For God’s Sake Hold Thy Tongue

Word Meanings

Thy: (old use) your
Thee: (old use) you, used when speaking to one person
Scabbard: a long thin cover for the blade of a sword, which is usually fixed to a belt.
Thine: (old use) your
Do down: to belittle or humiliate someone.
Vent: to release or express an emotion, idea, etc in a forceful way.
Admonish: to advice someone to do or not to do something.
Scandalmonger: a person who spreads malicious talk about other people.
Condemn: to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for normal reasons.
Mimicry: to copy the sounds or movements of other people.
Sarcasm: remarks that mean the opposite of what they seem to say.
Belittle: to make an action or a person seem unimportant.
Similitude: resemblance, example.
Refuge: protection or shelter from danger, trouble, unhappiness, etc.
Denounce: to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly.
Stumble: to fall or begin to fall while walking or running.
Bridal: to control or restraint.
Slander: a false statement which damages somebody’s reputation.
Refrain: to avoid doing something.
Malice: the wish to harm or upset other people.
Deceit: an act of deceiving or misleading.
Reproach: to criticize someone for doing something wrong.

Working with Text:

Q1) What do the Quran and the traditions of Prophet (PBUH) tell us on backbiting and scandal-mongering?

Ans: The sacred scriptures of Islam, that is, the Holy Quran and the books on the traditions of the Holy Prophet(SAW) strongly condemn the acts of backbiting and scandal-mongering. In these scriptures, a person who indulges in such acts is compared with one who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother.

Q2) What do the Gita and the Bible tell us on backbiting?

Ans: About backbiting, the Gita says that the man who does not indulge in backbiting is a godly man whereas the man who indulges in it has demonic endowments. The Bible says that one who does not backbite and does not stumble in what he says is a perfect man.

The Holy Bible says, ― For we all stumble in many ways. And if anyone doesn‘t stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body.

Q3) What do the Granth Sahib and Lord Buddha tell us on backbiting?

Ans: The Granth Sahib says, ―The slanderer carries the great burden of sins without payment he carries loads.‖ Lord Buddha elucidates in his eightfold path that one requires living a life based on right speech.

Q4) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon bring tongues both the times?

Ans: He did so because according to him, it is the tongue that issues the good as well as the bad words.

Q5) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon invite his discipline for a meal?

Ans: Rabbi Simeon invited his disciplines for a meal in which both soft and hard tongues were served. The disciples ate the soft ones and left the hard ones untouched. Noticing this, the Rabbi said, -As you choose only soft tongues here, so you should be soft in your conversation.

Q6) What according to you is the moral of the lesson?

Ans: The lesson teaches us that one should always refrain from backbiting and scandal-mongering.

Q7) How does our tongue do good or bad to others?

Ans: If we refrain from backbiting and malicious talk, we won‘t harm the image and dignity of our fellow citizens while as indulging in such acts will hurt others and we shall also earn disrespect.

NCERT Solutions Class 8th English


Working with Text

Q. 1 Why is polo called the game of kings?

Ans: Polo is called the game of kings because it was widely played and patronized by kings and nobles.

Q. 2 Where did polo originate?

Ans: Polo originated in central Asia. From central Asia, the game made its way to Japan, China, Tibet, and India.

Q. 3 What was the status of polo during the Mughal reign?

Ans: Under the Mughals, polo was the national sport of India until the end of the sixteenth century. During this period, polo enjoyed the patronage of kings and nobles.

Q. 4 In whose reign did polo come to Ladakh and how?

Ans: Legend has it that polo came to central Ladakh from the neighboring Baltistan. According to history polo was brought to Ladakh either through King Jamyang‘s marital alliance with a Balti woman or through the colony of Baltics settled at Chushot.

Q. 5 How is polo played in Ladakh?

Ans: Ladakh polo is fast & furious. It is a test of human endurance, skills and horse strength to play continuously. The matches are played in the late afternoon.

Q. 6 How is polo in Ladakh different from the international format?

Ans: Ladakh polo differs from the current international format in player count as well as duration. Unlike the modern versions of the game, Ladakh polo has two rounds of 20 minutes each and few restraints and rough riding.


Julius Caesar

Working with text

Q1) Why did a certain party of Romans wish to kill Julius Caesar?

Ans: They wanted to kill Julius Caesar because they believed that he had become ambitious. They feared that Julius Caesar might be offered the crown at the National Games. They wanted to keep him away from sitting on the throne.

Q2) Why did Calpurnia beg Caesar not to go to the Capitol?

Ans: Calpurnia begged Caesar not to go to the Capitol because she had a nightmare the previous night in which she had seen Caesar‘s statue, standing in the market place, pouring forth blood. Many Romans were bathing their hands in it and smiling.

Q3) What two reasons did Antony give to show that Caesar was not ambitious?

Ans: The first reason Mark Anthony puts Record:forth is that Caesar was always kind and generous to the poor. As the second reason, he says that Caesar had refused the kingly crown three times at the games.

Q4) Why was Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi wrong?

Ans: Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi was wrong because he and his tired men had to confront Octavius and Mark Antony who had the advantage of a good defensive position and a fresh and rested army.

Q5) Why has Brutus been called “the noblest Roman of them all”?

Ans: Brutus has been called “the Noblest Roman of them all” because unlike others he did wrong but his intention was right. He had no malice in his heart.

Stink: bad smell

Synthetic: a substance made through artificially done chemical process

resin: a thick sticky substance that is produced by some trees

Polymer: chemical substance composed of large molecules made from many smaller and simpler molecules.

ethylene: a colourless, inflammable gas in coal gas

residue: the part that is left behind

biodegradable: able to decay naturally

infertility: barrenness

sewerage: the system of carrying away waste water and human waste from houses through large underground pipes or passages

moderate: neither small nor large

myriad: a large number of something

ecosystem: plants, animals, and humans living in an area together with their surroundings, considered as a system of relationship

biomagnification: growing concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of organisms

Polythene A Disaster

Word Meanings

trophic: relating to nutrition in a food chain.

debris: broken pieces of something larger organic: coming from living plants and animals marine: related to the sea

bryozoans: minute mollusc animals living together in moss

polychaetes: a class of sea worms

crab: a sea animal with five pairs of legs

mollusk: an animal with a soft body often covered with a shell, usually living in the water

alien: foreign

carcinogen: cancer-causing substance

leach out: pass on

to contaminate: make impure

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency

Syndrome: a serious disease caused by a virus which destroys the body‘s natural protection from infection, and which usually causes death

thrombosis: formation of a blood clot in a vessel

retard: to make something slower

non-permeability: the condition of not allowing gases or liquids to go through

stray: of an animal without shelter or an owner

veterinary: connected with taking care of the health of animals

SRO: Statutory Rules and Orders

Posterity: future generation

Working with Text

Q.1) What is polythene and who discovered it?

Ans. Polythene is a tough, light flexible synthetic resin made by polymerizing ethylene, chiefly used for plastic bags, food containers, and another packaging.

It was discovered by a German scientist, Hans von Pechmanne who had, completely by accident, made it, away residue at the bottom of his test tube.

Q.2) What does Rakesh’s father expect from the kids?

Ans. Rakesh‘s father expects from the kids that they will stop using polythene bags which the elders have so far failed to do. They have to make a promise not to use polythene and also encourage other kids in their schools and neighborhood not to do so. Q.3) Why is polythene widely used?

Ans. Polythene is widely used because the bags made from it are cheap and easy to carry. They are also used as packing bags. Most people also find them easy to dispose of after use as they are very light and can be easily thrown away.

Q.4) What is biodegradation ?

Ans. Biodegradation is a process with which the things, like sewage constituents, packaging material, etc.

decompose on their own by bacteria or other biological means. But so far as polythene is concerned, it does not decay on its own. It can‘t be even burnt/burned as the burning would cause immense air pollution.

Q.5) What are the harmful effects of polythene?

Ans. Polythene has many harmful effects in our day to day life. It is the cause of diseases like malaria, cholera, etc. It also increases infertility. In addition to this, it plays a major role in the blockage of water systems like sewerage and water pipes, causing floods during moderate or heavy rainfall. Nowadays, rivers, lakes and small streams have become dumping sites of polythene bags which has become the cause of several problems for plants and animals living in and under water.

Q.6) How is the soil affected by polythene?

Ans. Polythene, after remaining in the soil, damages the ecosystem of soil by retarding its carrying capacity. Besides, it has the property of non-permeability, so it cuts off respiration of soil system which in turn not only affects plant life but also other creatures living in the soil.

Q.7) How does polythene affect animals?

Ans. The polythene bags that lie on the roads are often eaten by stray animals which can cause their death.

Besides, it is estimated that about one billion marine animals die each year due to polythene pollution.

Q.8) What is SRO 182?

Ans. SRO 182 (Statutory Rules and Orders) (dated 18/06/2008) is a law made by the government of Jammu and Kashmir by which use of polythene has been banned within the territorial limits of the state.

Q.9) How can we save our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene?

Ans. In order to save ourselves and our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene, it is our responsibility to completely avoid the use of polythene.


Language Work

Q. Say which of the following sentences are simple, compound and complex.

1) I don‘t like girls/boys who are lazy
Complex sentence

2) He called her but didn‘t respond
Compound sentence.
3) She went because she was invited
Complex sentence.

4) You should work hard or you will fail Compound sentence.

5) Man proposes, but God disposes Compound sentences.

6) He stood first in the class
Simple sentence.

7) They must apologize or they will be punished.
Compound sentence.
8) She must apologize to avoid punishment.
Simple sentence.

9) The mother hit him and made him cry.
Compound sentence

10) She succeeded in the very first attempt. Simple sentence.

11) She has lost the book that my brother had given her.
Complex sentence.

12) Men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
Compound sentence.

13) We eat so that we may live.
Complex sentence.

14) They serve God well who serve His creatures.
Complex sentence.

15) One blushes when one is guilty.
Complex sentence.



A Nation’s Strength


defy== to resist boldly

foe== enemy

throng == to gather around in a crowd

shaft == the column of a building‘s foundation

rust == to become or cause something to become covered with rust; (here) decay

decay == to cause something to become gradually damaged, worse or less

pride == feeling of importance

luster == brightness

a people = a nation

dare == to have the courage to do something difficult

fly == to run away in fear

Summary of A Nation’s Strength

The poem “A Nation’s Strength” is written by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The poet wonders about the things that make a nation strong. How can a nation‘s pillars be made high and its foundations strong? How can a nation become strong enough to defend itself against powerful enemies? The poet wonders about these questions. Then the poet says that it is not gold and silver that can make a nation great and strong, but it is the people who sacrifice for their country and make it great and strong. According to the poet, it is the brave men of a nation who work hard while others sleep and build the nation‘s pillars deep and lift them to the sky. So it is not the riches but the honest and brave people that make a nation great.

Thinking about the text

Q.1) In the first stanza, the poet wonders about a certain thing. What are they?

Ans) In the first stanza the poet wonders about what makes a nation‘s pillars high and its foundations strong, and what makes it strong to defend against its enemies.

Q.2) What are the foundations of a strong kingdom built on?

Ans) The foundations of a strong kingdom are built on the greatness and toughness of people. It is built on their courage and truthfulness.

Q.3) What happens to a nation that depends on an army to keep its strong?

Ans) A nation that depends on an army does not last long after they shed blood which leads to their decay. Their glory ends soon after the bloody war.

Q.4) When a nation becomes proud, what does God do?

Ans) When a nation becomes proud and arrogant, God strikes it luster down and reduces it to ashes.

Q.5) Do you think wealth can make a nation great and strong?

Ans) No, wealth can‘t make a nation great and strong. It is only men who can stand fast and suffer hardships for the sake of their nation.

Q.6) What can the brave do?

Ans) The brave work hard while others sleep. While others fly, the brave dare. They, therefore, can make a nation great and strong.

Q.7) Explain the following line

The build a nation”s pillars deep

And lift them to the sky

Ans) In these lines the poet says that the brave men lay the pillars of a nation deep on a strong foundation and lift them to the sky to great heights of glory.


1. In this poem, certain consonant sounds dominate e.g., m, n, f, s, r, d, p, h, b, g, l. List the words beginning with these consonants.

Ans. List of consonants:



2. The poem has a fixed rhyme scheme in each stanza i.e. abab. Pick out the rhyming words e.g.


Ans. List of rhyming words:













Lesson No. 2 : Porus and His Elephant


ballad == a story told in verse

foe == enemy

battle pride == martial glory

in state == in a dignified manner

unbroken rank == close order that is difficult for the enemy to breakthrough

fray == attack

rage == anger

betide == to happen

gallant == brave

trumpet == (of a large animal, especially an elephant) to produce a loud call

foreman == the first or chief soldier in the army

hold at bay == keep back

pant == to breathe heavily

legend == a story or set of stories from ancient times

e‘er === contracted form of ever

Summary of Porus and His Elephant

The poem “Porus and His Elephant” is a lyrical ballad. It is written by Mary Dobson. The poem narrates a legend about a king named Porus and his faithful elephant. Porus is confronted with his enemy Alexander. They fought a fierce battle. Porus was fighting bravely on his elephant. But suddenly Porus got injured and fell down from his elephant. The faithful elephant came to his rescue. The elephant did not allow the enemy to come near Porus. Then the elephant took his master to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. Porus survived but his faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds/injuries. The beasts who are dumb also have feelings as proved by the elephant.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) How did the elephant save the life of Porus?

Ans) During the fierce battle between the armies of Porus and Alexander, Porus was wounded. When the wounded Porus fell down, his elephant provided him cover from the shower of arrows, spears, and swords. The elephant lifted Porus on his trunk and took him to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. The faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds, but his master survived.
Q.2) What does the poet mean by:

Ah! These dumb things that cry and pant,

They, too, can love, for God made them so.

Ans) In these lines the poet says that the beasts are unable to speak, but they too can feel pain and express their emotions. These creatures are also capable of loving because God also made them like that.
Q.3) Write the story told in the poem in your own words.

Ans) See the summary of the poem.

Q.4) What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?

Ans) acbd

Q.5) The poem reflects the faithfulness of an elephant towards his master. Explain.

Ans) The elephant, in the poem, stands on the epitome of faithfulness and of exemplary courage. The elephant risks his own life only to be loyal to his master. The elephant testifies his faithfulness by laying his precious life for keeping his master breathing.

Q6. Tick the right answer:

a. Porus met his enemy on the bank of a. The Nile b. The Jhelum c. The Ganges d. The Satluj .

Ans. b. The Jhelum

b. Alexander in the poem is referred to as a. Friend b. Foe c. Brother d.Statesman

Ans. b. Foe

c. Who was wounded? a. Alexander b. Porus c. Both d. None

Ans. b. Porus

d. The wounded Porus is lifted by a. His own soldiers b. Soldiers of Alexander c. The Elephant d. None

Ans. c. The elephant

e. Who saves Porus? a. His Elephant b. His soldiers‘ c. Both d. Villagers Ans. a. His Elephant


I. Use the following words, phrases, and expressions in your sentences:

Days gone by, fray, to hold at a bay, battle-pride, fought the more, gallant part, mighty trunk

Ans. Days gone by Days have gone by, since the battle between Porus and Alexander.

Fray: Alexander came to India for the fray.

To hold at bay: Our soldiers hold at bay our enemies.

Battle-pride: Participation in the war in olden times was considered as battle-pride.

Fought the more: Porus fought the more, against Alexander.

Gallant part: The elephant played a gallant part in the fight between Porus and Alexander.

Mighty trunk: The lifted his master on his back with his mighty trunk to save him.

II. Use the following words as nouns and verbs in your sentences: Record, Present, Object, Contest, Produce

Ans. Record:

(Noun) I keep the record of my all expenditures.

(Verb) In Kashmir, the maximum temperature was recorded as 35ºC.


(Noun) He gave me a present on my birthday.

(Verb) The student presented himself before the headmaster. Object:

(Noun) Do not touch an unclaimed object on the road.

(Verb) He was objected by people in his rude language.


(Noun) A music contest was conducted at Radio Kashmir Srinagar on Saturday. (Verb) He contested for writing an essay in English.


(Noun) Plants produce oxygen for animals.

(Verb) A large quantity of paddy is produced in Kashmir.


Lesson No. 3: The Bangle Seller


loads == collections (of bangles)

rainbow-tinted == having the colours of the rainbow in them

lustrous == bright; shining

meet (adj.) == proper

flushed == shining brightly

tranquil == calm

aglow == shining

limpid == transparent and clear

hue == colour

tinkling == making a light ringing sound

luminous == shining

gold flecked == spotted with gold dots

for her … midway == for a middle-aged woman

cherished = = nursed

Summary Of The Bangle Seller

The poem “The Bangle Sellers” is written by Sarojini Naidu. The poem is about bangles and bangle sellers. The bangle sellers carry loads of bangles to sell at the fairs. The bangles are delicate bright and colourful circles of light. As a woman journeys through the different stages of her life, the colour, texture, and design of her bangles also change accordingly. The bangle seller says that some bangles are for happy daughters and some for happy wives. The narrator draws colorful images from nature to reflect the exact hue and tint of the bangles. The bangle seller says that he has bangles not only for maidens but also for a middle-aged woman who in her fruitful pride worships the gods at her husband’s side.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Who is the speaker in the poem?

Ans) A bangle seller is a speaker in the poem.

Q.2) How are the bangles described in the first stanza of the poem and who are these bangles for?

Ans) In the first stanza, the bangles are described as shining, delicate and bright. They are described as rainbow-tinted circles of light and as tokens of radiant lives. These bangles are for happy daughters and happy wives.

Q.3) The poet uses different similes for the bangles. What are these?

Ans) The poet compares the bangles to the mountain mist, to the flower buds, to the fields of sunlit corn, bridal laughter and to the bridal tear.

Q.4) Name the different colours mentioned in the poem. What do they represent?

Ans) Colours of the rainbow, silver, and blue, sunlit corn colour, purple and gold-flecked grey are the different colours mentioned in the poem. These colours represent the bangles suitable for different age groups of women.

Q.5) The word “some” has been repeated in the poem. What is it?

Ans) The word some represents the different types of bangles being sold by the bangle seller.

Q.6) Explain the following lines.

Some are meet for maiden‟s wrist

Silver and blue as the maintain mist

Ans) In these lines the narrator says that some bangles are suitable for the wrist of unmarried women. Some bangles are of silver and blue colour as the mountain that is under a blanket of mist.


Lesson. No. 4 : Prayer for Strength


penury == extreme poverty; (here) hardheartedness, lacking love and compassion

fruitful == bearing abundant fruit; producing results

insolent == disrespectful; rude

might == power

trifles == things of little value or significance

thee == you (old use)

disown == to not own

thy == your (old use)

surrender == to yield; to give up

Summary Of Prayer For Strength

This poem “Prayer for Strength” is written by Rabindranath Tagore. The poem is a prayer. The poet prays God to make his heart strong enough to bear joys and sorrows. The poet entreats God to clear the malice in his heart and fill it with love and compassion. He asks God to give him strength never to abandon the poor or kneel before a tyrant. At the end of the poem, the poet prays to God to keep him away from the insignificant things of the world and let him have the strength to submit his will to the Will of God.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Why does the poet want God to strike at his heart?

Ans) The poet implores God to strike at his heart to remove the hardheartedness and remake it with love and compassion. He wants to be a loving and caring human beings.

Q.2) What does the poet want the strength for?

Ans) The poet wants strength to bear joys and sorrows. He wants strength to make his love fruitful in service. He needs strength never to disown the poor or bow before a tyrant. Moreover, the poet needs strength to avoid the daily trifles and submit his will to the Will of God

Q.3) How can love be made meaningful in one”s life?

Ans) Love is meaningful when it bears fruits of service, service of mankind.

Q.4) What should be our attitude towards the poor?

Ans) Our attitude towards the poor should be very sympathetic. We should never disown or neglect them.

We should always help the poor and work for their welfare.

Q.5) What does “bend my knees” signify?

Ans) The bending of one‘s knees means to surrender before a powerful person. Here, the poet prays to God to give him the strength to resist and not to bend the knees before a tyrant.

Q.6) Why does the poet want to raise his mind high above “daily trifles”?

Ans) The poet wants to raise his mind high above the daily trifles so that he would not be involved in the issues that fill one‘s heart with malice and prejudice.

Q.7) Why does the poet ask for strength to surrender his will to God”s will?

Ans) The poet wants to surrender his will to the Will of God in order to live a pure and obedient life. As it is not easy to submit one‘s will, the poet prays for the strength to do so.


Lesson. No. 5: The Brook


Haunt: place visited frequently

Coot and hern: water birds

Sally: to rush; to issue forth suddenly

Bicker: to move quickly with a participating noise

Ridge: a high edge along a mountain

Thorp: village

Sharps and trebles: the loud and low sound of music

Eddying bays: bays full of whirlpools

Fret: to wear away

Fallow: unploughed land

Foreland: tiny cape

Chatter: to pass with a noise

Wind about: to move in a curved way

Lusty: strong

Grayling: a trout having a broad fin

Gravel: small stones, often used to make the surface of paths & roads,

Steal: to move quietly

Hazel: a small tree that produces nuts, woods or buses

Gloom(verb): to grow dark

Glance: to produce small bright flashes of light

Netted(adj): looking like meshes

Brambly: full of thorns

Shingly bars: pebbles & sand hindering the flow

Cresses: small plants with thin stems & very small leaves

Summary Of The Brook

This poem “The Brook” is written by Alfred Lord Tennyson. In the poem, the Brook narrates a tale about a journey. The brook speaks about its emergence from a mountain and the resort of water birds. It sparkles and shines among the fern. Then the brook flows down the hill into a valley with a turbulent flow. Then it flows past hills, ridges, villages, a town & under many bridges.

Then the brook flows through the fields and meanders through the plains. As the brook flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it pours its water into the overflowing river.

Thinking About the poem

Q1) Who is “I” referred to as in the poem?

Ans: “I” is referred to the brook itself.

Q2) Trace the journey of the brook?

Ans: The brook starts its journey on the hilltops frequented by water birds. Then the brook rushes down the hill into the valleys and plains. It passes by a town, many grasslands, many villages, and half a hundred bridges. As it flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it joins the brimming river.

Q3) Explain the following lines:

“For men may come and men may go

But I go on forever.”

Ans: In these lines, the brook says that men come to this world and leave it very shortly as they are mortals. But the journey of the brook is unending and everlasting.

Q) Can the journey of the brook be compared with human life?

Ans: Yes, the very journey of the brook can be compared with the life span of a man. Like brook, a human being also passes through different stages of life before his death. And the flow of the brook can be compared with this world that doesn‘t stop while mortals are born & mortals die

Lesson No. 6: Mercy


strain’d == forced

droppeth == drops; descends

mightiest in the mightiest == mercy is more powerful than the most powerful kings become == to suit, to enhance the appearance of someone

crown == symbolizes the supreme power of the king sceptre == the royal

enthroned (adj.) == seated (in the hearts of kings)

attribute (n) == quality temporal not lasting enthrone == stain a throne seasons breeds sway == over powering

awe == dread, terror

Summary of Mercy

The poem “Mercy” has been extracted from the play The Merchant of Venice written by William Shakespeare. In this poem, the poet talks about mercy. He says that mercy descends like the drops of gentle rain. It blesses the person who gives and the one who receives it. Mercy is stronger than the strongest. Mercy is better for a king than his own crown. The majesty of a king is temporal but mercy is more encompassing and more fruitful. Mercy is an attribute to God himself. Mercy is sometimes enthroned in the heart of kings. The king‘s power corresponds with that of God‘s when mercy bears the fruits of justice.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Where does the quality of mercy come from? Who are blessed by it?

Ans) The quality of mercy is enthroned by God in the hearts of the people. It blesses both the one who gives and the one who receives it.

Q.2) How is mercy better than the crown of the king?

Ans) Mercy is better than the crown of the king because the crown represents the earthly and temporal powers but mercy is a divine quality and an attribute to God himself.

Q.3) What does sceptre stand for? How does it affect the kings?

Ans) Sceptre is a royal wand. It represents royal authority. Sceptre signifies the king’s awe and majesty both of which are subject to decay.

Q.4) When does earthly power look like God”s?

Ans) When the earthly power makes the tree of mercy bear the fruits of justice, it looks like Godly. When the person having earthly power tempers his justice with the mercy, his earthly power looks more like God‘s power.

Q.5) How is mercy alone the “sceptered sway”?

Ans) Mercy is the sceptered sway because it is the quality of God Who is all-encompassing and the most powerful.

Q.6) What happens when mercy seasons justice?

Ans) When mercy seasons justice, the earthly powers look like Godly or divine.


a) Find out the similes and/or metaphors in the poem.

Ans. Some of them found in the poem are; gentle rain, sceptre, doth earthly power. b) Find out poetical words in the poem and also write their names;

Ans. Strain‘d == means- forced

Droppeth == means- drops, descends

‘Tis == means- this

Blesseth == means- blesses or bless


Lesson No. 7: Wrinkles


Raade: a Hindu festival celebrated in Jammu

Tawi: a river of Jammu

make bold: become courageous

uproot : to pull out or remove comeliness attractiveness

Navaratra: a festival celebrating the birth of Lord Shiva
tinsel shining: decorative metallic stripes or threads

Summary of Wrinkles

The poem “Wrinkles” is a Dogri poem written by Arvind and translated by Shivnath. This poem is an extremely emotional account of a son on the subject of his mother. He says that he has been counting the wrinkles on the face of his mother. His mother got her first wrinkle when her father married her and she was uprooted from her home and planted in the courtyard of others. She got her another when she was in the family way. She got her third wrinkle when her son took away the comeliness of her face through lactation. She gets her Fourth wrinkle when her son marries off leaving his mother alone. The narrator longs to see the girl under those wrinkles which once she was when she celebrated Raade festival and went to river Tawi to immerse the seedlings and bathe during the Navratras. He wants to see his mother as a young girl who used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles. The narrator wishes his mother to become that girl once again for a day so that he would bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles from across the river Taw =

Thinking about the poem:

Q1) How many wrinkles does the poet see on the mother”s face?

Ans) The poet finds four wrinkles on his mother’s face.

Q2) What does the first wrinkle represent?

Ans) The first wrinkle on her face represents a sense of loss, mental strain when she was uprooted from her house and planted in the courtyard of others.

Q3) What do the second and the third wrinkles represent?

Ans) She got her second wrinkle when she nourished her child in her womb and she got her third wrinkle when she was being consumed during the process of lactation.

Q4) What is the poet seeking under the wrinkles of the mother?

Ans) The poet wants to see the young girl under the wrinkles which she was used to be in her young age.

Q5) What are the activities the poet”s mother used to do when she was a girl?

Ans) When she was a young girl, the poet’s mother used to celebrate Raade festival and bathe and immerse raade seedlings in the river. She also used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.

Q6) How does the poem end?

Ans) At the end of the poem, the poet wants his mother to become a young girl once again for a day. He would then bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles for her from across the river Tawi.


Write the meaning of the following phrases or expression as used in the poem:

Ans. 1. From the backyard = to separate someone from his/her birthplace or quietly
2. On your blood: to feed on the digested food, to make the host of someone.

3. Nourished me: to grow or develop own self

4. Took me away: to take someone away from the close one or separate someone from a dear one.

5. Taking courage: being courageous

6. Under the skin: beneath or below age, or feel or see something
7. From across the river: to a long distance, with hard work.


Lesson No. 8: Meeting Poet


Disconcerted : Confused (Unsettle; non plus; unnerve)

Wig: a covering of artificial hair which a bald wears

Wasp: a stinging insect (here) bitterness in the speech of poets

Air: manner and appearance

Dankness: unpleasantness

Speckled: covered with speckles (marks)

Thinking about the poem

Q1) Why is the poet confused when she meets poets?

Ans: The poet is confused due to the odd outward appearance of the poets.She is confused because of the colour of their socks, the suspicion of a wig, bitterness in their speech and their unpleasant manner.

Q2) What is the best way to know poets?

Ans: A poet expresses himself through his poems. We can know about the poets through their subjective poems which express their nature and ideas).

Q3) What does the poet compare the poets with?

Ans: The poet compares the poets with “cool speckled shells in which one hears a sad but distant sea”.

Q4) Explain the phrase-“a wasp in the voice”.

Ans: The phrase “Wasp in the voice ” means bitterness in speech.

Lesson No. 9: Stars Speak to Man

Summary of Stars Speak to Man

The poem Stars Speak to Man is written by Abdul Ahad Azad in Kashmiri and rendered into English by Prof. G.R Malik. In the poem Stars Speak to Man, they tell him that he was born with the light of reason but he chose to be fire. Due to his callousness, he became a reason for disgrace for the whole of mankind. The stars tell him that nature had fashioned him to become the fountain of love and affection but he took to buying and selling of religion and his faith. Nature had bestowed all its treasures upon him to share them equally but his materialistic pursuits led him astray. Not only this, man created divisions on the basis of religion and faith. Humanity has fallen into lament due to man‘s misdeeds. What man calls awakening is basically an intoxicating sleep. Man‘s own deeds have eluded him and he complains against fate. It is nothing but a fanciful dream and man needs to come out from it. In the end, the stars tell the man that he breaks the heart of those who are his kin. He should not ravage his own home by acting irresponsibly.

Think about the text:

1. What do the stars say to man in the first two lines of the poem?

Ans: In the first two lines of the poem the stars tell the man that he was the light of reason but he chose to be fire. And the man brought disgrace for his race due to his callousness.

2. Nature had fashioned you to apportion love and affection But you chose to buying and selling of religion and faith instead.

Explain these lines:

Ans: In these lines, stars tell the man that nature had fashioned him to become a fountain of love and affection. But he stooped so low that he fell to selling and buying of religion and faith.

3. Why is man described as a serpent?

Ans. Man amasses wealth and sits like a serpent on the treasures God has bestowed him, Unused remains a treasure upon which serpents find their shelter. A man who amasses wealth and makes no good use of it is like a serpent sitting on the ground with a treasure underneath. He uses these treasures for himself only while he was supposed to share them with his fellow-beings.

4. “That which you call awakening is a stupefying hangover”. Why?

Ans: All human beings are equal. Divisions on the basis of religion and faith are boastfully considered awakening by man. But it is nothing but an intoxicating sleep.

5. Do you think the poem is a wake-up call? Explain.

Ans: Yes, the poem is a wake-up call. The poet wants to awaken those who have created divisions in the name of religion and faith. The poet wants men to recognize their status and regain their loss.


Q1. Fill in the blanks to make a meaningful summary of the poem.

Ans. The poem is addressed to Man. The poet tells Man that he was the light of reason but he put humanity to disgrace. Nature had provided him with treasures of bounties to share them equally, but he sat like a serpent on them. His heart is restlesslyvibrating and his vision clouded by fantasies. In his own garden, he cut the roots while watering twigs and leaves. He has ransacked and ravaged his own home.

Q2. Use the following phrases in your own sentences.


(i). Choose to be: He chooses to be a teacher.

(ii). Take to: He was taken to the hospital for treatment.

(iii). Throw open: The warden throw opens the door for all students to come in.

(iv). Pose to be: He poses to be a genius.

(v). Fall into: I told him not to fall into conversation with them.

(vi). Tear apart: The professor tore apart the paper.


Lesson No. 10: Summer and Winter

Summary of Summer and Winter

The poem Summer and Winter is written by P.B Shelley. In this poem, Summer symbolizes life and happiness, and winter symbolizes death and lifelessness. The poet draws images from the summer season to heighten the effects of life & vigor.

In the section that follows, the poet draws images from the winter which symbolize death and lifelessness. The poet, in a very subtle manner, brings about a contrast between the two natural forces: life & death; symbolized by summer & winter.

Thinking about the poem

Q1) What do the opening lines of the poem describe?

Ans: The opening lines of the poem describe the bright & cheerful afternoon towards the end of the sunny month of June.

Q2) What is the effect of the shining sun on the objects of nature?

Ans: In the summer the sun shines in the clear & cloudless sky making all things rejoice.

Q3) How is winter described in the poem?

Ans: The effect of winter is harsh. The birds die in the forests. The fishes lie stiffened in the translucent ice and people gather around the fire and yet feeling cold.

Q4) Explain the following lines:

All things rejoiced beneath the sun; the weeds,

The river, and the corn-fields, and reeds;

The willow leaves that glanced in the light breeze

Ans: In these lines, the poet says that in the summer the sun shines brightly in the sky. All things the weeds, the river, the corn-fields, and the reeds are full of life and happiness.

Q5) How does the poem end?

Ans: At the end of the poem, the poet describes a family that assembles around the fire but still feel cold. And the poet is sorry for a homeless beggar.


Q1. Write down some visual images from the poem:

Ans. Some visual images from the poem are:

Floating Mountains, Stainless Sky, Wrinkled Clod, Hard as Brick

Q2. Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.

Ans. Rhyming Words:

Weeds …………… Reeds

Breeze …………… Trees

Die ………………. Lie

Cold …………….. Old

Crowds ………….. Clouds

Q3. Write down five adjectives from the poem.

Ans. Five adjectives from the poem are:

1. The Silver Clouds: In summer we see silver clouds floating in the sky.

2. The Stainless Sky: The stainless sky looks attractive in summer.

3. The Lager Tress: The larger trees are found in the forests of Kashmir.

4. The Translucent Ice: In winter the translucent ice floats on the surface of the water.

5. The Homeless Beggar: The homeless beggars are always seen begging in the streets of cities.