Essay on Train
A train is a vehicle that runs on tracks. Trains have powerful engines to pull a lot of carriages. On some trains, we can travel quickly around cities. These trains are often crowded and travel underground. Other trains travel longer distances, often between cities. They travel very fast and are usually more comfortable than short-distance trains.
All trains run on tracks, whether they are high-speed or local, and it is the tracks that guide them along their route, not the driver using a steering wheel. Trains do not need steering wheels because their wheels are guided by tracks. Rims on the wheels of the trains fit snuggly onto the rails. When a train has to change tracks, a switch moves the track into place and the wheels follow.
Sometimes, the train may have to move from one route to another, in which case the join in the rails is moved into place automatically from the signal box. Although the driver does not have to steer the train, he or she has to sit in the driver’s seat at the front and control the train’s engines, speed and sometimes even the opening and closing of passenger doors on short distance commuter trains. The driver has to be able to look out of the front carriage and watch for unexpected hazards along the track and also the signals and signs that tell him or her what speed to move at.
You may be surprised to know that air makes the brakes of a train work. This air is kept under pressure and is called ‘Compressed Air’. When the train driver pulls the brakelever, the compressed air flows into cylinders and presses on pistons. When the pistons move, they cause brake shoes to press against the wheels of the train. This slows the wheels down or stops them from turning.
Most trains have air brakes, which uses compressed air to stop the wheels from turning. When the air enters the brake cylinders, it pushes against pistons. The force of the moving pistons is increased as it is transferred through a series of levers that presses the brake shoes against the wheels. In the disc-brake system, which is often used in cars, brake fluid presses the brake shoes against disc attached to the axles. On electric commuter trains, electromagnetic resistance rather than friction is used to stop the wheels from turning.
Just as roads have their traffic signals for cars, railways have signals for trains:
These are essentially the same as the signals that are used on roads. They tell the train driver to “go”, “stop”, “be careful” or “slow down”. The most common of these signals are red, yellow and green lights that respectively mean “stop”, “caution” and “go”, just as road signals do. Most modern trains are fitted with an automatic train-stop system that automatically applies the brakes if the train approaches a yello or red signal without slowing down or stopping. Red tells us to stop because the track ahead is not clear. The driver will stop even if the track looks clear to him.Green tells us that the track ahead is clear and that it ia safe for the train to travel at normal speed.Yellow tells us that the train in front has passed the next signal point and that we can move ahead at a slower speed.
These are used by railway workers in places such as marshalling yards, where it is too noisy to hear voice signals. There are painted signs that are operated by hand meaning “go forward”, “go backward” or “go slow”.
These are places along railway tracks to tell train drivers about the train ahead, such as the degree of the curve or slope or the distance to a crossing where he must blow the whistle. Sign posts vary from country to country.
TYPES OF TRAINS:
Some trians can travel very fast. The Maglev Train, which has no wheels but hovers on magnets, can go as fast as 520 kilometers per hour. At its normal speed of 430 kilometers per hour, it is the fastest of any land-based transport.
Magnets only attract other magnets when their north poles face the south poles of other magnets. They push each other away when the same poles face each other. Maglev Trains use this constant pulling and pushing of magnetic poles to help propel them along the track. Maglev means ‘Magnetic Levitation’. Under the train are rows of magnets which have opposite poles of magnets on the track. This makes the train hover about 10mm above the tracks.
The Maglev is the first train to travel without touching the tracks. This helps the train to move faster as their is no friction between train and track. The guidance system is based on the forces of attraction between electronically controlled magnets on the train and within the tracks. Support magnets pull the vehicle up by pulling it toward the guidway from below and special guidance magnet hold it laterally on course from the side. Changing the polarity of the magnets can cause the train to accelerate or brake, without the need for the train to touch the track.
A Monotrail Trail can run without the two tracks that an ordinary train needs. Instead, it sits on or hangs from just one rail or beam. Many rubber wheels support and guide the train and help it run smoothly along the rail. Some monorail trains sit on top of the rail. The rubber tyres run smoothly along the top and sides of the rail so the journey is queit.
A Monorail Train travels along just one rail, or beam. Rubber wheels that run along the top of the beam take the load of the train. Other rubber wheels run along the sides of the beam and help stabilise it over the rail. The use of rubber tyres instead of metal wheels greatly reduces noise and vibration, giving passengers a smooth ride. Monorails are not so common because they cost more to build and operate than ordinary railways.
Suspended Monorail Trains
Some monorails have carriages that hang down below the rail. These are called ‘Suspended Monorails’. Just as in the monorails that sit on top of the rail, large rubber tyres take the load if the train and drive it along. Smaller rubber tyres run along the sides of the rail to guide it.
Some trains that are designed to go very fast have round noses, called the ‘Bullet Trains’. As the trains move forwards, their noses cut through the air smoothly. This makes it easier for them to travel at high speeds. In the bullet trains, the pantographs that link the bullet train to an electrical supply are smaller than those of other trains. this reduces wind resistance and helps them withstand bad weather conditions. The special tracks are wider to allow the train to go faster.
In spite of the growing number of cars and air increasing air travel, trains remain an important mode of transport for people around the world. A single Commuter Train can do the work of a thousand cars and buses without the accompanying traffic problems. Thousands of commuters in major cities of the world, such as New York, London and Tokoyo depend on an intricate network of trains to get to work every morning and back home every evening. Many countries rely on high-speed trains to carry people long distances. In the United States, Europe and Japan, train carriages on long routes usually have more comfortable seating than more crowded short-distance trains.
Super Trains run regularly in Japan, Germany, France and Britain at top speeds of around 280 kilometers per hour (175 meters per hour). In order to reach such high speeds, the train has been developed to make it as aerodynamic as possible, resulting in trains with rounded or pointed front carriages that produce minimum drag. Other features that have maintained comfort and a smooth ride along with the high speeds include refined electric engines and suspension systems, modified tracks and computerized controls. Like normal trains, Super Trains can be linked to make one longer train.