Cross By Langston Hughes Summary and Analysis


The narrator of the poem is a young mulatto, expressing his frustration at being both black and white but never fully belonging to either of the two races. He is not accepted by blacks because he is half white, and he is shunned by whites because he is half black. The historical significance of this is that during the 1920s (in the U.S.), the cultural and racial segregation of African Americans and Caucasians were very defined and apparent. As such, the narrator is stuck in a sort of purgatory/gray area/limbo, for he is deprived of the chance to be immersed in either race due to racial pride. Thus, he is left in a state of confusion, suffering an identity crisis. He has no one with which he can identify.

As the narrator matures, he realizes that he can’t blame or hate his parents for who he is. It doesn’t make any sense. At the end of the day, he’ll still be who he is, so why hate?

The last stanza emphasizes the poverty of the Blacks versus the wealth of the Whites during this time period. For, the narrator says that his father died in a big house while his mother died in a shack. He still doesn’t know how to categorize himself in terms of identity, but he accepts the issue as it is. Once he decides which path to lead–life as a black man or life as a white man–then he’ll know where he’ll die.


Connotation, in literary terms, describes the association that are attached to certain words. For example, the word “gun” has a negative connotation. Instead of associating guns with a positive thing like “protection,” most people associate the word “gun” with death, blood, murder, etc. The connotation is what separates two identical words. So, we all know that “house” and “home” are both places of dwelling and their definitions are almost entirely identical. However, what separates the two words are their meanings.

When you say “house,” it is impersonal and objective, but when you say “home,” we associate things like family, warmth, safety, with it. Get it?

In “Cross,” the word cross has many connotations. It can mean practically anything. Although it is not directly written in the poem, the word encompasses the entire essence of the poem.

The young narrator of the poem is:

multiracial, multicultural, mulatto, cross-breed.

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-His hybridity is a burden–a cross to bear. This brings about the image of the crucifix, making the narrator or subject of the poem somewhat of a Jesus figure. For, like Jesus, he suffers from constant persecution.

-He is at a crossroads. Which world does he fit into white or black?

-He makes a crossover from his previous emotions. At first, the narrator admits that he was angry or cross at both of his parents, but, he later lets go of that hatred and forgives them both.

Who is the Poem Really About?

Some critics argue that the poem is about Mr Hughe’s ethnic roots, reflecting the life of African Americans during the 1920s. The stark poverty of the black population in comparison to the white community showcases the intensity of the racial tensions of the time as well as the injustice of the persecution of blacks.

On the other hand, some literary scholars insist that the poem may be a commentary of the slavery and the long-lasting effects that it may have on future generations. As we well know, white slave owners often took advantage of their black female slaves, resulting in mulatto children. Thus, the narrator could easily be the child of a former slave.


In general, Hughes includes contrast, antithesis, and synecdoche to identify the different backgrounds he came from and offers a question at the end of the poem to technically stump his audience in knowing the perfect solution to his question, thus causing a sense of confusion by the end of the poem. By forming his poem to fit the symbolism of a cross, he manages to engage the audience in introducing them to the parents, which represent the two connecting points to the middle of the cross, where he ultimately ends the poem with the fairly difficult question.

Cross By Langston Hughes Summary and Analysis


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