All languages of the world are very fascinating as they are constantly changing and adapting according to the need of the speakers. Sometimes, we find the situations where the people belonging to different language groups come in contact with one another and have no common language with which they can communicate. In such situations, there is a problem and those who wish to communicate must find or improvise a simple language system that enables them to interact. Thus, they find an alternative way of communication and interaction. To meet the requirement the people develop a new combination of different languages or a new code in which they are able to understand each other. This is how pidgins and a Creoles are born. There is not just a single pidgin language or single creole language. They are actually referring to a category of languages as there are many pidgins and many creoles around the world. Here are the definitions of pidgin and creole.
Pidgin: A pidgin is a language with no native speakers. It is the contact language. It arises very suddenly and swiftly for functional communication i.e., when there is a need for certain communication and interaction in certain situations,e.g., for trade or on the job etc. Thus pidgin is no one’s own language but it is a contact language. It is a sort of compromise between two languages or among the multiple languages.
At the early stage, the pidgin is restricted for it is used only in certain situations. But slowly and gradually it becomes extended pidgin that means it is now used for all aspects of life including social life, family life and for other things. Consequently, it becomes a language in its own way. An extended pidgin is passed down from generation to generation as non- native contact language ( lingua franca) among the people who speak different languages.
Creole: A creole is defined as an extended pidgin that becomes the first language of a new generation. As we mentioned, pidgin arises because there is a need for lingua francs. But if the language survives and becomes the native language of the next generation then it becomes a creole language,e.g., slaves from several different countries of the world are working together on a plantation, they have no common language. They develop their pidgin and rapidly becomes the expanded pidgin; the language they use for all everyday purpose. When their kids grow up in that environment in which that pidgin is used, it slowly becomes their native language. This is now called a creole language.
How Pidgins and Creoles Develop
1. Pidgin’s and Creoles are new languages that develop when speakers of different languages come in contact with each other and have a need to communicate.
2. Pidgin languages arise when one group of people is dominant over the other group and the less dominant group needs to communicate with the more dominant group but without any formal education.
3. The less dominant group adopt a sort of simplified language based on the most basic vocabulary of that dominant group’s language and based on the most basic grammar of their own native language
4. The pidgins are restricted at first as they are used only in certain unavoidable situations but with time they become extended pidgins and are used for all areas of life.
5. The extended pidgin finally becomes languages in their own way. They pass down from generation to generation as non- native contact language ( lingua franca) among the people who speak different languages. Interestingly, when the language survives and becomes the native language of the next generation, then it is regarded as a creole.
6. Creolization involves morphology, syntax, regularization of phonology.
7. The pidgin and creoles have many similarities in their vocabulary and phonology.
Some examples of pidgin and creoles
1. Some creoles are based on English such as Jamaican Creole.
2. Some creoles are based on French such as Haitian Creole.
3. Some creoles are based on Spanish such as Chavacan
Bisma Creole Example-Based On English
1. I have already been to town.
Mi bin long town fines.
Me been long town finish.
2. This is my house.
Hem, ya has bling mi.
Him here house belong to me.
Lingua Franca: Lingua Franca: In 1953 UNESCO defined lingua franca as “a language which is used by people whose mother tongues are different in order to facilitate communication between them.”It is a contact language.