.
Re–enter MEPHISTOPHELES with a chafer of coals
Meph. Here’s fire; come, Faustus, set it on.
Faust. So, now the blood begins to clear again;
Now will I make an end immediately.
Meph. O, what will not I do to obtain his soul ?
Faustus. Consummatum est ; this bill is ended, And Faustus hath bequeathed his soul to Lucifer.
But what is this inscription on mine arm ?
Homo, fuge: whither should I fly ?
If unto God, he’ll throw me down to hell.
My senses are deceiv’d; here’s nothing writ:
I see it plain; here in this place is writ,
Homo, fuge: yet shall not Faustus fly.
Meph. I’ll fetch him somewhat to delight his mind.
[Aside, and then exit]
Re-enter MEPHISTOPHELES with DEVILS, who give crowns and rich apparel to FAUSTUS, dance, and then depart.
Faust. Speak, Mephistopheles, what means this show !
Meph. Nothing, Faustus, but to delight thy mind withal,
And to shew thee what magic can perform.
Faust. But may I raise up spirits when I please ?
Meph. Ay, Faustus, and do greater things than these.
Faust. Then there’s enough for a thousand souls. Here, Mephistopheles, receive this scroll, A deed of gift of body and of soul:
But yet conditionally that thou perform
All articles prescrib’d between us both.
Meph. Faustus, I swear by hell and Lucifer
To effect all promises between us made.
Faust. Then hear me read them. [Reads] On these conditions following. First,that Faustus may be a spirit in form and substance. Secondly, that Mephistopheles shall be his servant, and at his command. Thirdly, that Mephistopheles shall do for him, and bring him whatsoever he desires. Fourthly, that he shall be in his chamber or house invisible. Lastly, that he shall appear to the said John Faustus at all times, in what form or shape soever he please. I, John Faustus of Wittenberg, Doctor by these presents, do give both body and soul to Lucifer, prince of the East, and his minister Mephistopheles; and furthermore grant unto them, that, twenty-four years being expired, the articles above written inviolate, full power to fetch or carry the said John Faustus, body and soul, flesh, blood, or goods, into their habitation wheresoever.
By me, John Faustus.
che sera, sera – what will be, shall be i.e.
whatever is to happen must happen
necromantic – concerning magic
scenes – diagrams
characters – signs
omnipotence – unlimited power
artizan – artist
quiet – motionless, unmoving
rend – tear apart, separate
sound – competent
tire – exhaust by working hard
conference – conversation
plod – work laboriously[Good Angel, Evil– [allegorical representation of good and evil as is found in morality Angel] plays]
Scriptures – holy books like the Bible
blasphemy – insult to God
Jove – Jupiter, chief god of ancient Rome & Italy
glutted – filled, overloaded
conceit – notion
ambiguities – doubtful or obscure matter
desperate – reckless
ransack – search thoroughly
orient – shining (literally it means eastern )
delicates – delicious eatables
Rhine – name of the river in Germany
Wittenberg – name of the city where the protagonist of the play Dr. Faustus studies.
schools – universities
bravely – finely
clad – clothed, dressed
Prince of Parma – enemy of Germany. Parma is the name of the region in Northern Italy.
brunt – assault, fighting
keel – ship
Antwerp – name of a place in Belgium, one of the world’s major seaports.
It is located 88 Km south-east of the North Sea. As a distribution centre for Spanish & Portuguese trade, it became the commercial and financial capital of Europe in the 16th Century.
servile – obedient and humble
virtue – merit, power
pliant – obedient, ready to be influenced
conjuror laureate – highly distinguished magician.
Quin regis Mephistopheles – for indeed you rule in the image of your brother,
Mephistopheles. frantris imagine
per accident – incidentally
rack – twist, distort
abjure – renounce, give up
stoutly – firmly
Trinity – In Christian doctrine, the unity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one God in three persons. The word “Trinity” does not appear in the Bible. It is a doctrine to interpret how God revealed himself.
Beelzebub – a devil, follower of Lucifer or Satan
Elysium – heaven
Arch – regent – chief ruler
aspiring pride – pride of ambition
frivolous – trivial, silly.
passionate – emotionally stirred
fortitude – courage
wit – intelligence
bind – pledge
proper – own
assure – promise
regent – rural
perpetual night – place of everlasting darkness, hell
view – sea
propitious for – favourable to
congeals – thickens, solidifies
portend – foretell, indicate
bill – document
chafer – vessel
consummatum est– it is finished
Homo, fuge – man, flee
writ – written
withal – besides, in addition to
scroll – roll of paper
articles – clauses, conditions
prescribed – laid down
effect – implement, fulfill.
presents – present document
minister – agent, attendant
inviolate – intact, not violated
habitation – dwelling place
Commentary on the Extracts
Extract I is a part of Act 1 Sc (i). In the early part of this extract Dr. Faustus, the chief character of the play, decides to study necromancy i.e. black art. He intends to attain supernatural powers by studying necromancy. The other branches of knowledge cannot make him a mighty god. He thinks that the study of magic can lead him to attain infinite powers. He will be greater and mightier than emperors and kings of various nations. By black art he will be able to rule over all the elements of this world and can extend his rule as far as man can think of. The character of Faustus through the critical choice is revealed in this scene. His vigour, impatience and a proud Renaissance humanism are felt in his soliloquy. The Good Angel and the Evil Angel are the representation of good and evil. The personification and allegorical devices make it clear that the Good Angel and the Evil Angel are representatives of good and evil impulses of Dr. Faustus. The conflict in his mind has begun. The two types of angels are the two dimensions of his own soul.
Extract II is the major part of Act I Sc (iii). In the beginning of this extract Dr. Faustus feels overjoyed at his achievements. He finds Mephistopheles very pliant, obedient and humble. Dr. Faustus feels that he has become an expert magician. He treats Mephistopheles as his brother through whom he will rule over the world. There are some important observations which Mephistopheles makes during his dialogue and discussion with Dr. Faustus. He has not responded to the conjuring of Dr. Faustus but more because Faustus is ready to be damned. Mephistopheles tells that Lucifer fell from heaven due to pride & insolence but Faustus does not take heed of it and is bent upon being a mighty god. Faustus ignores the remark of Mephistopheles about hell as hell is not a place but a state of mind. Faustus fails to understand why Mephistopheles regrets his fall from heaven into hell. Faustus reaffirms to give his soul to Lucifer (even if he had as many souls as are the stars) for 24 years of voluptuousness & power.
Extract III is from Act II Sc (i) of the play where Faustus makes a deed of gift of body & soul after much discussion with Mephistopheles. This is dramatically a very important scene of the play. Faustus is mentally alert and is advised by the Good Angel and the Evil Angel before signing the bond. He feels the mental conflict but decides in favour of the evil as Mephistopheles succeeds in tempting him. The conflict increases as the two angels are allegorically two parts of Faustus’ own soul. Faustus could have taken a warning note from the congealing of his blood and the inscription “Homo, fuge”. This inscription on his arm reminds the reader the dagger scene in Macbeth where Macbeth sees a dagger in the air or it might be hallucination due to the heat-oppressed mind in both the cases. The inscription on the arm of Faustus is a warning signal signifying his blunder. Congealing of the blood & the inscription on his arm add tension and conflict in the mind of the hero, and have a psychological value. But against these two warnings, Faustus signs the bond due to the strong temptations offered by Mephistopheles.
(a) Lines, circles, scenes …. studious artisan,
This is an extract from the soliloquy of Dr Faustus which appears at the beginning of the play written by Christopher Marlowe. Dr Faustus, the protagonist of the play, in Act I, Sc (i), rejects study of various branches of knowledge namely logic, philosophy, medicine, law and theology. They cannot fulfil the desires of Faustus as he wants to be a mighty god to rule over all the elements of the world.
In the end, he chooses necromancy for his career.
In necromancy, Faustus is ready to know and learn all the meanings of lines, circles, scenes, letters and signs so that he may raise devilish spirits at his command to perform what he wants. He feels that black art is a world of profit, delight, power, honour and omnipotence if one becomes a studious scholar of magic.
Faustus is responsible for his final tragedy as he chooses at an early stage in the play to study magic for his career. He can be compared to Lucifer who fell from heaven as he aspired to be supreme power and waged a war against God. Faustus like Icarus wants to achieve greatness despite clear warnings from Good Angel. These lines reflect that Dr Faustus wants to gain power & wealth for voluptuousness which leads to his damnation. Marlowe wrote this play in the form of a morality play.
(b) Why, this is hell…………… everlasting bliss?
These lines are an extract from Act I Sc (iii) of the play Dr Faustus written by Christopher Marlowe. After the choice to study necromantic books to gain power and wealth for 24 years of pleasure life, Faustus is being lured by Mephistopheles to give his body & soul to Lucifer. In response to Faustus’ question, Mephistopheles explains what hell is and how the fallen spirits cannot go out of it.
Mephistopheles is one of the followers of Lucifer who revolted against God and he is damned forever in hell. He explains to Faustus that he used to be one of the angels in heaven and enjoyed all eternal joys of heaven. Because he is deprived of that everlasting bliss, he is being tormented with many hells. He explains that wherever he goes, hell is there. Hell is not a fixed place but a situation of extreme torture for all the damned souls.
As Faustus is determined to abjure the Trinity and abuse God, the Scriptures and Christ, he calls it manly fortitude from which even Mephistopheles can take inspiration. He is hell-bent to bargain power and pleasure for 24 years by presenting his body & soul and all belongings to Lucifer. Despite Mephistopheles’ frank description of hell where fallen angels live a tormenting life away from eternal joys of heaven, Faustus is not terrified of damnation. The desire for power and voluptuousness leads him to damnation in the end.
Let Us Sum Up
By now you have studied the short life history of Marlowe and titles of his main works. You have gone through the summary of the whole play Dr Faustus in brief and the important extracts in original. With the help of the commentary and the explanations, you have got an idea about the theme and the art involved in the play. You have studied how certain characters create conflict in the mind of the protagonist through allegorical representation.
Some Important Questions of Dr Faustus
1. Why does Dr Faustus decide in favour of necromancy than any other field of knowledge?
Ans. According to Dr Faustus divinity cannot save us from being sinners & death. Similarly, other branches of knowledge are rejected by Faustus as they cannot make him immortal & powerful. In magic, he finds the world of profit, delight, power, honour and omnipotence. A sound magician can be a powerful god. Due to all these reasons, Faustus decides to study magic.
2. Describe the role played by Good Angel & Evil Angel.
Ans. Good Angel and Evil Angel are symbolic representation of good and evil in this world. They are very much inside the mind and soul of Faustus himself. The two types of contrary voices cause conflict in the mind of the hero.
3. What does Dr Faustus intend to do with the help of spirits?
Ans. By raising spirits with the help of magic Faustus wants to perform certain hard tasks. He will get all his ambiguities resolved, get gold from India and pearl from ocean and delicacies from America. He will get all the secrets of the foreign kings & wall Germany with brass. He will divert the course of the river Rhine. He will have enough silk clothes for the students. With the wealth, he will raise armies and chase away the Prince of Parma from Germany & become the sole king. He will make the spirits invent new war weapons. All these are meant for making him a mighty god.
4. Name the two friends of Dr Faustus. What is their role?
Ans. German Valdes and Cornelius are his two friends. They are also learned in black art. They advise and inspire Faustus to study magic. Faustus discusses his problems with them.
5. Describe hell as depicted by Mephistopheles.
Ans. Hell is not a fixed place. It is a state of tormenting mind & soul. Wherever the fallen angels, Lucifer and his followers go, hell is there. They cannot be out of it. They are forever deprived of the everlasting bliss of heaven.
6. When & why does Mephistopheles appear?
Ans. Mephistopheles is a servant to his master Lucifer. He performs all the commands of Lucifer. He does not do anything without his permission. Like other followers of Lucifer, he appears when anybody abjures the Trinity, abuses God, Scriptures and Christ. Like other fallen angels he flies to get Faustus’ glorious soul.
7. Describe Lucifer.
Ans. Lucifer is the leader of the fallen angels. He conspired against God. He along with his followers was thrown out of heaven by God with the help of thunderbolts. He and his followers are perpetual unhappy spirits as they are damned in hell.
8. What led to the fall of Lucifer and his followers?
Ans. Lucifer used to be an angel and most dearly loved of God. Because of his aspiring pride and insolence, he revolted against God and that led to his fall from heaven.
9. Write the manner in which Faustus has to pledge his soul to Lucifer.
Ans. Faustus has to stab his arm and write the deed with the help of his blood. He writes all the conditions to give away his soul, body and other possessions after 24 years of a pleasure life.
10. What happens when Faustus stabs his arm?
Ans. Blood congeals which indicates that Faustus should not pledge his soul with his blood. It reflects the contrary feeling before signing the bond. But Mephistopheles brings burning coals to make the blood flow so that he may get the deed pledged.
11. What happens when the document or the will to give the soul to Lucifer is executed?
Ans. An inscription ‘Homo, fuge” appears on his arm. It means “man, fly”. Faustus is puzzled. He feels that his senses are deceived. But this is a warning which tells him not to be lured or tempted by devilish spirits.
12. What is done by Mephistopheles to delight Faustus’ mind?
Ans. Mephistopheles brings devils who give crowns and rich clothes to Faustus. They perform dance to delight Faustus’ mind.
13. For what does Dr Faustus sign the bond?
Ans. Faustus gives his soul to Lucifer and his followers for 24 years of a pleasure life. His voluptuousness and craving for power to be a mighty god lead him to give his body, soul and other belongings to Lucifer.
14. What are the main conditions of the bond?
Ans. Faustus signs the bond of giving his soul to Lucifer on certain conditions. The main are described in the agreement as under :
i. Faustus may be a spirit in form or substance.
ii. Mephistopheles shall be his servant.
iii. Mephistopheles shall fulfil all the desires and demands of Faustus.
iv. Mephistopheles shall remain invisible in the chamber or house of Faustus.
v. Mephistopheles shall appear to Dr Faustus in the shape or form desired by Faustus.
15. What are the things given by Dr Faustus to Lucifer after the expiry of 24 years of bond?Ans. After the expiry of 24 years of bond, Faustus is ready to give to Lucifer or his followers his body, soul, flesh, blood or good.