Lines Written in Early Spring

Introduction: Lines Written in Early Spring is a ballad written by William Wordsworth during the Romantic Period. This poem exemplifies the ecological philosophy of “the Lake Poets,” which is to appreciate nature’s beauty and to form a harmonious relations with it. Like most of his poems, Wordsworth writes this poem too about nature and strengthens the bond by placing the speaker amid nature with plants and animals all around him. In the poem, Nature is everything right as the centre of life. We can see and learn about it through images. Wordsworth presents the beautiful images of roses, trees, birds, and all beings in love and purity by incarnation. But in the beautiful environment, Wordsworth expresses his dark thinking caused by the idea of “man-made from man” with some differences in words, melodies and syntax deviation. He asks what man’s
position has become in this modern world. Wordsworth saw poetry as a means to an end—it allowed him to produce a natural landscape, void of machinery and institutionalism, where man could contemplate the natural world and come to grips with his soul. Wordsworth finds the true complexities of life in the natural world—nature is where one will find himself.


The poet once sat in a grove in a very calm and relaxed mood. He hears a wide range of sounds and songs. He finds solace and pleasure in the songs of birds and the music of the woods. At the same time, some melancholy thoughts enter his mind, and he becomes pensive.

In the bower, he notices the primrose and periwinkle making wreaths. He believes that every flower enjoys the air it breathes. The birds in the grove around him show their delight by hopping and playing. He also notices how the budding twigs spread their tender leaves to catch the breeze. In short, the poet sees thrilling sights and hears pleasant songs in everything he sees in the grove, and he feels the utmost pleasure of the natural world.

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But when he considers the human world, he becomes depressed. What man has done to both mankind and nature makes him uneasy and unpleasant. Nature’s holy plan is for all living things to coexist in perfect harmony. The poet recognises that humans commit all atrocities amongst themselves as well as cruelties to nature by destroying the ecosystem. They sow discord and disharmony, and then fight and kill each other. All of these wrongdoings are against nature’s holy plan.

The poem becomes much more appealing as a result of the sublimity of its theme, the beauty of its lines, and the extensive use of various poetic devices. When the poet says he heard a thousand blended notes, he is using hyperbole. He addresses Nature as if she were a person, referring to her as “her.” He causes the flowers to breathe the air and the tender leaves of budding twigs to catch the breeze. These are all excellent examples of personification. The line ‘What man has made of man’ is a beautiful example of Alliteration.

Paraphrase of The poem

The first stanza reveals that Wordsworth relaxes in a small grove of trees, listening to the birdsong. Although birdsong inspires happy thoughts, man has returned the favour by making a mess of his relations with his fellow man. The speaker is concerned about the state of nature because it is linked to human actions in some way. It disturbs his mind, whereas he is enjoying the nature panorama at the time.

In the second stanza, the speaker describes how, despite being civilised, mankind has an innate spiritual connection to Nature and her fair works. The speaker implies that man can be both a part of nature and a rational being, in control of himself and his surroundings. The speaker is a thoughtful being, a philosopher of sorts, and is certainly reasonable, but he is at peace with nature in a way that many of his contemporaries would find odd. He argues that while humans are part of nature, they sure don’t act like it.

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The content of the poem mostly focuses on the natural scenery in early spring. It is reflected in the third, fourth, and fifth stanzas. The speaker tells the readers about how beautiful and satisfying life is in his area. He goes on to describe what he sees as pleasure, such as how every flower enjoys the air it breathes, and how the birds that hopped and played around him were written with every smallest motion that seemed to give them a thrill of pleasure. These natural creatures have attained paradise by simply existing as nature intended, free of civilization and in a state of natural grace.

The final stanza of Lines Written in Early Spring describes the poem’s main theme. The speaker suggests that all people can give and take from nature, and he condemns those who harm it because their actions can also harm their civilization. Nature is depicted as the centre of life in this description.

Analysis of Lines Written in Early Spring

‘Lines Written in Early Spring’ is a beautiful poem written by William Wordsworth, the most celebrated poet of nature, in which he discusses the relationship between man and nature. The poet rejoices in nature’s sights and sounds while lamenting what man has made of man.

In the poem we see, the poet sits in the woods beneath a tree, contemplating the changes that society has experienced around him. As the poet muse on nature, its beauty, and its constant presence, his thoughts quickly turn to man’s hopelessness, and the agonies that they have inflicted on one another. The French Revolution was raging through France at the time of writing. Stunned by the cold-bloodedness and insensitivity of French society, Wordsworth and other Romantics wrote primarily to try to reclaim the world from the brink that it had been pushed to during the ostensible time of edification.


The poem is comprised of six stanzas, every stanza contains four lines. These quatrains follow a simple and mostly consistent rhyme scheme of abab, changing end sounds from stanza to stanza. There are a few moments in which the rhymes are closer to half-rhymes than full.The metre is iambic tetrametre.

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“What man has made of man.”
“And ’tis my faith that every flower”


  • “a thousand blended notes”


  • “To her fair works did Nature link”
  • “and ‘tis my faith that every flower / Enjoys the air it breathes”
  • “ the budding twigs spread out their fan, / To catch the breezy air”


Visual Images

  • “ The birds around me hopped and played”
  • The grove, the green bower, the flowers – primrose and periwinkle
  • Budding twigs

Auditory Image

“I heard a thousand blended notes”

Questions and Answers

Based on your understanding of the poem answer the following questions with the help of the given option:


“Have I not reason to lament

What man has made of man”

What is the mood of the poet in these lines?

(A) Happiness (B) Pessimism (C) Melancholy (D) Bewilderment

Ans. (C)

Sol. ‘Melancholy’ is a feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause.

02. What ‘seemed a thrill of pleasure’?

(A) Nature’s music (B) The budding twigs (C) Nature’s holy plan (D) Birds hopping and playing

Ans. (D)

Sol. ‘The birds around me hopped and played,’ according to this line in the poem.

03. Where is the poet sitting?

(A) By the river (B) In a wood (C) On a boat (D) In a house

Ans. (B)

Sol. The imagery described in the poem suggests that the poet is in the woods.

04. Who hopped and played around the poet?

(A) Children (B) Birds (C) Rabbits (D) Snakes

Ans. (B)

Sol. ‘The birds around me hopped and played, ‘ this line suggests that it was the birds that were hopping.

05. Identify the rhyme scheme of the poem.

(A) aabc (B) abba (C) abab (D) aabb

Ans. (C)

Sol. The rhyme scheme of the poem is abab.

06. There are how many stanzas in the poem?
Ans. The poem is comprised of six stanzas, every stanza contains four lines.

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