Category Archives: PROSE LESSONS

Deforestation – Summary, Questions, Causes, Effects, Consequences and Solutions

DEFORESTATION: CAUSES, EFFECTS, CONSEQUENCES, AND SOLUTIONS

Afforestation means growing more and more trees. Trees are very important. They give us many amenities. If we to live happily, we have to preserve our forests. Who does not desire a lot of greenery around him or her? Isn’t it very nice to sit under a shady tree on a very hot day? Sometimes you may have seen huge trees lined on each side of the road. It is very cool to travel on such a road. Unfortunately, we often see people cutting down trees. What happens when trees are cut down? That is what this chapter tells you. Let us read the text to find out.

Forests are an important part of our life. It provides invaluable products such as industrial wood and fuelwood. Forests also provide a range of services like soil generation, soil and water conservation, purification of air and water, nutrient recycling, maintenance of biodiversity, providing a habitat for animals, mitigation of climate change and absorption of carbon. But forests are being destroyed due to several factors. The destruction of forests is usually in response to the need for more land for growing crops and rearing livestock and results in the creation of completely new ecosystems. Deforestation involves the cutting down, burning and damaging of forests. It is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodland.

Deforestation causes and impacts,

Causes of Deforestation

A variety of causes lead to deforestation. The world is becoming so densely populated in some places that forests are having to be cleared to make room for more recreational and living space. As human population size increases, larger areas of land have to be cultivated to supply food. In addition, cutting trees for fuel will lead to further deforestation.

The development of cash crops and cattle ranching is another reason for deforestation. In some forests, commercial logging for tropical hardwood such as teak and mahogany also leads to deforestation.

Impact of Deforestation

Clearing of forests affects local communities, who lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines and areas of livestock grazing. Forests act as watersheds. Here they catch large amounts of rain. An intact forest canopy softens the impact of intense rainfall in many ways. It releases large amounts of water back to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration and Channels water gently through the vegetation to the soil. Infiltration into the soil is high and there is a long delay before water flows into the streams and rivers. If the forest canopy is removed, the soil surface bakes hard in the intense heat. Rainfall cannot easily penetrate the surface and is rapidly lost from the area in the surface run-off. Thus when the forest disappears, there is no regulation of the flow, into rivers. As a result, floods and droughts alternate in the affected areas.

Deforestation exposes soil to wind, evaporation, and erosion. Soil fertility goes down due to the rapid leaching of essential mineral nutrients. The topsoil is eroded and this accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and the coastal zone. The increased sedimentation harms downstream fisheries. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil increases the risk of landslides.

When forests are cleared and the trees are either burnt or they rot, carbon is released as carbon dioxide. This leads to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Since carbon dioxide is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, the earth becomes hotter.

Deforestation affects the local climate of an area by reducing the evaporative cooling that takes place from both soil and plant life. When a large forest is cut down, the regional rainfall pattern may be affected.

Forests have species-rich and diverse wildlife communities. Deforestation, degradation, and fragmentation of forests affect many species and lead to the extinction of some with the consequent loss of genetic variation and potential resources.

Removal of forests also leads to desertification. This is a general term for the degradation into dry land areas so that formerly productive land becomes useless.

Effects of deforestation

Alternatives / Solutions

An important alternative to deforestation is afforestation. It involves the planting of more trees The Union and State governments have launched several afforestation programs The Social Forestry Programme sees the use of public and common land to produce firewood, fodder, and timber for the use of rural community. Urban foresty Programme consisting of planting trees in urban areas has also helped in building forests. People’s movements like the Chipko Movement has done much to prevent deforestation. Another proposed solution for deforestation is to reduce the consumption of forest-based products. Alternatives are introduced which includes the use of the world’s forests in such a way that they continue to provide resources in the present, without depriving future generations of their use.

Future of World’s Forests

Forests are being destroyed due to a variety of factors and it is going to be very difficult to save them. None of the remaining forests of the world are free from intervention. The loss of forests is, however, only a symptom of deeper and possible unstoppable degradation of the Earth’s environment.

Meanings and Explanations

When the essay opens you are introduced to the topic. You are told about the importance of forests and about deforestation in general:

invaluable: for which value cannot be fixed; priceless
soil generation: synthesis of soil or production of soil
conservation: preservation or protection of soil and water
biodiversity: different forms of plants and animals
habitat: living place
mitigation: make milder
factors: reasons
livestock: farm animals (the cattle)
indigenous: belonging naturally to a place (native to region)

The causes of deforestation and enlisted here.

densely populated: thickly populated
cattle ranching: cattle breeding
logging: cutting and preparing timber
teak and mahogany; names of trees

We have just gone through the causes of deforestation. Now we shall see what happens due to deforestation.
Forests act as water reservoirs: They collect and conserve a large amount of rainwater. Forests act as watersheds.
intact, forest canopy: entire forest cover formed of the uppermost layer of leaves of trees.
evaporation: loss of water as vapour into the atmosphere
transpiration: loss of water as vapour from the surface of the leaves
infiltration: penetrate into or enter
intense: severe
surface runoff: flow away or flow off along the surface
leaching: removal
siltation: formation of silt or sediments (broken down fragments of rocks or any matter that accumulates in the bottom of a liquid)
sedimentation: formation and accumulation of sediments
landslide: sliding down of a mass of land from a mountain
Greenhouse effect: The earth’s atmosphere contains 0.03% Carbon Dioxide. Due to several reasons like pollution, deforestation, etc. the amount of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere increases. This results in the trapping of heat near the earth’s surface, This trapping of sun’s heat in the lower atmosphere due to high levels of Carbon Dioxide is called the greenhouse effect.
regional: of a particular region
Degradation: lower in grade; reduction in level or quality
fragmentation: the process of breaking into pieces or fragments
desertification: formation of deserts

Are there alternatives to deforestation? The paragraph you are going to read tells you about the alternatives to deforestation.

solution: answer
resource: stock or supply that can be drawn on
depriving: dispossessing
fodder: dried hay or straw for cattle

We have come to the end of the essay If we are not careful about our forests we are going to be in deep trouble.
intervention: Comprehension of the act of interfering in other’s state of affairs.

Short Answer Questions

1. Why are forests called an important part of our life?
A: Forests provide invaluable products such as industrial wood and firewood. Forests also provide a range of services like soil generation, soil and water conservation, purification of air and water, etc.

2. What is meant by deforestation?
Ans. Deforestation is the cutting down, burning or the permanent damaging of forests.

3. Why are forests being destroyed?
Ans. Forests are being destroyed to get more land for recreational and living space. It is also destroyed to grow crops and rear livestock and to gather fuel. Development of cash crops, cattle ranching and cutting trees for hardwood also causes deforestation.

4. What does destruction of forests lead to?

Ans. Destruction of forests leads to the creation of completely new ecosystems.
5. What are the causes of deforestation?
Ans. Forests are cleared to get more land for recreational and living space to grow crops, rear livestock and to gather fuel. Development of cash crops, cattle ranching and cutting trees for hardwood. also causes deforestation.
6. How does clearing of forests affect local Communities?
Ans. Local communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines and areas of livestock grazing.
7. How do forests act as watershed?
Ans. Forests act as a watershed by catching large amounts of rain.
8. What does an intact forest canopy do?

Ans. An intact forest canopy softens the impact of intense rainfall. It channels water gently through the vegetation to the soil and therefore infiltration to the soil is high.

9. What happens when the forest canopy is removed?
Ans. When the forest canopy is removed the soil surface becomes hard in the heat. Thus rainwater cannot get into the surface and is lost in surface runoff. Water flow into the river is also not regulated resulting in flood or drought.
10. What happens When the soil is exposed?
Ans. Evaporation of moisture and soil erosion leads to the loss of soil fertility due to leaching of essential mineral nutrients.
11. What happens When the top soil is eroded?
Ans. It accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and coastal zones. This harms downstream fisheries and increases the risk of landslides.

12. How is increase in carbon dioxide harmful?
Ans. It is a major contributor to the green house effect. Through the green house effect, the earth becomes more and hotter.

13. How does deforestation affect the climate?
Ans. It reduces the evaporated cooling that takes place from both soil and plant life. The rainfall pattern may also be affected.

14. What happens to wild life due to deforestation?
Ans. Many species of plants and animals become extinct. Many genetic varieties are lost.

15. How are deserts formed?
Ans. Removal of forests leads to the formation of deserts. The dry land area becomes degraded so that productive land becomes useless.

16. What is afforestation?
Ans. The process of planting trees is called afforestation.

17. What is Social Forestry Programme?

Ans. It is a programme where the public and common land is used to produce firewood, food, and timber for the use of local community.

18. How has Urban Forestry programme helped in building forests?
Ans. Urban Forestry Programme has helped in building forests by planting trees in urban areas.
19. What are the alternatives to deforestation?

Ans. The reduction of the consumption of forest-based products and planting of more trees is a way of reducing deforestation.

20. What is the loss of forests a symptom of?

Ans. The loss of the forest is a symptom of deeper and possibly unstoppable degradation of the Earth’s environment.

Paragraph Questions and Answers

1. What is the importance of forests?

Answer: The forests are an important part of our life. We get different products like industrial wood and firewood from the forests. The forests help in producing the soil and conserving soil and water. It also supports the purification of air and water. Different varieties of plants and animals find shelter in the forests. The forests also help in the mitigation of climate change and the absorption of carbon.

2. Why are forests being destroyed? OR
3. What are the causes of deforestation?
Answer: As the population increases, more space is needed to live and for recreation. Food production should also increase. People use the forests to gather firewood. Development of cash crops and cattle ranching is another reason for deforestation. Sometimes trees are cut in large numbers for timber. This also contributes to deforestation.

4. What is the impact of deforestation?
Answer: When forests are cleared the local communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials, medicines, and livestock grazing. When there are no forests, there is no regulation of the flow of water into rivers. Also, rainfall does not penetrate into the soil. All this causes flood and drought. Soil is exposed to evaporation and erosion. Essential materials are lost and landslides occur. The burning of trees increases the carbon dioxide level which will lead to green house effect. The climate is affected. Many species of animals and plants become extinct. This will also lead to the formation of deserts.

5. What are the alternatives to deforestation?
Answer: One alternative to deforestation is to plant more trees. This is called afforestation. The union and state governments have launched several afforestation programmes. Another alternative is to reduce the consumption of forest-based products. The world’s forests should be used economically such that the forests will continue to provide resources in the present and for the future. Peoples movements like the Chipko Movement has done much to prevent deforestation.


SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT BY GEORGE ORWELL- Summary, Explanation, and Questions

SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT BY GEORGE ORWELL

Introduction: The British Empire is evidently the dominant historical setting for “Shooting an Elephant.” During the nineteenth century, the empire expanded quickly, spreading its territories to far off places like New Zealand and India. Burma (now Myanmar ) was the place where Orwell was located and the place was gained by the British in 1886. Burma obtained its freedom from Britain in 1948, a moderately short time after “Shooting an Elephant,” an affirmation of Orwell’s observation in the story that “the British Empire is dying.” Here George Orwell narrates an incident he had with an elephant when he was serving as a young police officer in Burma. The elephant had gone mad and killed an Indian coolie.

Orwell’s task was to shoot the elephant and thus prevent more damage. This story gives us the point of View of a white man, a colonial. It sensitively probes the subtle relationship between the colonizer (whites) and the colonized (natives).

Shooting An Elephant Summary

About the Author: George Orwell (1903 – 1950) whose real name was Eric Arthur Blair was a noted British author, Journalist, novelist, a cultural commentator, and a noted essayist. His short life did not prevent him from producing many works Which are now considered masterpieces. His works Animal Farm and 1984 further glorified his fame.

Meanings and Explanations

I had halted …………. home
In this paragraph ‘we see Orwell coming face to face with the elephant, whom he will have to shoot, for the first time. Here he describes the thoughts that came into his mind as he watched the elephant. He says that he had first decided to watch the elephant for a little while and not shoot him if he did not turn savage.

halt: stop
must”: an attack of frenzy
mahout: the man who looks after elephant
savage: wild

But ………. laughed at

In this paragraph, Orwell describes his feelings as he sees the Burmans watching him. He was the only white man in the whole crowd. These were the days when the British used to rule to rule over many parts of the world; Orwell expresses his view that the Westerner who ruled over the East Was actually controlled by those whom he ruled over. He had to act in order to save his Sahib image or the impression the natives had about him as a sahib would be lost. He was thus a mere dummy playing his role.
glanced: looked
immense: huge
garnish: showy
conjurer: magician
rifle: gun
momentarily. : for a moment
irresistibly: without any resistance
futility: uselessness
dominion: here, power
unarmed: Without weapons
native: people originally belonging to the place
absurd: not reasonable
puppet: a doll, (here) one who acts according to another’s instructions
perceived: saw
tyrant: an oppressor
conventionalised: traditional
sahib: master
trail feebly: follow behind slowly

But ……….. better aim
Here we understand that Orwell was against shooting the elephant. But in his mind, he knew that he had to shoot the elephant. Otherwise, the Burmans would attack him or laugh at him. He gives many reasons why he had to kill an elephant. He makes plans on how to shoot the elephant.
preoccupied: lost in thought
squeamish: ” easily made nauseous”. (nausea => vomiting sensation)
beast: animal
charged: attacked
poor shot: not able to shoot properly
toad: big frog.
pursued: to go after; followed
trampled: to be smashed underfoot
alternative: option, choice
cartridges: Charges for gun
magazine: gun from which shots can be fired without reloading

The crowd ……………… I lay
Orwell does not have much experience in shooting elephants. Therefore he aims incorrectly. The reaction of the crowd is also explained here. In these two paragraphs, Orwell also tells us what happens to the elephant when it is hit.
still: silent, without moving
innumerable: countless

glee: great joy
mysterious: not very clear, secret
stirred: moved
altered: Changed
stricken: wounded
shrunken: to reduce in size
immensely: greatly
paralyzed: unable to move
knocking: striking, making him fall
sagged: to sink, to lose strength
senility: the weaknesses of old age
collapse: fall
desperate: hopeless
upright: straight
agony: great pain
jolt: strike
remnant: remains, what is left behind
tower: to rise in air
toppling: falling
Skyward: towards the sky
trumpeted: the cry of the elephant

I got up …………. afternoon
Here Orwell gives you a vivid description of the last few moments of the elephant’s life. He also tells you about what the Burmans did to the elephant.
obvious: very clear
rattling: short, hard sounds
jerk: shake
torture: extreme pain
remote: far away
dreadful: very painful
stripped: to remove covering; here remove flash and skin

Afterward ………….. fool
These were many opinions among the people about the shooting of the elephant. Orwell ends his essay by telling you the truth as to why he shot the elephant.
furious. very angry
legally: according to law
pretext: reason
grasped: understood
solely: only

Comprehension Short Answer Questions

1 What was the author’s first thought as he looked at the elephant?
Ans: As soon as the author saw the elephant he thought that he should not shoot it.
2. Why did Orwell think that he ought not to shoot the elephant?
Ans: Orwell thought that he should not shoot the elephant because it was a working elephant and therefore very precious. Also, the elephant looked very peaceful as he stood eating.
3. Why is it a serious matter to shoot a working elephant?
Ans: A working elephant is equal to a huge and costly piece of machinery. Hence it is a serious matter to shoot a working elephant.
4. How did the elephant look from a distance?

Ans: The elephant looked no more dangerous than a cow from a distance.
5. What did Orwell think about the ”must” of the elephant?
Ans: He thought that the “must” was already passing off. If that was the case then he would merely wander harmlessly until the mahout came back and caught him.
6. What did Orwell plan at first?
Ans: Orwell decided that he would watch the elephant for a little while to make sure that he did not turn savage and then go home.
7. Describe the crowd that gathered around Orwell?
Ans: It was a huge crowd of at least two thousand people. It looked like a sea of yellow faces above colourful clothes. They were happy and excited about shooting the elephant.
8. What did the natives think of Orwell?
Ans: The natives did not like Orwell but with the rifle in his hand he was worth watching.
9. How did Orwell realize that he would have to shoot the elephant after all?
Ans. The people around him expected him to shoot the elephant. In order to fulfill their expectation, he realised that he would have to shoot the elephant after all.
10. Why does Orwell call the White man’s dominion over the East, futile?
Ans. The White man thinks that he is the real master over the natives. But according to Orwell, he is only a puppet who has to work according to the will of the native.
11. What is the actual condition of the White man?
Ans. The White man has to spend his life in trying to impress the natives. Therefore he has to do everything as the native expects him to do.
12. How does Orwell describe every White man’s life in the East?
Ans. According to Orwell, every White man’s life in the East was one long struggle not to be laughed at.
13. State two reasons why Orwell did not want to shoot the elephant?
Ans. Orwell had never wanted to shoot a large animal like an elephant. Besides he had to consider the owner also.
14. What did the Burmans say about the elephant?
Ans. The Burmans said that the elephant took no notice of anyone if he was left alone. But he might attack if anyone went close to him.
15. What were Orwell’s plans about shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell planned to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behavior. If he attacked, Orwell would shoot. If he did not then he would, leave him alone till his mahout came back to take him.
16. Why does Orwell dismiss the idea of walking up to twenty-five yards of the elephant?
Ans. The mud was soft and Orwell was a poor shot with the rifle. If the elephant charged then Orwell would find it difficult to escape.
17. What was the sole thought in Orwell’s mind as he watched the natives?
Ans. The sole thought in Orwell’s mind was that if anything went wrong the two thousand Burmans watching him would pursue him and kill him.
18. What was the only alternative according to Orwell?
Ans. The only other alternative was to shoot the elephant.
19. What did the crowd do when Orwell loaded his rifle?
Ans. The crowd grew very still and let out a deep, low and happy sigh. They were like people in the theatre watching the curtain go up after a long wait.
20. What was the right way of shooting an elephant?
Ans. In shooting an elephant one should shoot to cut an imaginary bar running from ear hole to ear hole. Orwell aimed several inches in front of the elephants ear-hole thinking that the brain was in front. He Was actually Wrong.

21. What did the crowd do when Orwell shot the elephant?
Ans. The crowd let out a devilish roar of glee.

22. What happened to the elephant at the first shot?
Ans. A terrible change came over the elephant. He became stricken and looked very old. He fell to his knees and his mouth slobbered.
23. What happened to the elephant at the second shot?
Ans. At the second shot he did not collapse but stood up slowly with his legs sagging and his head drooping.
24. What happened to the elephant at the third shot?
Ans. At the third shot, the last drop of strength went away from his body. He trumpeted for the first and only time. Then he fell down with a crash
25. What was the condition of the elephant after the three shots?
Ans. The elephant did not die. He was breathing heavily and painfully with his mouth open.
26. Why did the author send for his small rifle?
Ans. The author wanted to put an end to the agony of the elephant.
27. What did the Burmans do to the elephant?

Ans. The Burmans brought dahs and baskets and stripped the elephant’s body almost to the bones by the afternoon.

28. What was the owner’s reaction to the incident?
Ans. The owner was furious but as he was only an Indian, he could do nothing.
29. What does Orwell say about the legal aspect of the shooting?
Ans. Legally Orwell had done the right thing as he had killed a mad elephant whose owner had failed to control it.
30. What did the Europeans say about the shooting?
Ans. Among the Europeans, opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right and the younger men said that it was a shame to kill a working elephant which was more valuable than the coolie it had killed.
31. Why does Orwell Say that he was glad that the coolie had been killed?
Ans. Orwell was glad that the coolie had been killed because it put him legally in the right and gave him a reason for shooting the elephant.

32. What does Orwell say about the killing in the end?
Ans. He wonders if others knew that he had done it to avoid looking like a fool.

Paragraph Questions & Answers

1. What were Orwell’s first thoughts as he saw the elephant?
Ans. As soon as Orwell saw the elephant, he knew that he ought not to shoot the elephant. He knew that it was a serious matter to shoot a working elephant. A working elephant was as valuable as a costly piece of machinery. Moreover, at a distance, the elephant looked very peaceful. Orwell thought that the ”must” was already passing off and therefore he would watch the elephant for a while to see if it turned savage and then go home.

2. What does Orwell say of the crowd that had gathered around him?
Ans. The crowd was immense. At least two thousand people were there and the number was growing. Orwell describes it as ”a sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes.” They were happy that the elephant was going to be shot. Though they did not like Orwell, they watched him as he had a rifle in his hands. Orwell knew that he would have to shoot the elephant because these people expected him to shoot it.

3. Why does Orwell say that the White man’s dominion in the East is futile?
Ans. As Orwell stood in front of the people with the rifle in his hands, he understood the hollowness and futility of the White man’s power in the East. The White man was like a puppet in the hands of these people. To appear to be powerful and to maintain the sahib image, he has to do what the natives expected him to do It was like wearing a mask.

4. Why does Orwell say he does not want to shoot the elephant?

Ans. As Orwell watched the elephant he knew that he did not want to shoot the elephant To kill the elephant would be like murdering it. He was against the killing of large animals. Besides, the elephant’ s owner had to be considered If the elephant was alive it was worth a hundred pounds If it was dead, then the owner would only get five pounds for its tusks.
5. What were the steps Orwell considered before shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell knew perfectly well what he ought to do. He decided to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behaviour If the elephant attacked, he would shoot. If not, then Orwell would just Watch him till the mahout Came back. But he soon gave up the idea because the mud was very soft. If the elephant attacked he would not be able to run fast in the mud and he was surer to be killed.

6. Describe the first three shots of Orwell and its impact on the Elephant.
Ans. At the first shot, a terrible change came over the elephant. It did not stir or fall, but every line of its body changed. It looked shrunken and very old as if the bullet had paralysed it. It sagged to its knees and its mouth slobbered At the second shot, it did not fall but stood very slowly to its feet, legs sagging and head drooping. The third shot took away all strength from its body. Its hind legs collapsed and it seemed like a huge rock that was falling. It fell down with a crash It trumpeted for the first and only time.

7. Describe the last minutes of the elephant’s life.
Ans. The elephant was not dead even after the three shots He was breathing loudly with a rattling noise. His mouth was wide open. Orwell continued to shoot him but he did not die. He did not even jerk. Blood poured out from him body Orwell took his small rifle and shot him in the heart and throat. But the elephant looked like he was in a world where no other pain could reach him. It took the elephant half an hour to die.
8. What are the varied opinions regarding the shooting of the elephant?
Ans. There were endless discussions regarding the shooting of the elephant. The owner was very angry. But he was only an Indian and could do nothing. Besides, Orwell had done the light thing legally by shooting the mad elephant that had killed a coolie. The European opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right. But the younger men said that Orwell should not have killed the elephant for killing a coolie because the elephant was more precious than the coolie.

Vocabulary and Usage

(i) Pick out words from the text relating to (a) elephants (b) guns
Answer
elephants – trunk, tusk, trumpet, mahout, ”must”, savage.
guns – rifle, cartridge, magazine aim, trigger, bullet

(ii) Make a list of the similes used in the text

a) as much chance as a toad under a steam roller (meaning no chance at all).
b) to tower like a huge rock toppling (to describe the enormous elephant swaying with pain)
c) a happy sigh as of people who see the theatre curtain go up at last. (to describe the feeling at the commencement of a long-awaited event).
(iii) replace the italicised phase with one word.

a) According to law, she is my wife.
A: Legally, she is my wife.
b) He looked towards the sky to see if it would rain.
A: He looked skywards to see if it would rain.
c) When she saw the snake, she was unable to move.
A: When she saw the snake, she was paralyzed
d) They stood without moving until the bear had gone.
A. They stood still until the bear had gone.


Some Facts and Questions About The Markhor

NCERT Solutions Of The Markhor CLASS 7TH

The markhor is one of the largest and most distinctive members of the goat family or Caprinae. A normal markhor has a head and body length of 55 to 70 inches (140 to 195 centimeters) and a shoulder stature of 26 to 40 inches (66 to 102 centimeters). Its tail estimates 3 to 5.5 inches (8 to 14 centimeters). The creature may weigh somewhere in the range of 70 and 240 pounds (30 and 110 kilograms). Males are considerably bigger than females.

Male markhors have one of a kind corkscrew-formed horns that are thick and substantial. They additionally have extensive whiskers and a long, shaggy mane at the base of their neck. If a female has a whisker, which is uncommon, it is usually short. The layer of both genders changes length and shading with the seasons. In summer, a markhor’s coat is short and reddish darker. In winter, it is long, thick, and grey.

The markhor

Markhors are giant goats that live on mountains at the height of 600 to 3500 m, that is, 1900 to 1100 ft.

These are found in wooded mountains in Northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan and in the Pir Panjal Range in India.

The Pir Panjal Range is the name of mountains stretching between Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir, and Pakistan.

The name of markhor is actually a combination of two Persian words mar meaning snake and Khor meaning eating. This is a peculiar name in the sense that these goats are vegetarians. Their corkscrew horns are like the snake’s winding body. Hence the name markhor, that is, snake killer.

Markhors have light brown to the black coat which is smooth and short in summer and in winter it grows longer and thicker.

Markhors live in flocks, usually in a group of nine animals comprised of adult females, and their young ones. Adult males usually prefer isolation.

The food of markhors changes seasonally. They graze, that is, eat grass in spring and summer but turn to browsing in winter, that is, they feed on leaves. They are omnivorous animals and snake eater is a misnomer with their name. However, these serve as prey for wolves, leopards, and humans.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources has categorized markhor an endangered species. It means it is in the danger of extinction in the near future if conservation efforts are not maintained properly. Today the number is between 2000 to 4000 in the forest.

Questions and Answers of The Markhor

Question 1. Where is the Markhor found?
Answer. Markhor which is an endangered animal is found in high wooded mountains of Northern Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In India, it is found in the Pir Panjal range of India.

Question 2. What does ‘Markhor’ mean?
Answer. The name ‘Markhor’ is derived from a Persian word; ‘mar’ which means a snake and ‘Khor’ which means either ng. Hence, the name Markhor means ‘snake-eater’.

Question 3. What are the dangers that the Markhor faces?
Answer. The dangers Markhor faces are human warfare, hunting pressure, and increasing disturbance and competition from domestic goats and sheep. Markhor faces the risk of extinction. For wolves, leopards, and humans, these animals serve as prey. If the conservation efforts are not maintained, they will disappear from this living world.

Question 4. Why does the Markhor climb cliffs?
Answer. Markhor finds itself safe at high slopes. To protect itself from human hunting and to find out its out it climbs steep cliffs. Moreover, it also enjoys the morning sun and freely grazing there.

Question 5. What is the status of Markhor?
Answer. Markhor is an endangered species. Although, there are about 2000 to 4000 Markhors existing in the wild forests it has been classified as an endangered species. It means it is in danger of facing extinction in the near future if conservation efforts are not maintained.

Question 6. Give a physical description of the Markhor?
Answer. Physical Description of Markhor:
Length: 132 – 186cm / 4.4 – 6.2ft
Height: 65 – 115 cm / 2.1 – 3.8ft
Tail Length: 8 –20 cm / 3.2 – 8inch
Weight: 32 – 110kg / 70 – 242lb.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q. What are markhors?
A. Markhors are giant goats
Q. Where do markhors live?
A. They live in the mountains.
Q. Name the countries where markhors are found?
A. Markhors are found in India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Pakistan.
Q. Where is the Pir Panjal Range?
A. It is in India.
Q. What is the Pir Panjal Range?
A. It is the name of mountains stretching between Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir, and Pakistan.
Q. What types of horns do markhors have?
A. They have corkscrew horns.
Q. What do their horns look like?
A. They look like the winding body of a snake.
Q. What is the sad fact about markhors?
A. It is an endangered species.

Language Work

Make sentences from the given jumbled words:
1. Railway / we / at / meet / will / station / the
Ans. We will meet at the railway station.
2. Cot / the / is / the / baby / sleeping / on
Ans. The baby is sleeping on the cot.
3. People / slowly / very / walk / old
Ans. Old people walk very slowly.
4. Team / goals/ our / five / easily / by / won
Ans. Our team easily won by five goals.
5. Students / punctual / be / must
Ans. Students must be punctual.
6. Problems / taking / long / are / you / how / solve / to / the / in
Ans. How long you are taking to solve the problems.
7. Garden / flowers / not / do / from / pluck / these
Ans. Do not pluck these flowers from garden.
8. Animals / many / strange / are / there / zoo / the / in
Ans. There are many strange animals in the zoo.
9. Chocolates / child / fond / very / off / my / is
Ans. My child is very fond of chocolates.
10. Boy / has / kidnaped / the / somebody
Ans. somebody has kidnaped the boy.

Grammar Work You have read in the previous classes about the tenses. Recapitulate the same and fill in the blanks with appropriate tense forms of the verbs and models wherever necessary.

1. The sun rises (rise) in the east.
2. I will take (take) milk every morning. Or I am taking (take) milk every morning.
3. Raja is playing (play) the piano.
4. Simran is going (go) to join college next week.
5. Rohit is swimming (swim) in the pool.
6. It is raining (rain) today.
7. Seneen is going (go) home tomorrow.
8. I will do (do) your work on Monday. Or I am doing your work on Monday.
9. Rafi promises that he is coming (come) the next day.
10. I saw (see) a movie yesterday.
11. He never worked (work) hard and, therefore, failed.
12. The teacher is coming (come) to the class at 10 a.m. sharp. Or – The teacher came to the class at 10 a.m. sharp.
13. Suhail is looking (look) at the flowers in the garden.
14. He is going (go) to creche every day.

15. She is eating (eat) bread and butter in the morning.
16. He never trusts(trust) me. Or – He never trusted me.
17. He came (come) with me to my aunt’s place yesterday.
18 He is coming (come) with me at my uncle’s house tomorrow.
19. She wears (wear) a beautiful dress.
20. She has worn (wear) out of fashion dresses.


Learning To Be Sympathetic Summary

Learning To Be Sympathetic Summary

The writer had heard a great deal about Miss Beam’s school for sympathy. One day he got a chance to visit the school. There he saw a twelve-year-old girl. Her eyes were covered with a bandage. An eight-year-old boy was leading her carefully between the flower beds.
After that, the author met Miss Beam. She was middle-aged, kindly and understanding lady. He asked her about the ways of her teaching. She told him that the teaching methods in her school were very simple. The students were taught spelling, arithmetic, and writing. The author told Miss Beam that he had heard a lot about the originality of her teaching method. Miss Beam told him that the real aim of her school was to make the students thoughtful.
She wanted to make them helpful and sympathetic citizens. She added that parents sent their children to her school gladly. She then asked the writer to look out of the window.

The author looked out of the window. He saw a large garden and a playground. Many children were playing there. He told Miss Beam that he felt sorry for the physically handicapped. Miss Beam laughed at it. She explained to him that they were not really handicapped. It was the blind day for a few whiles for some it was the deaf day. There were still others for whom it was the same day. Then she explained the system. To make the students understand misfortune. The young were made to have experience of misfortune.

Learning to be sympathetic

In the course of the term, every child had one blind day, one lame day, one deaf day, one maimed day and one dumb day. On a blind day, their eyes were bandaged. They did everything with the help of other children. It was educative to both the blind and the helper.
Miss Beam told the author that blind day was very difficult for the children. However, some of the children feared more to dumb day. On a dumb day, the children had to exercise will power because the mouth was not bandaged.
Miss Beam introduced the author to a girl whose eyes were bandaged. The author asked her if she ever peeped. She girl told the author that she had no idea of the difficulties of the blind. All the time she feared that she was going to hit by something. The author asked her if her guides were good to her. She replied that they were very good. She also informed the author that those who had been blind already were the best guides.
The author walked with the girl leading her to the playground. She told him that the blind day was the worst day. She did not feel so bad on the maimed day, lame day, and deaf day. The girl asked the author where they were at the moment. He told her that they were going towards the house. He also told her that Miss Beam was walking up and down the terrace with a tall girl. The blind girl asked what the tall girl was wearing. When the author told her about the tall girl’s dress. She at once made out that she was Millie. The author described the surroundings of her. He felt that as a guide to the blind, one had to be thoughtful. He was full of praise for Miss Beam’s system of education which made the students sympathetic and kind. The writer himself had become ten times more thoughtful.

Questions and Answers

Q. 1 Miss Beam’s School was an unusual school. Why?
Ans. Miss Beams school was an unusual school because unlike other schools it taught the children to be sympathetic and thoughtful human beings. In the school, every child had one blind day, one lame day, one deaf day, one maimed day and one dumb day. On a blind day, their eyes were bandaged. They did everything with the help of other children. It was educative to both the blind and the helper.
Q. 2 Why was the little boy helping the girl? How older was the girl than the boy?
Ans. He was helping the girl because her eyes were covered with a bandage. She was four years older than the boy.
Q.3 What does Miss Beam tell the visitor about the purpose of keeping a blind day and a lame day etc?
Ans. About the purpose of keeping a blind day and a lame day, Miss Beam told the visitor that the purpose is to enable the children to get a real appreciation and understanding of misfortune by participating in the blind day and lame day, etc.
Q. 4 She seems to be a hopeless cripple. Who says, about whom and where?
Ans. Miss Beam says this about a 12 twelve-year-old girl who goes about with her eyes bandaged.
Q. 5 How did the little girl feel playing the role of a blind? What does she find easier?
Ans. She felt that it was awful to be blind. One could not see anything. One felt that one is going to be hit by something every time. The other days could not be half as bad as the blind day.
Q. 6 Which of the games needed will power and why?
Ans. The dumb day needed will power because the mouths of the children could be bandaged. They had to exercise will power.
Q. 7 What lesson does text teach us?
Ans. The lesson teaches us that we should be kind, sympathetic and helpful to our suffering brothers and sisters.
Q.8 How did the visitor feel after his to the school?
Ans. The writer had become ten times more thoughtful. He could sympathize with others’ woe.

Q.11 Write ‘yes’ or ‘no’ against each statement below.
1. The visitor had no knowledge of the school until he visited it…….
2. Miss Beam taught children to be kind to the needy……….
3. The little boy who was helping the girl walk was eighty years old……….
4. The children felt angry and cheated on playing different roles……..
5. The girl considered the blind day the most difficult……..
6. Millie and Beryl were two teachers to the little girl……
7. The visitor himself felt changed after visiting the school……
Answers
1. Yes, 2. Yes, 3. Yes, 4. No, 5. Yes, 6. No 7. Yes


Summary, Analysis and Questions of On The Rule of The Road by Gardiner

NCERT SOLUTIONS CLASS 12TH: THE RULE OF THE ROAD

INTRODUCTION
A.G. Gardiner’s famous and amusing essay ‘ On the Rule of the Road ‘ strikes the bull’s eye when he declares that everyone’s liberty must be curtailed in order to preserve the liberties of all. He points out what constitutes true freedom in this essay “The Rule Of The Road.” Liberty and freedom have become watchwords of today’s world, and every action taken is for the sake of personal liberty. Liberty, both individual and political, has gained tremendous importance in the contemporary world of constructed social and political anarchy.

SUMMARY of The Rule of The Road

The essay starts with an amusing anecdote of a fat old lady walking down a busy street in Petrograd in the middle of the road. The traffic was, of course, confused and there followed a traffic block. When someone pointed out to her that pedestrians had to walk on footpaths, her answer was intriguing. She answered that she has the freedom to walk wherever she likes. Nothing can be said against this because it is a public road.

The author, busy the next paragraph, goes on to clarify the boundaries of personal liberty. He says these days people are liberty – drunk. On this point, the reader can not but agree with the author as we see today that everyone wants individual freedom. Over the course of time, the problem has become more acute and fighting for freedom begins early when children are very young. Independence and dependence took on many colours and shades.

The Rule of The Road

According to Gardiner, sacrifice seems to be the foundation of liberty because “in order that the liberties of all may be preserved, the liberties of everybody must be curtailed.” He gives the example of traffic police at a busy junction. The policeman may seem like a nuisance at first, but later we realize he’s actually a blessing. If everyone were driving wherever and whenever they wanted there would be utter chaos and no one could reach anywhere. So in a sense, in order to make the neighbours, a reality neighbours liberty is restricted. The author introduces freedom as a social contract not a personal. He says it’s an adaptation. If our freedom does not interfere with others, we can do as we please. He gives many instances where we do what we like to wear, what to eat, which religion to follow, which author to prefer, and many others. We rule over a kingdom where we have all the freedom, but when we come into contact with the freedom of other people, both parties will have to restrict their own free lives. For this again he gives the instance of playing the Trombone. If he wishes to play it at midnight he will have to leave to the Everest or else his family and neighbours will object.
The author tells the reader that there are a lot of people in this world and adjustment is the key to liberty.

Gardiner points out that unfortunately, we are quicker to see the faults of others than our own. He says that consideration for the rights or feelings of others is the foundation of social behaviour.
He concludes saying that it is these small matters that decide whether we are civilized or uncivilised. Great moments of heroism and sacrifice are rare but our life is made up of these small adjustments which make it sweet.

ANALYSIS OF THE RULE OF THE ROAD

Alfred George Gardiner is one of the most charming contemporary essayists. His selection of subjects as well as his treatment of subjects can explain the reason for his popularity. The style and language of Gardiner’s writing is beautiful. Its keynote is its simplicity. His economy of words and ideas make his essays a pleasure to read. His use of anecdotes and illustrations make the essay crystal clear and its elucidation simple.

Gardiner in this bewitching essay “The Road Rule” points out what constitutes true liberty. These days, even among small children, personal freedom or individual liberty is a very familiar concept. Gardiner has dealt with this subject almost prophetically in a diplomatic and mature way by offering a solution to today’s ‘ liberty – drunk ‘ mentality. Gardiner tells us that there will often be times when we must “submit to a curtailment of private liberty” if we want to live in a social order in which we really have liberty. So what he says may seem somewhat paradoxical. He says that in order to make our liberty a reality, we must give up some of our freedom.

The idea of personal liberty as a social contract by Gardiner reflects the idea of ‘ social contract ‘ by the philosopher John Locke. Locke is one of the thinkers closest to the ‘ social contract ‘ idea. This idea says we are giving up some of our smaller freedoms so we can live in a society together. In return for doing so, our truly important rights are protected by society. Gardiner is trying to make this one major point in this essay.

Literally, when Gardiner refers to the “road rule,” he’s talking about the rules that tell you what you can do on the road. He refers to the anecdote of the Russian woman walking down the middle of the road and causing problems with traffic. That woman did not follow the rules telling us what we could do on the roads. But here too, there is a figurative meaning. Gardiner uses traffic laws as a metaphor for the rules that make society work (often unwritten and informal) and create community and solidarity in society.

The main point of this essay is that people need to consider how their actions affect others, not just what they want to do themselves, and how they affect society. The rules of the road in this sense are rules of politeness and altruism. They are rules like “do not play your trombone too loudly or at the wrong time” or “do not have loud public places conversations.”

The author concludes the essay by saying that both anarchist and socialist must be a judicious mix. We need to preserve individual liberty as well as social freedom. It is in the small matter of behaviour in observing the rule of the road, we pass judgment on ourselves and declare that we are civilized or uncivilised.

Questions of On The Rule of The Road

Note: The Solved Questions will be added soon.


The Story of Rainbow Summary

NCERT Solutions For Class 8 English

The Story of Rainbow

This Chinese story tells us how the rainbow was formed. Many years ago a very beautiful girl lived in a mountain village. She was very clever at making lace. She made plants, birds and animals which looked very real. People called her sister lace. They loved her and spoke to everyone about her. She became very famous. The emperor heard about her. He told his courtiers to bring her to his palace. Sister lace did not want to go. She wanted to stay in the village with her friends and teach them to make lace. But the courtiers carried her to the emperor. She was very unhappy. The emperor told her not to be sad. He told her that he would marry her. Then she would not have to work. Sister Lace told the emperor that he would let her go back to her village. The emperor was very angry. He told Sister Lace that he would let her go back to her village if she made a live rooster ( cock) with her lace. If not she would have to live with him. Then he threw her into prison.

Sister Lace set to work. The Lace rooster was ready on the seventh day. She bit her finger. She let the blood drop onto its comb. Then she blinked her eyes. A tear rolled into the rooster’s mouth. With a flap of wings, the rooster stood up. The Emperor came to see the rooster. He was shocked to see the rooster. He told Sister Lace that it was one of the birds in his palace though he knew it was not. Then he had another idea. He told her that she should make a wild partridge. She could go home after doing that.
Suddenly, the rooster jumped up and sat on the Emperor’s head. He told Sister Lace that he was sorry for her and he hated the Emperor. The courtiers tried to drive it away. It scratched the Emperor’s head. The blood began to pour down. Then it flew into the garden and disappeared. The Emperor walked away angrily.
After seven days, the Lace partridge was ready. Sister Lace bit her finger. She smeared the blood on the feathers of the partridge. She blinked her eyes. A teardrop fell into the partridge’s mouth like a pearl. The partridge flapped its wings and stood up.
The Emperor came to see Sister Lace. He was shocked to see Sister Lace had made the partridge. The Emperor told Sister Lace that he had asked her to make a heavenly dragon and not a partridge. If she failed to make a dragon in seven days, she could not go back home.
When the partridge heard these words, it flew at the Emperor’s and scratched his neck. While flying away, it said that it hated the Emperor. Once again the Emperor walked away in anger and shame.

After seven days the heavenly dragon was ready. Sister Lace bit her finger and dyed the dragon red. Then she blinked her eyes and tear rolled into the mouth of the dragon like a pearl. Sister Lace feared that the Emperor would not let her go back to her village.
When the Emperor saw the dragon, he shouted that it was a snake. He wanted to be helped. The dragon was very angry. It sent out a ball of flaming fire which burned the Emperor and all his courtiers to death. Then the fireball rolled out of the prison and burned the whole palace to the ground.

Sister Lace looked sadly around her. She had been very happy in her village. She climbed on the dragon’s back and flew into the sky. She still lives there. Whenever you see a many-coloured rainbow in the sky. You know it is the bright and beautiful lace she is making.

THE STORY OF RAINBOW QUESTIONS

Q.1. How did Sister Lace come to be known by this name?

Ans. Sister Lace was very clever at making lace. She made plants, birds and animals which looked very real. In this way, Sister Lace came to be known by this name.

Q. 2. How did Lace come to the palace?
Ans. When the Emperor heard about the fame and beauty of Sister Lace, he ordered his courtiers to bring her to his palace. The courtiers brought her to the palace in a sedan against her will.

Q. 3 Why did Lace reject the Emperor’s offer? What was its result?
And. Lace rejected the Emperor’s offer because she wanted to go back to her village. She would rather die than stay with the Emperor. The Emperor felt very angry. He told her to make him a live rooster with
her lace. Then she could return home. If she failed to do that, she would have to live with him forever. Then he threw her into prison.

Q.4. What conditions did the Emperor put for Lace to go to her home? Did she fulfil those conditions?
Ans. The Emperor asked Lace to make a living rooster in seven days to be able to go back to her village. Subsequently, she was asked to make a living wild partridge and later a heavenly dragon. She fulfilled these conditions.

Q.5. ” It’s one of the birds in my palace.” What does it refer to here? Why does the speaker say this?.
Ans. It refers to the live rooster made by Sister Lace. The speaker said this because he did not want Sister Lace to leave his palace. He wanted her to live with him as his queen.

Q.6. Why did the dragon feel angry? What did he do?
Ans. When the Emperor saw the dragon, he shouted out for help by saying that it was a snake. The dragon felt very angry. It raised its head, opened its mouth and sent out a burning ball of fire which burned the Emperor and his courtiers.

Q.7. Where did Sister Lace go? How do you know?
Ans. Sister Lace climbed on to the dragon’s back flew into the sky. She still lives there. When we see the rainbow, it is the bright and beautiful lace she is making.

Q.8. Do you think Sister Lace should have rejected the Emperor’s offer? Why?
Ans. By not rejecting the Emperor’s offer, she could have lived as his queen. She could have continued teaching lace-making to the people from her village.

Tag:The story of rainbow


The Story of My Life

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English

AUTHOR THE AUTHOR

Helen Adams Keller is regarded as the greatest woman of her age. She was one of those women who carve their own destiny by their hard work and struggle. Though nature deprived her of her eyesight and hearing, yet she acquired the highest university degree and established herself as a distinguished writer. She proved to the world that nothing is impossible even for a blind, deaf and dumb child.

Helen Keller was born at Tuscumbia (USA) on June 27, 1880, to Captain Arthur H. Keller and Kate Adams Keller. She was a normal child until the age of one and a half year. She had an inborn ability to imitate and learn. She was learning fast to speak. But unfortunately, she fell prey to a strange disease which deprived her of her eyesight and hearing. The disease was diagnosed as acute congestion of stomach and brain. The disease was cured but doctors could not bring back her eyesight and hearing. As she grew older the desire to communicate with other people grew stronger in her and she started communicating her ideas with the help of signs. Martha Washington, a six-year-old girl of her cook washer sole companion as she understood Habes language signs. She had over sixty home signs to communicate with her family. Besides, she was gifted with acute sensuousness. She could recognise which flowers blossomed in her garden and which fruit was getting ripe. She passed most of her time in her garden and was delighted in the midst of the various objects of nature.

The Story of My Life Helen Keller

Long Reading Text

In 1886, when Helen was only six years old, the important question before her parents was how to educate Helen. Fortunately, her mother was aware of Charles Dickens, American Notes of the successful education of another deaf and blind girl–Laura Bridgman. This made the task of educating her daughter easy and she made efforts to find out in what manner her daughter could be educated. There was no school for blind and deaf children in Tuscumbia. Her father took her to Dr J. Julian Chisolm in Baltimore who advised him to make contact with Dr Alexander Graham Bell who was working with deaf children at that time. Bell advised Helen’s parents to contact the Perkins Institute for the Blind. It was the school situated in South Boston where Laura Bridgman was educated. Michael Anagnos was the director of the institute. He was very kind to Helen. He persuaded Miss Anne Sullivan, herself visually impaired and then only 20 years old to become Helen’s instructor. Miss Sullivan agreed to it and arrived at Keller’s house in March 1887. Thus, there began a relationship between the two that lasted for 49 years. Miss Sullivan had her own peculiar way of teaching Helen. She used to spell the word on her hand. The first word she learnt was ‘water’. Her teacher spelt the word on her palm and released cool water over her other hand. In this way, Helen learned the names of different things. Then Miss Sullivan taught her with the help of Brail system. She began to speak words and framed short sentences. Helen travelled extensively in the company of Miss Sullivan. Starting in May 1888, Keller attended the Perkins Institute for the Blind. In 1894, Helen Keller and her instructor Miss Sullivan moved to New York to attend the Wright-Humason School and Horace Mann School for the Deaf. In 1896, they returned to Massachusetts and Keller was admitted to the Cambridge School for young ladies before gaining admittance, in 1900, to Radcliffe College. The great American novelist Mark Twain was one of her great admirers. He introduced her to standard oil magnate, Henry Huddleston Rogers, who, with his wife, paid for her education. In 1904, at the age of 24, Keller graduated from Radcliffe, becoming the first deaf-blind woman to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. She learnt Greek, Latin and French, besides English.

The Story of My Life

Her achievements were not only remarkable in the field of education but also in other spheres. She had varied interests in life. She was fond of reading books by great writers and learning foreign languages. She was a great lover of nature and visited places of natural beauty. She visited Niagara Falls and was delighted to be so close to it. Her picturesque description of the beauty of nature amazed people and they would ask in wonder what the beauty of nature meant to her when she could not hear the roar of the rolling waves of the famous Falls. In spite of being disabled, she knew how to swim and row a boat. She was equally interested in visiting cities. She would often visit the poor living in narrow and unhygienic streets. Sometimes, she would visit the theatre and enjoyed having a play described to her, while it was being staged. She had a wonderful memory and was gifted with the talents of creating something original. The urge to write something original impelled her to write a story—The Frost King, which turned out to be plagiarism of another story Frost Fairies, published before her birth. But it was not deliberate plagiarism. Later, it was discovered that the story ‘Frost Fairies’ might have been read to her and she absorbed it so thoroughly that it became a part of her recollections. When she sat to write her own story, ideas flowed to her so naturally that she thought that the story was the product of her own imagination. Helen Keller rose to eminence with the passage of time and became a world-famous speaker and author. She is remembered as an advocate for people with disabilities and numerous other causes. She was a member of the Socialist Party and actively campaigned and wrote in support of the working classes from 1909 to 1921. She joined the industrial workers of the world in 1912, saying that parliamentary socialism was “sinking in the political bog”. She wrote for the IWW between 1916 to 1918. At the age of 22, Helen Keller brought out her autobiography ‘The Story of My Life’. In it, she has recorded her life long struggle to overcome her disabilities. In 1908, she published ‘The World I Live In’ giving readers an insight into how she felt about the world. ‘Out of the Dark’, a series of essays on socialism was published in 1913. Her spiritual biography, ‘My Religion’ appeared in 1927. It was reissued under the title ‘Light in My Darkness’. It advocates the teachings of Enamel Sweden Borg, the controversial mystic who gave a spiritual interpretation of the ‘Last Judgment’ and ‘Second Coming of Jesus Christ’. Keller penned a total of 12 published books and several articles.

The story of my life

ABOUT THE BOOK

THE STORY OF MY LIFE is an autobiography of Helen Keller. It appeared in 1903. The book contains a description of the life and struggle of its author who was born on June 27, 1880, at Tuscumbia, a small town in Alabama. The book is important in the sense that it was written by a woman who became blind when she was only one and a half years old. It is really a miracle that in spite of being blind and deaf, she acquired education and received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. But still, the greater miracle was that she established herself as a prolific writer. She penned twelve books and a series of articles. An Interesting Autobiography The book is an autobiography which is different from fiction, yet the book is read like a novel. The author is successful in creating interest and curiosity throughout the book. There is no suspense, no turning point, no description of love in the book and yet it is one of the most popular books of the 20th century. Theme and Structure of the Book The book consists of twenty–three chapters, but a single theme runs throughout the book, i.e., how Helen struggled to overcome her disabilities. The first few chapters are devoted to the delineation of Helen’s birth, parentage and her strange illness. After it was declared that she was permanently impaired by the strange disease, efforts were made to find out how she could be educated. Doctors were consulted and educationists were approached and then a teacher named Miss Sullivan was found for Helen.

Helen’s Education

Helen had a strong desire to communicate with people living around her. The arrival of Miss Sullivan at Helen’s house was a turning point in her life. Miss Sullivan taught her how to speak. The subsequent chapters from chapter II to chapter XIX deal with Helen’s education. The author gives a vivid description of the difficulties and hardships that came in her way of acquiring education and skill in various other spheres and how she overcame those difficulties. She was admitted to various institutions and succeeded in getting admission in Radcliffe where she studied with other normal girls. Her extraordinary enthusiasm and strong will power paved her way to success and she became the first deaf and blind woman who graduated from Radcliffe.

Depiction of Nature

Another important feature of the book is the author’s love for nature and its picturesque depiction. Helen was very sensuous. She has given not only the names of various trees, flowers and fruits but a living portrayal of the beauty of hill stations also like Niagara Falls and roaring sea waves. She had the power to recognise flowers from their smell so she fully enjoyed the beauty and roaring sounds of Falls and Sea waves.

Main Events of The Story

1. Helen saw herself as a writer first as her passport listed her profession as an ‘author’. It was through the medium of a typewritten word that Helen communicated with Americans and ultimately with thousands across the globe. Since early ages, she championed the rights of the crushed and used her skills as a writer to speak truth to power. As a pacifist, she protested U.S. involvement in World War-I and as a committed socialist. She took up the cause of workers’ rights. She was also a tireless advocate for women’s suffrage and an early member of the American Civil Liberties Union. Her ideals found their purest, most lasting expression in her work for the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB). In 1921, Helen joined AFB and worked for the organisation for over 40 years.

2. For those who once had no hope in life, Helen Keller became an inspiration to them. Although she became deaf and blind before she was two years old as a result of contracting suspected scarlet fever, she continued to accomplish a great deal. She was a very difficult child, given to tantrums, but Helen Keller’s breakthrough came when her teacher, Anne Sullivan, persisted in making her understand that touching shapes and letters were her means of communication. Helen Keller was the first deaf and blind person to graduate from college, finally publishing 14 books. She met with every U.S. president from Calvin Coolidge to John F Kennedy and wrote to eight U.S. presidents, from Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 to Lyndon B Johnson in 1965. She worked for many organizations for disabled and advocated against child labour and women.

3. Helen suffered a stroke in 1960 and from 1961onwards. She lived quietly at Arcan Ridge, her home in Washer last Connecticut, one of the four main places she lived during her lifetime. She made her last major public appearance in 1961 at Washington D.C, Lions Clubs International Foundation meeting. She received the Lions Humanitarian Award for her lifetime of service to humanity and for providing the inspiration for the adoption By Lions Clubs Foundation of their sight conservation and aid to blind programs. During that visit To Washington, she also called on President John F Kennedy at the White House. Helen Keller passed away On June 1, 1968; a few weeks short of her 88th birthday. Her ashes were placed next to her companions, Anne Sullivan, Macy and Polly in St.Joseph’s Chapel of Washington.

4. The name of Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller will always be linked together. Dr Sammuel Gridley Howe who taught Laura is the great pioneer on whose work that of Miss Sullivan and another teacher of the deaf-blind immediately depend. Dr.Howe always kept the scientific attitude.

He never forgot to keep Laura Bridgman’s records in the fashion of a laboratory worker. The result is that his records are careful and systematic. From a scientific point of view, it is unfortunate that such a complete record of the development of Helen Keller could not be kept. Laura always reminded an object of curious study. Helen Keller became so quickly a distinctive personality that she kept her teacher in a breathless race without time or strength to carry out a scientific study to meet her pupil’s needs. A definite goal passed as soon as a thing was done. The teacher didn’t look back and described her way.

5. Kate Adams Keller was the second wife of Captain Arthur and many years younger to him. She was a well-read woman from an intellectual family. She was very loving and careful to Helen from her early childhood. One day, her mother had just taken her out of the bathtub and was holding her in her lap, then she was suddenly attracted by the flickering shadows of leaves that dashed in the sunlight on the smooth floor. She slipped from her mother’s lap and almost a towards them. She fell down and cried for her mother to take her up in her arms. She Played an important role in shaping her child’s career.

6. Arthur Gilman (1837-1909) was a major figure in advancing higher education for women. Gilman was one of the founders of Redcliff college and served, as its first regent. He then founded The Cambridge school for young ladies where he shouldered the responsibility as director. Mr.Gilman learnt figure alphabet to give Helen instructions. He instructed Helen in English Literature. As he had a broad view of history and literature so his clever explanations made her work easier and full of pleasure. Mr Gilman was very humble and co-operative to Helen during the examination. He read all the papers to her by means of the manual alphabet. Mr Gilman was sympathetic so he spelt to her what she had written and Helen made such changes as she thought necessary. Foundation for the Blind (AFB). In 1921, Helen joined AFB and worked for the organisation for over 40 years.

Conclusion

The book, ‘The Story of My Life’ is very inspiring. It imparts to us two important lessons. First: Education is very important because it makes a man great. It gives us the idea that an educated man can do miracles. Second: If a man has a firm determination and strong will power, he can attain the height of success.

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Summary and Questions of Love Across the Salt Desert

NCERT Solutions For Class 12th English

Love Across the Salt Desert Summary

The story “Love Across the Salt Desert” by Keki N Daruwalla depicts a love affair of two true and sincere lovers namely Najab and Fatimah. There are many characters in the story but Najab has got a pivotal position.This specific story I am discussing is set in an Indian town at the outskirts of India and Pakistan in the Salty Deserts of the Rann of the Kutch (somewhere in Gujarat or Rajasthan).The village is completely parched and dry and it has not rained there for three successive years.Many villagers earn their livelihood by smuggling goods across the border braving the BSF(Border Security Force) , Pakistan Army and bringing back goods from Pakistan as exchange. Najab and his father Aftab too smuggle stuff into Pakistan and bring back spices from a Pakistan Village. In the early part of story, Najab is a very shy, introvert and reserved boy. He was known to have blushed at the mere mention of a girl. He had dreamy eyes. None of his friends had ranked him among the braves. Even his father Aftab feared the boy would waste away all what he had and his ancestors had acquired. He considered him too shy to be able to charge money what would he sell.

But all these predictions proved wrong in the later part of the story. Najab turned to be courageous, brave and determined son after his first meet with Fatimah who ignited a spark of love in him. On one visit. to Pakistan, The Hero meets the Spice Seller’s daughter. “Eyes Meet, Love at First Sight” – The Eyes do all the talking and it is understood that the Hero will come, “aur Dulhania Le Jayega”. The Hero returns home with his father then informs his mother of his love and that he will be going to bring home his bride. As do standard Indian Movie mothers she wants her son to be happy, but his concerned of his safety and finally she courageously sends off her son with some food and jewels. He undertook a dangerous journey, crossed the border and met his love. He did not care for bullets and difficulties. He faced all the hardships, he met during trip with a smiling face. He was true, sincere and faithful in his love. He had understood what love really means. He felt his love and saw the image of Fatimah in every object he touched, imagined and articulated. Najab braves the border forces in style . The Spice Seller is hesitant but he sees the love in their eyes and does not stand in between their love.

“The Rann of Kutch is a vast, lonely desert, almost impossible to cross, yet some people do cross it for reasons of their own.”

Yes, Najab Hussain wanted to be with someone he loved and he had already reached his destination mentally uniting him with ‘ hoor – eyed ‘ Fatima, the spice -seller’s daughter long before he could meet her physically overcoming every fatal impediment through the salt desert.

Love Across the Salt Desert

To reach Pakistan, Najab crossed the border and met Fatima there. While it wasn’t that easy for Najab to fight shy of Zaman, the cross – border trafficker, and Indus Ranger’s strict vigilance, Najab did it with all the strength of mind. His life was in stake but he didn’t bother. The storm of sand couldn’t keep him from being flooded with exuberant love feelings.

“At one level of consciousness he knew that this was madness.”

In the recent past, Najab had the opportunity to meet Fatima for the first time while traveling with his father. Fatima’s fascinating eyes did not take seconds at the very first sight to convince Najab of the most important discovery that he would no longer be called an ‘ introvert ‘ who, with his dreamy eyes, went out for his love, Fatima.

“What would he not do for her, the daughter of the spice-seller; she who smelt of cloves and cinnamon, whose laughter had the timbre of ankle-bells, whose eyebrows were like black wisps of the night and whose hair was the night itself? For her he would cross the salt desert.”

Najab was inspired by a sense of success as he saw that the Jackals had eaten up the food he offered to the Panchmai Pir on the hilltop according to the religious custom. Najab was blessed and set off on his journey. He firmly believed that the lamp on the hilltop would illuminate his hope every night in the honour of the Pir. The ignorance of Najab about the unfair means of crossing the border with Pakistan was a major mistake that might take his life. The BSF people at the border with Pakistan began firing and chasing him for a mile and then came the sand – storm that kept the hunters away saving the life of Najab.

“Najab was in a trance now, events flashing past him like figures on the screen.”

Najab waited for the night to cover his identity and then hobbled at the door of the clove – seller across a mile’s distance on his toe. Fatima heard the soft call and her glittering eyes spoke wordlessly of her uplifted heart as she opened the door silently and found Najab standing outside.

Najab’s mother’s gold bangle kept the hardcore businessman, Kaley Shah busy with buying Najab’s cloves who, finding Kaley Shah snoring in deep and profitable sleep, didn’t waste time setting for his return trip to Kutch. But he wasn’t alone this time. Fatima had deep love in her heart. She was offered by Najab to experience a maiden test – drive across the Runn on Allahrakha. Her silent approval of such an offer reciprocated the indomitable, free – flowing trust of Najab. They knew quite well that they could not be held back by any geographical border.

“For her it meant just a shift in dialect,
a smear of Kutchi added and a little of Sindhi sandpapered away.”

They reached Khavda carrying the blissful love among the rain drops that came down after three years of drought to quench the thirst of the land. Thus the success of love across the salt desert was proven by Najab and Fatima.The village hails the girl as the saviour.

Questions of Love Across the Salt Desert

Love Across The Salt Desert Discussion Questions

Q. Describe how Najab fooled Kaley Shah and brought Fatimah house?

Ans. Najab had fallen in love with Fatimah. He reached her house facing all difficulties and leading his life into danger. He had been chased by police also.

He was able to win the confidence of Kaley Shah by tempting him with a gold bangle. He assured him that he had come for business of cloves for gold.

While Kaley Shah was busy arranging clove for him, he was successful in befooling Kaley Shah. He brought Fatimah in his village Khavda on his camel Allarakha.

Thus, Najab was able to befool Kaley Shah and bring Fatimah, his love to his home.

Q. Why did Najab Hussain cross the Rann of Kutch alone?

Ans. Najab visited Pakistan with his father for business purpose. During one of such visits, he fell into love with Fatimah, the daughter of Kaley Shah, the clove-seller. Najab promised to visit her alone with no father or uncle. He made up his mind.

He didn’t tell anybody except his mother. The mother gave him a golden bangle and her blessings. On his way, he faced many obstacles but crossed the international boundary for the sake of him to bring his love to his motherland.

Love Across the Salt Desert Summary

Love Across The Salt Desert Questions

Q.1 Why is the lesson has been titled “Love across the salt desert “? Why is the desert called a “Salt” desert?
Ans. The lesson has been titled “Love Across The Salt Desert” because a lover from India across the international border by entering in the territory of Pakistan to get his bride. While staying at Kaley Shah’s house, Najab had fallen in deep love with his daughter Fatima and had promised her that he would come again and take her away. He fulfilled his promise and eloped with her. The desert is called a salt desert because it is very difficult to cross.

Q. 2 Aftab asks Najab “Have you brought anything”? Do you think Aftab when he saw Fatimah?
Ans. Aftab was very worried about the safe arrival of his son Najab. He was happy when he saw his son along with Fatima though he does the express happiness on his face.

Q. 3 The story ends with the coming of the rain that swept away years of drought. Do you think this helps Fatima in being welcomed into her new home?
Ans. The drought in Kutch had lasted for three successive years and everything was badly affected. But with the arrival of Fatimah in the village, the clouds burst and the drought ended. The people heaved a sign of relief. This helped a lot to her in being welcomed into her new home. The people of the village still consider her arrival auspicious and a symbol of love across the border.

Q.4 How does the drought affect the following? Earth, Camel, Oxen, Cattle
Ans. Earth: the earth crakes and it looks as if chunks of it are being baked in a Kiln.
Camel: The camel alone survives the drought comfortably.
Oxen: The oxen die.
Cattle: The cattle become thin and emaciate.

Q.5 Why was Najab’s father worried about Najab’s future?
Ans. There are two reasons that made Najab’s father worried about Najab’s future. First, his son had crossed the border without taking Zaman into confidence. He thought that Zaman might harm his son, for it was not easy to cross the border without his support. Second, he feared that he would grow too shy to charge the money on what he would sell and as such would spend wastefully every thing whatever his ancestors and he had acquired during a hundred years.

Q.6 Why was a visit to Kala Doongar important for the people of Khavda?
Ans. Visit to Kala Doongar was important for the people of Khavda because they would go there for seeking the blessings of the Panchamai Peer who had left his foot prints on the hill over hundreds years ago while trudging this salt desert and serving the people.

Q. 7 Was the trade that was carried on across the border legal? Give reason for your answer?
Ans. No, the trade was not legal. The people of Khavda and the adjoining area would smuggle Indian goods in to Pakistan and vice versa. They would bribe the officials and deputed troops through agents like that of Zaman. Had the trade been legal, there would have been no question of bribery.

Q. 8 When he heard about his son’s disappearance, what was Aftab’s first suspicion?
Ans. Aftab suspected that his son might have gone to Pakistan along with the bundles of tendu leaf which he had brought.

Q. 9 What made Aftab suspect that his wife knew about Najab’s going away?
Ans. Aftab had thought that his wife would faint on hearing that his son had disappeared. But his prediction proved wrong because his wife didn’t even blink in surprise. His eye fell on her bare arm and he found the gold bangle missing. All this made him suspect that his wife knew about Najab’s going away.

Q.10 Zaman was an important person in the village and was called the chief because (Tick the right answer)
a) he was the strongest man in the village b) his family had ruled the village for years
c) he arranged the smuggling trip across the border and had close contacts with officials on both the sides of the border.
Ans. Zaman was an important person in the village and was called the chief because he arranged the smuggling trip across the border and had close contact with officials on border the sides of the border.

Q.11 What was the Zaman’s reaction to Najab’s absence from the village? Why?

Ans. Zaman’s reaction was a great anger and disappointment to Najab’s absence from the village.He told Najab’s father that his son was not innocent and introvert as the world believed and there was no limit to his annoyance. He was the chief of the smugglers and none of them would cross the border without his permission.But Najab was the first person who had not sought his permission and for the same reason he was very much upset.

Q.12 The absence of man and a camel from the village was significant because (Say whether true or false)
a) It meant that someone had across the border
b) It meant someone had come into the country
c) It meant the camel would be confiscated by the officials
a) True
b) False
c) False

Q.13 Fatimah says ‘just my luck to run into mutes’? Who the mutes she refers to? Why does she make this statement?
Ans. Fatimah and Najab fell in deep love at the first sight. She had been under pressure to get engaged to a stammerer namely Mahfuz Ali. She wanted to elicit a word from Najab but could not, for he was a shy, quite and pleasant young man so ready with his smiles. So, Fatimah found herself in a dilemma and started thinking that there were mutes in store for her and the mutes were Mahfuz Ali and Najab.

Q.14 Najab knew that Fatimah loved him because ( Tick the right answer)
a. She made special dishes for him to eat.
b. She told him that she loved him.
c. She made suggestive gestures.
Ans. Najab knew that Fatimah loved him because she made suggestive gestures.

Q.15 Was Kaley Shah happy to see Najab? How did Najab win his trust?
Ans. No, Kaley Shah was not happy to see Najab. He expressed his unhappiness saying that he had come unannounced, dragged the police behind him and had not brought tendu leaf with him. But Najab was very quick to understand the situation. After showing the gold bangle, he told Kaley Shah that he had come for cloves and would pay in gold. In this way, he won his trust.

Q. 16 Though Fatimah belonged to a different country she did not hesitate in eloping with a boy from another country. Give two reasons?
Ans. True love does not know boundaries, hurdles, bullets and reasons. It is madness to put hurdles in the way of true lovers. Though Fatimah belonged to a different country but she did hesitate in eloping with a boy from another country and the reasons are obvious. First, she did not want to marry Mahfuz Ali who was a stammerer. Second, she was in the true and deep love with Najab.

Q. 17 Fatimah calls Najab a mute yet he proposes to her. How does he do that?
Ans. Najab was known to be a shy and introvert boy. He fell in deep love with Fatimah at the first sight but could not tell her straight forwardedly about his love. So she called him mute. However, he proposed her through gestures. He flung his arms around her and promised that he would come again to take her to his home.

Q.18 Why did people of Khavda welcome Fatimah with open arms?
Ans. The people of Khavda had been in the grip of acute drought for three successive years and everything was badly hit. But when Fatimah stepped in the village, the clouds burst and the drought came to end.
Her coming to village proved auspicious occasion and brought prosperity to the villagers in the form of rain. So the people of Khavda village welcomed her with open arms and delight.

Q. 19 The writer has used number of colourful phrases to describe Fatimah’s beauty. Find the expression to describe the following:
a. Eyes b. Hair c. Laughter d. Eyebrows e. Smell

Ans.a) Her eyes are so bright that they would have lit up the darkness of the under world
b) Her hair were as black as the night itself.
c) her laughter had the timbre of ankle bells.
d) Her eye brows were black wisps of the night
e) She smelt of cloves and cinnamon

Q.20 Najab as described in the early part of the story and Najab as we see in the latter part are different, but similar in some ways.Compare and contrast Najab’s characters before and after journey across the desert?
Answer. The story Love Across the Salt Desert depicts a love affair of two true and sincere lovers namely Najab and Fatimah. There are many characters in the story but Najab has got a pivotal position. In the early part of story, he is a very shy, introvert and reserved boy. He was known to have blushed at the mere mention of a girl. He had dreamy eyes. None of his friends had ranked him among the braves. Even his father Aftab feared the boy would waste away all what he had and his ancestors had acquired. He considered him too shy to be able to charge money what would he sell. But all these predictions proved wrong in the later part of the story. Najab turned to be courageous, brave and determined son after his first meet with Fatimah who ignited a spark of love in him. He undertook a dangerous journey, crossed the border and met his love. He did not care for bullets and difficulties. He faced all the hardships, he met during trip with a smiling face. He was true, sincere and faithful in his love. He had understood what love really means. He felt his love and saw the image of Fatimah in every object he touched, imagined and articulated. In the initial part of the story his character in marked by shyness and diffidence but in the later part of the story, his bravery and confidence is spoken off.

Love Across the Salt Desert

Q.21 Zaman, Aftab and Kaley Shah were all involved in same trade, yet they were different in many ways. Compare the three and rate them from the least villainous to the most villainous giving reasons for answer?
Ans. Zaman was a veteran smuggler .He was the chief of smugglers in the area where he lived.He would arrange illegal trips for the smugglers and keep the Rangers happy. He was a very influential persons so far as crossing of the border was concerned. Though Najab crossed the Rann without his consent but had a close Shave.
Aftab was father of Najab. He was also a smuggler. He would smuggle things from India to Pakistan.He would take tendu leaf and sell them across the border. He was not hopeful about his son and would say that he would waste away everything on account of his shyness.He had never expected any act of bravery from his son. He was an affectionate father. His heart sank with grief on hearing about disappearance of his son. He prayed that his son might come back safely.
Kaley Shah lived in Sindh.He was a spice seller. He would harbor the Indian smugglers and arrange spice like cloves and cinnamon for them. He thought only in terms of business.He got angry when he found Najab empty handed. He had links with their local police and the guardians of law could do nothing against him. There is hardly anything appreciable about his character.
Zaman is the most villianous character. He would do anything for the sake of money. It is Aftab who seems to be least villainous.He is trembled and terrified on hearing the news of his son’s disappearance

Explanation With Reference to the Text

What would he not do for her…… For her he would cross the salt desert

Context: These lines have been taken from the story, “Love Across the Salt Desert ” written by Keki N Daruwalla. Here the writer conveys a very important message that true love knows no boundaries, barriers and bullets but it brings nations closer by minimizing the impediments existing between them.
Explanation: These lines express that Najab would do anything for his beloved Fatimah. Fatimah was a paragon of beauty. Her laughter had the the sound of ankle bells, her eyebrows were like wisps of the night and her hair was the night itself. To get his object of love, Najab was happily ready to face any challenge.


Solved Questions of Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English

Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

1 How were the great men who Raman read about as a child reflected in the work he did later in life ?
Ans. Dr C.V.Raman was a keen reader of books right from childhood. His interest in reading books with his father’s library at home has been further strengthened. He is both a savvy and voracious reader and anxiously pored over all the books in the collection of his father. Some of these are ‘ original writings of the exceptional scientists. He once said,“out of this welter of subjects and books, can I pick anything really mould my mental and spiritual outlook and determine my chosen path? Yes, I can and shall mention three books. These three were Edwin Arnold’s ‘Light of Asia’ which is the life story of Lord Gautama Buddha. Second one is titled ‘The Elements of Euclid’, is a treatise on Classical Geometry. ‘The Sensations of Tone’ is the last one and was authored by German scientist Helmholtz, on the properties of sound waves”.

Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

Waves and Sound

These three were Edwin Arnold’s ‘Light of Asia’ which is the biography of Lord Gautama Buddha. Second one is titled ‘The Elements of Euclid’, is a treatise on Classical Geometry. ‘The Sensations of Tone’ is the last one and was written by German researcher Helmholtz, on the properties of sound waves”. These books have impacted Raman’s working style and critical thinking nature in his later life. It started with his Masters’ in Physics in Presidency school, Madras.

When there was a discourse hung on how light that fell on a screen placed in its way would get diffracted, or bent, when entering a tight slit in it. While the whole class was pre occupied with it, Raman thought about what might happen whether the light shone straight, not from an angle, on the screen. No student could show such elective reasoning as Raman. He contemplated it as well as published an research paper on it in Philosophical Magazine, a British Journal. He was the among the pioneer from Presidency school to publish an research paper. The sign of the extraordinary mind proceeded in his later research on melodic instruments.

Raman was entranced by waves and sounds and constantly carried in his mind the memory of reading Helmholtz’s book on ‘The Sensations of Tone’ in his school days. He got an opportunity to study and experiment in the IACS, he studied musical instruments first. He utilized a thought found in Helmholtz’s book, he clarified the working of the Ektara, which is a simple instrument made of a resonant box and a string extended to lie across the cavity. Beginning from his comprehension of this simple instrument, he created numerous thoughts that he called ‘remarkable resonances’. Amid this time, he took up the violin for study and built up a method for developing the quality instrument.

Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

It was the first run a scientific understanding was built up, and it is utilized even today. Raman’s investigations on the violin were broad and published as a book entitled ‘On the Mechanical Theory of Musical Instruments of the Violin Family with Experimental Results: Part I.’ Raman’s revelation, while his voyage across the Mediterranean sea, that water molecules could scatter light simply like air molecules was essential and radical back then. It set him on the track to finding the popular Raman’s Effect. In 1922, he composed a splendid essay titled, “The Molecular Diffraction of Light”, in which he theorized that light may exist in quanta, that is, massless particles of energy. This is an acknowledged theory till today yet was most radical back then. In this way, the extraordinary personalities whom Raman read during his youth considered his scholarly and proficient career.

2. Why did Raman fail to impress his teachers when he joined Presidency College ?

Raman completed school when he was just eleven years old. He joined the BA course at Presidency College, when he was only thirteen years old. Being young for his class Raman failed to impress his teachers with his appearance. In the first English class that he had attended, Professor E.H. Eliot asked if he really belonged to the junior BA class.

3. What made Raman say of the Civil Surgeon of Madras, ‘I shall ever be grateful to this man’ ?

Ans.Raman was suggested to prepare for the Indian Civil Services (ICS) examination by his teachers. Raman had to undergo a medical examination to take the ICS test. But the Civil Surgeon of Madras declared him medically unfit to travel to England. This was the only exam Raman failed, and he would later remark in his characteristic style about the man who disqualified him because at that time, he simply put the attempt behind and went on to study physics.

4. Why was the day when Raman walked into the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science a historic moment ?

Ans. The day when Raman walked into the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science a historic moment because the building that became the laboratory where he and his team performed the legendary experiments on light.

5. Outline the subject of the first research Raman conducted in the IACS ?

Ans. The first research Raman has chosen was studying musical instruments. He explained the working of the ektara. He developed several idea that he called, ‘remarkable resonances’. He took up a violin for study and developed a way of characterizing the quality of the instrument. This was the first time a scientific understanding was established, and it is used even today.

6. What discovery did Raman make during his voyage across the Mediterranean and how did it prove to be important ?

Ans. Raman discovered that water molecules could scatter light like air molecules, during his voyage across the Mediterranean. It set him on the track to discovering the famous Raman effect. In 1922, he wrote a brilliant essay entitled ‘The Molecular Diffraction of Light,’ in which he speculated that light may exist in quanta, that is, as massless particles of energy.

Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

More Questions of Dr CV Raman: The Celebrated Genius

Q. Why was the voyage C.V.Raman undertook in 1921 important in his life?
Ans. The voyage was important in his life because when he was crossing the Mediterranean Sea he wondered why it’s water has such a dark shade of blue. He started research about this apparently simple question and finally he got success. It was this very research that won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930.

Q. Raman was just an average student at school and college. Is this true or false? Give reason to justify your answer?
Ans. Raman was not an average student at school and college .He was very brilliant, intelligent and efficient. He passed his matriculation at the age of 11 and he was only 15 years old when he completed his graduation from The Presidency College Madras (now Chennai).

Q. Why could Raman not pursue higher studies abroad even though he was very keen to do so?
Ans. Though Raman was very keen to pursue higher studies abroad but he was disqualified by a British doctor on medical reasons.The doctor told Raman that he would would not be able to bear the severity of English climate.

Q. Give an example to show that Raman’s interest in science did not lessen even when he started working as an accountant general?
Ans.When Raman completed his masters degree, he took a job in Kolkata is an assistant accountant general but his interest in science did not show any sort of decline.He used to spend most of his spare time in the mornings and evenings in the laboratory of Indian Association for Cultivation of science.

Q. Why was there no Indian flag flying when Raman was awarded Nobel Prize? How did this effect him?
Ans. Noble Prize was awarded to Raman in 1930 for physics and at that time India was under the British rule. That is why, there was no Indian flag. When he saw himself under the British flag, he was so moved by emotions that tears started trickling down his face.

Q. Raman was proud to be an Indian. How does this manifest in his personal life?
Ans. Raman was proud to be an Indian. He would wear a closed coat and turban till his last breath. He did not give up his tradition Indian turban in favour of a European hat.

Q. The world was not slow to recognize the importance of CV Raman’s achievements? What are other important awards he won apart from the Nobel Prize?
Ans. Apart from the Nobel Prize, C.V.Raman was conferred many other important prizes. He won Bharat Ratan in 1954 and the International Lenin Prize in 1957.He was given Knighthood by the British Government in 1929. He was also made a fellow of the Royal Society London in 1924.

Q. “I can understand the difficulties that most of few graduates have to face”. How was this possible for him?
Ans. Raman himself had experienced a very tough and hard life. He had experienced poverty and miseries in his life. His life was not all milk and roses. Out of his personal experience, it was possible for him to understand the difficulties being faced by most of the graduates in India in those days.

Q. “I can admit success in life is always to the intelligent or the strong”. What are other qualities according to Raman bring success in life?
Ans. Rahman was of the opinion that success in life does not always come to intelligent or the strong.It is to some extent a bit of gamble. To be successful, one has to get one’s mind right and know one’s job well.

Q. What was Raman’s philosophy of life?
Ans. Raman’s philosophy of life was very simple. He was of the view that we should not get disappointed if we do not succeed in our life at the first attempt. We should not loose our heart rather we should continue efforts. We should face up life and take it as we find it. We should enjoy the common things in nature and life. He wanted us to appreciate the things that we see around ourselves.

Q.Three or four qualities of nature inspired Raman all his life. Which are they?

Ans. Raman appreciated nature. It was nature and her qualities that inspired him all his life. The wonderful bounties of nature, her marvelous ingenuity, he resourcefulness and her infinite variety are other qualities that inspired him.

Q. Raman had unusual view about Patriotism.What was it?
Ans. C.V. Raman had really unusual view about Patriotism. According to him, Patriotism is the love of the earth. It is earth and the things that grow upon it that make life possible. The love for land means the love of the earth which has borne us and which sustains us.The idea of the earth transcends the idea of national and international borders. By loving earth, we will be able to love all.

Q. The main purpose of Raman’s address to the graduates was to…
a. advise them
b. inspire them
c. impress them
Ans. b) inspire them

Explanation with reference to the context

1. After ten years of government service……. research of his life.

Context: These lines have been taken from the lesson “Dr CV Raman- The celebrated Genius”. The lesson depicts Raman’s philosophy of life and his remarkable achievements.
Explanation: In these lines here under discussion depict that Raman did government service for ten years and then resigned. After that he worked as the Professor of Physics at Calcutta University on lower salary than he earned previously. He performed the most important research of his life at the University laboratory.


Questions and Answers of The Letter ‘A’ By Christy Brown

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English-The Letter ‘A’ By Christy Brown

1. How did Christy’s mother know that her son was physically impaired?

When Christy was four months old, his mother observed he was unable to support his head.His head had habit of falling backwards According to Christy, Bridget concluded “there was something wrong with me” and several years later he was diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Cerebral is Latin for a part of the brain while palsy refers to paralysis, although Brown’s biographer Christina Hambleton explains that doctors in 1930s Ireland considered cerebral palsy a difficult condition to understand . Brown’s form of cerebral palsy affected his movement and posture and his doctors and extended family recommended Bridget place him in care. However Christy’s mother decided to raise Christy at home.

 Questions and Answers of The Letter 'A'

Christy Brown

Tag: Questions and Answers of The Letter ‘A’

2. ‘The doctors were so very sure of themselves that mother’s faith in me seemed almost impertinence. ‘

a. What did Christy’s mother think about him?
Ans. Christy’s mother thought that he was not imbecile as the doctors told her. She took him in her own hands. She was determined to treat her child in the same planes as other normal children. She believed that it was his body which was shattered not his mind. She loved him and believed in him.
b. Why is her faith in him described as impertinence?
Ans. Her faith in him is described as impertinence because she refused to accept the expert opinion of doctors and specialists that he was imbecile. She treated him in the same planes as normal children. She believed that it was his body which was shattered not his mind.

3. In spite of all that doctors and specialists told her, Christy’s mother would not agree that he was imbecile. What does this reveal about her as a person?
Ans. It reveals that she was positive person. Her positive attitude made her believe that her son could not be completely crippled.She loved him and believed in him. She believed that her son could not be something to be fed and washed and then put away. She thought that Christy’s disability is a social construct, a consequence of negative attitudes or physical barriers that can be overcome.To her, it was his body which was shattered not his mind.

4. What did Christy’s mother hope to achieve by showing him pictures of animals and flowers?
Ans. Christy’s mother wanted to prove that her son was not an idiot but normal like other children. She set out to prove this. By showing her son pictures of animals and flowers she wanted that he could speak and understand things by this.
She struggled to obtain some proof of her faith. Children are usually fascinated by colorful pictures.Further, they can be moulded well not because of any rigid sense of duty but out of love.

5.What was the advice offered by relatives and friends? Why was it lucky for the writer that his parents didn’t heed the advice?
Ans.The relatives and friends contended that Christy was an idiot. He should be taken kindly and sympathetically but not seriously. They told Christy’s parents not to look Christy as they would other children. This would only break their heart in the end.

The writer was lucky that his parents held out against the lot of them. Christy’s mother even set out to prove this. She showed him pictures of animals and flowers, told him stories, helped him to write and gave him a lot of love. She did not give up her struggle. Ultimately, she was successful.
6. Christy’s mother believed he was not an idiot (Ticket the correct option.)
∆ he was her son
∆ it was her duty as a mother to defend him
∆ she loved him and believed in him

Ans. She loved him and believed in him.

7. Christy feels that not many mothers would have treated him the way his mother did. How would Christy have been treated in another household?
Ans. Christy feels that not many mothers would have treated him the way his mother did.This is a fact. They would have treated him kindly and sympathetically but not seriously. They would have not struggled to the extent Christy’s mother struggled to mould him. Many mothers would have treated him as a “queer one” in the back room who are never spoken of when there are visitors present in the household.

8. ‘That was a momentous decision. ‘ What decision his mother take about bringing him up? Why did Christy consider the decision a momentous one?
Ans. Christy’s mother decided to regard him on the same plane as the others. She thought that it was his body which was crippled not his mind. Therefore, she decided to raise him like a normal children.

Christy considered her mother’s decision a momentous one because it meant that his mother was always to be with his side, to fight all the battles that were to come in his way and to inspire him with new strength when he was beaten. Eventually, the decision proved to be s significant one in Christy’s life.

9 Despite being surrounded by a loving family what were Christy’s feelings as he lay on his back in the kitchen or in the garden?
Ans. Christy felt himself lonely and imprisoned in a world of his own. He could not communicate with others. He felt cut off from them as if a glass wall stood between his existence and theirs. He longed to run and play with the rest but he was unable to break loose from his bondage.

10. While his father was busy brick laying, his mother was ‘patiently pulling down the wall, brick by brick’. Which wall was the mother pulling down?
Ans. The mother was pulling down the barrier that separated Christy from the other children. She was slowly and patiently penetrating beyond the thick curtain that hung over his mind, separating from it from theirs. She believed that Christy was not an idiot but normal like other children. It was just his body which was crippled not his mind. She worked hard to remove all the obstacles that come in the way of Christy’s progress.

11.’They now spoke of an institution. ‘
a. Who is the ‘they’ in the above line?
Ans. ‘they’ refers to the relatives and friends of Christy. They contented that Christy was idiot and should be taken to an institution for the mentality challenged.
b. What is the institution they are speaking of?
Ans. They are speaking of the institution for mentally challenged.
c. How did Christy’s mother respond to their suggestion?
Ans. Christy’s mother fiercely rejected their suggestion. She told them that Christy was not an idiot. It was his body that was shattered not his mind and she was sure of that.

12. Christy’s mother and father and siblings saw his forming the letter ‘A’ as (Ticket the correct option)
a. a sign of intelligence
b. as merely an imitative gesture.
Ans. A sign of intelligence.

12. Why was Christy surprised to see himself holding a chalk stick between his toes?
Ans. Christy was surprised to see himself holding a chalk stick between his toes because he could not believe his eyes how he was able to grip the piece of chalk between his toes. He hardly knew how it got there. He was also not knowing what to do with it next. It was really a unbelievable achievement for him.

13. Why was everyone tense in the room when they saw Christy attempting to write?
Ans. Holding a piece of chalk between his toes and attempting to write surprised everyone in the room. Till then everyone except Christy’s mother thought that he was an idiot and didn’t possess any intelligence .But when they witnessed Christy holding a piece of chalk and trying to write, it was almost an impossible achievement for them. They were excited and tense simply because everyone now wanted to see the outcome of Christy’s struggle.

15. What do you think finally helped Christy achieve the ” impossible “?
Ans. Christy achieved the impossible simple because he was given the chance by his mother to express himself. His mother didn’t give up hope but struggled for him. She gave him all important help that moulded him right way. She didn’t give ear to the doctors,relatives and friends that her son was imbecile. She loved him and believed in him. She thought that Christy was not an idiot. She took Christy in her own hand and treated him in the same plan as others. To her it was his body that was crippled not his mind. She removed all the obstacles that came in his way. She spent hours with him; showing pictures, telling him names of animals and flowers and gave him all care and love. Finally, her faith rewarded her and her struggle changed into triumph.

The Letter A

Tag: Questions and Answers of The Letter ‘A’

Long Answer Type Questions

Q. What did the writer’s mother notice about the physical growth of her son (Christy Brown) after the age of four months?
Ans. The writer’s mother noticed that his head fell backward, whenever she tried to feed him. She could not succeed in correcting it by placing her hand on the back of his neck. As he got older, she saw his hands clenched nearly all the time.

His mouth could not grasp the teat of the battle because his jaws would either lock together tightly or would suddenly become limp and fall hanging, dragging his mouth to one side.

When he was six months old he could not sit up without having a no. of pillows behind him. Even when he was twelve months, it was the same. The mother became worried about her son. She told her husband and they consulted the specialist doctors about it.

Q. How did the mother take the writer seriously after he was even left by the doctor?
Ans. Even though the doctors declared Christy to be an imbecile. Mother’s faith in him did not shatter. She took it as a challenge in her life. In spite of her relatives and friends advice to put him in an institution for mentally related she rejected their suggestion.

She decided to nourished him on the same plane like her other five healthy children. She showed him the pictures of animals and flowers with a hope that he would start recognizing and identifying them.

The mother’s faith in the child and God resulted positively. Christy was able to write letter ‘A’ with a piece of chalk held between the toes of his mental freedom. It was all the fruit of his mother’s confidence and labour.

Questions and Answers of The Letter A

The Letter ‘A’

Q. Who Was Christy Brown?

Christy Brown was born on June 5th 1932, in the Rotunda Hospital in Dublin, into a working class family of 22 children. His mother Bridget experienced complications while Christy was being born and when Christy was four months old, she observed he was unable to support his head. According to Christy, Bridget concluded “there was something wrong with me” and several years later he was diagnosed with cerebral palsy . Cerebral is Latin for a part of the brain while palsy refers to paralysis, although Brown’s biographer Christina Hambleton explains that doctors in 1930s Ireland considered cerebral palsy a difficult condition to understand . Brown’s form of cerebral palsy affected his movement and posture and his doctors and extended family recommended Bridget place him in care. She decided to raise Christy at home. At five years of age Brown attempted to draw the letter ‘A’ by grasping a piece of chalk with his left foot and his mother subsequently encouraged Brown to write and paint in this fashion. His first glimpse of fame came in 1944 when he won a painting competition for children run by the Sunday Independent. The paper ran a story about Brown, featuring a picture of him painting with his left foot. As a young man Brown attended Ireland’s first cerebral palsy clinic, in Dublin. Although this clinic was of great benefit to Brown, he spent much of his life using a wheelchair and he depended on others for physical assistance with daily tasks, such as preparing food and attending to bodily functions. He lived with his parents and siblings in his family home in Kimmage, until he married his carer Mary Carr, in 1972. After he married, he moved to Kerry and then to England. He struggled with alcoholism and depression for much of his life and he died in Somerset in England in 1981, after choking on a dinner. He is buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, in Dublin. Brown wrote and named his famous autobiography after his method of writing and painting. In My Left Foot, he reflects on growing up with cerebral palsy in mid-twentieth century Ireland. The book was an international success and in 1989, Jim Sheridan turned it into an Oscar winning film of the same name. In 1970, Brown published Down All the Days. This semi-autobiographical novel is told from the viewpoint of a mute, nameless teenager who has a disability similar to Brown’s. A lyrical and a dense novel, it shocked Brown’s friends and family for its portrayal of sex, disability, violence and alcoholism. It was a critical success. Brown went on to publish A Shadow On Summer in 1974; Wild Grow the Lilies in 1976 and a posthumously published work A Promising Career in 1982. He also penned several collections of poems; some relatively unsuccessful plays and he produced numerous paintings, for the Disabled Artists Association. Brown emerged as a writer during a time when Irish society held deeply conservative values about the suitability of certain publications. Historian Dermot Keogh describes how Archbishop McQuaid wrote to Taoiseach Eamon de Valera to thank him for enacting measures designed to prevent the “diffusion of evil books”, as well as works the Catholic Church objected to on moral grounds. This letter was written in 1953, just one year before My Left Foot was published. The chronology of Brown’s life is also significant from a disability studies perspective. For most of Brown’s lifetime, any consideration of what it meant to be disabled was framed under the medical model of disability. This model considers disability as a physical or mental condition of the individual, which requires a cure (Williams, 2001).

Throughout the 1960s and 70s there was a significant shift from locating disability within a person’s body towards considering society at fault for disabling an individual. This came to fruition in 1975 when the UK-based Union of the Physically Impaired Against Segregation (UPIAS) framed the social model of disability. This model considers disability as a condition imposed on top of a person’s impairment by society. It also regards people with disabilities as an oppressed group in society.

Tag: Questions and Answers of The Letter ‘A’


Solved Questions of The Adventure

NCERT Solutions For Class 12th English

SUMMARY OF THE ADVENTURE

Professor Gaitonde, who is a historian, is on his way to lecturing in The Third Battle of Panipat on the implications of catastrophe theory when his car collides with a truck and he goes into a coma where he is now experiencing a completely changed history that is different from the real world. The Marathas were defeated in the real world in the Third Battle of Panipat Afghans and their leader Vishwas Ra was killed. But as Vishwas Rao narrowly escapes the bullet and survives, the parallel world in which the Professor now sees things for him Marathas won the war. According to him, this victory brought significant changes and reforms to the country.

When he regains his consciousness back, his friend Rajendra Deshpande tries to rationalize his experience based on two theories that are Catastrophe Theory and Quantum Theory’s lack of determinism. The narrator, meanwhile, is still talking about the parallel world in which Professor Gaitonde is on his way from Pune to Bombay. It’s a pre-independent India where he finds Anglo, Indians and Jack from Union.

The professor goes to the library where he reads four volumes of history books from the Asoka period up to Panipat’s Third Battle. Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’s fifth volume that he read tells a different story where Marathas won Panipat’s Third Battle. Absent as a proof, Professor tucks a copy of the book into his pocket and reaches Azad Maidan where a lecture is taking place. Without the chairman, the meeting is taking place and he decides to go on stage and snatch the mike he begins to speak. He wasn’t welcomed by the crowd and he was finally thrown out with eggs and tomatoes showered on him and then he gets lost in the crowd. After this strange experience, we find the Professor talking to his friend Rajendra in the real world.

Rajendra describes the two scientific theories responsible for Professor’s strange behaviour. According to the theory of Catastrophe, a small change can bring about a sudden shift in behaviour, and if the same is implied in the battle of Panipat, it can be seen that the Marathas went through a crucial time when their two leaders Vishwas Rao and Bhausaheb died, leading to a loss of morality. So, another way that the crucial event has gone may change the course of history. So, the copy of the book he’s supposed to keep in the pocket is nothing but the notes he’d prepared for his lecture where he’d imagined the battle’s fate would be different. The bullet hitting Viswas Rao was a catastrophic event and the present has been reached because of such a catastrophic incident in the battle.

According to the Lack of determinism in Quantum theory the behaviour of electrons orbiting the nucleus in an atom cannot be predicted. They are in higher and lower state and can jump from high to low energy level and send out a pulse of radiation that can knock it out from state number 2 to state number 1 and these can apply to the world too and therefore Professor Gaitonde made a transition from the world we live into a parallel world. He neither travelled to the past nor to the future in the fact he was experiencing a different world in present itself. At the time of the collision with the truck, he was thinking about the catastrophe theory and its implications in war. He was probably wondering about the battle of Panipat. Perhaps the neurons in his brain acted as a trigger and he made a jump from this world to the parallel world.

THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE

1. In which language do you think Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other? Which language did Gangadharpant use to talk to the English receptionist?
Ans. Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other in Urdu or Persian. Gangadharpant used English while talking to the English receptionist.

2. In which language do you think ‘Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’ was written?
Ans. ‘Bhansahebanchi Bakhar’ was written in Marathi.

3. There is mention of three communities in the story, the Marathas, the Mughals, the Anglo-Indians. What language do you think they used within their communities and while speaking to the other groups?
Ans. Within their communities, the Marathas used Marathi, the Mughals used Urdu and the Anglo-Indians used English. While speaking to the other groups they used the language which was intelligible to the listener and helped them to express their thoughts. Sometimes it could be a mixture of two languages.

4. Do you think that the ruled always adopt the language of the rulers?
Ans. The masses do not always adopt the language of the rulers, but the classes always do so. It is because in courts, offices, banks, educational institutions, etc. the language of the rulers gets the place of pride. So, that section of the ruled who want to get any benefit from the rulers do adopt the language of the rulers.

WORKING WITH WORDS

I. Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the given phrases:
1. to take issue with (i) to accept (ii) to discuss (iii) to disagree (iv) to add
2. to give vent to (i) to express (ii) to emphasise (iii) to suppress (iv) to dismiss
3. to stand on one’s feet
(i) to be physically strong (ii) to be independent (iii) to stand erect (iv) to be successful
4. to be wound up (i) to become active (ii) to stop operating (iii) to be transformed (iv) to be destroyed
5. to meet one’s match (i) to meet a partner who has similar tastes (ii) to meet an opponent (iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself (iv) to meet defeat.

Answers 1. (iii) to disagree, 2. (i) to express, 3. (ii) to be independent, 4. (ii) to stop operating, 5. (iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself.

II. Distinguish between the following pairs of sentences:
1. (i) He was visibly moved.
Ans. He was moved in a way that was easily noticeable.
(ii) He was visually impaired.
Ans. His sight was impaired.
2. (i) Green and black stripes were used alternately.
Ans. Green and black stripes were used one after the other.
(ii) Green stripes could be used to alternatively black ones.
Ans. Either green stripes or black ones could be used.
3. (i) The team played the two matches successfully.
Ans. The team achieved success in the two matches it played.
(ii) The team played two matches successively.
Ans. The team played two matches one after the other.
4. (i) The librarian spoke respectfully to the learned scholar.
Ans. The librarian spoke with respect to the learned scholar.
(ii) You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum respectively.
Ans. You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum in the same order as the people or thing already mentioned.

III. Notice these expressions in the text. Guess the meaning from the context:
 blow by blow account
 de facto
 morale booster
 astute
 relegated to
 doctored accounts
 political acumen
 gave vent to
Ans.  blow by blow account: a description of an event which gives you all the details in the order in which they happen
 morale booster: encouraging/increasing confidence
 relegated to: ignored/pushed to lower position
 political acumen: political sharpness
de facto: real, actual, in fact
astute: shrewd, crafty
doctored accounts: manipulated (false) descriptions
gave vent to: expressed.

NOTICING FORM

The story deals with unreal condition and hypothetical situations. Some of the sentences used to express this notion are given below:
1. If I fire a bullet from a gun in a given direction at a given speed, I know where it will be at a later time.
2. If I knew the answer I would solve a great problem.
3. If he himself were dead in this world, what guarantee had he that his son would be alive.
4. What course would history have taken if the battle had gone the other way? Notice that in an unreal condition, it is clearly expected that the condition will not be fulfilled.

THINGS TO DO

I. Read the following passage on the Catastrophe Theory downloaded from the Internet.

Originated by the French mathematician, Rene Thom, in the 1960s, catastrophe theory is a special branch of dynamical systems theory. It studies and classifies phenomena characterized by sudden shifts in behaviour arising from small changes in circumstances. Catastrophes are bifurcations between different equilibria, or fixed point attractors. Due to their restricted nature, catastrophes can be classified based on the basis of how many control parameters are being simultaneously varied. For example, if there are two controls, then one finds the most common type, called a ‘‘cusp’’ catastrophe. If, however, there are more than five controls, there is no classification.Catastrophe theory has been applied to a number of different phenomena, such as the stability of ships at sea and their capsizing, bridge collapse, and, with some less convincing success, the fight-or-flight behaviour of animals and prison riots.
II. Look up the internet or an encyclopedia for information on the following theories: (i) Quantum theory (ii) Theory of relativity (iii) Big Bang theory (iv) Theory of evolution.

Answers (i) Quantum Theory. Quantum means a very small quantity of electromagnetic energy. Quantum theory is based on the idea that energy exists in units that can’t be divided.

The Adventure Questions

(ii) Theory of relativity. Einstein’s 1905 paper ‘‘On the Electro dynamics of Moving Bodies’’ introduced the special theory of relativity. Special relativity considers that observers in inertial reference frames, which are in uniform motion relative to one another, cannot perform any experiment to determine which one of them is stationary. This is known as the principle of relativity. Einstein’s theory of relativity is his theory of universe which states that all motion is relative and treats time as a fourth dimension related to space.

(iii) Big Bang theory. The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment. After its initial appearance, it (the ‘‘Big Bang’’), apparently inflated, expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.

(iv) Theory of Evolution. Biological evolution ia s genetic change in a population from one generation to another. The speed and direction of changareis variable with different species lines and at different times. Continuous evolution over many generations can result in thdevelopmentnt of new varieties and species. Likewise, failure to evolve in response to environmental changes can, and often does, lead to extinction. Charles Darwin modified his religious beliefs, as a result of the discovery of convincing proof of evolution. In his famous book, ‘On the Origin of Species’, Darwin states his theory of evolution. Simply put evolution is the process of gradual development of plants, animals features over many years from simple to more complex forms.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED

A SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (Word limit: 40 words)

1. What plan of action had Professor Gaitonde arrived at?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde had decided to go to a big library at Bombay and browse through history books. Then he would find out how the present state of affairs was reached. On his return to Pune, he would have a long talk with Rajendra Deshpande. He hoped that Rajendra would help him understand what had happened.

2. Gangadhar Pant had not been to ‘this Bomabay before’. How was ‘the Bombay’ different?
Ans. This Bombay was under the British Raj. An Anglo-Indian in uniform checked permits. Each of the blue carriages of GBMR had the tiny Union Jack painted on it. The Victoria Terminus station looked very neat and clean. The staff was mostly of Anglo-Indians and Parsis along with a handful of British officers.

3. What led Professor Gaitonde to believe that ‘history has taken a different turn, perhaps before 1857?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde noticed an imposing building facing Bombay V.T. It was called East India House, Headquarters of the East India Company. He knew that the East India Company had been wound up shortly after the events of 1857. Yet here it was not only alive but also flourishing. So he concluded that history had taken a different turn.

4. How did the shops and office buildings along Hornby Road differ from those he knew well?
Ans. The Bombay he knew had a tower of OCS building. It peeped above the shorter victorian buildings. There was Handloom House also. There were no such buildings along the Road. Instead there were Boots and Woolworth department stores and offices of Lloyds, Barclays and other British banks.

5. ‘‘This was a blow, not totally unexpected.’’ What was the blow and how was it not totally unexpected?

Ans. At Forbes building, Professor Gaitonde made enquiries about his son Vinay Gaitonde. The English receptionist searched through the telephone list, the staff list and directory of employees of all the branches. She told him that she could not find his name there. This was a blow, but not totally unexpected one. If he himself were dead in this world, his son might not be alive or he might not even have been born.

6. Which according to Gangadharpant was the precise moment where history had taken a different turn?
Ans. The victory of the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat was very important. Abdali was defeated completely and pursued back to Kabul by the triumphant Maratha army led by Sadashivrao Bhau and his nephew, the young Vishwasrao.

7. ‘‘Gangdharpant read through the account avidly.’’ Which account is referred to here? Why did he read it avidly?
Ans. It was not blow by blow account of the battle itself, but its consequences for the power struggle in India. The style of writing was unmistakably Gangadharpant’s own, yet he was reading this account for the first time. So he read it eagerly.

8. How did the Victory in the Battle of Panipat affect the balance of power?

Ans. It was a great morale booster to the Marathas. It established their supremacy in northern India. The influence of Bhausaheb and Vishwasrao increased. The East India Company postponed its expansionist programme. Vishwasrao and his brother Madhavrao had political sharpness and bravery. The Company’s influence was reduced to small areas near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

9. How was the balance of power maintained in the nineteenth century?
Ans. The Peshwas kept the puppet regime alive in Delhi. There were political reasons for it. The Peshwas were the real rulers from Pune. They recognised the importance of the technological age beginning in Europe. They set up their centres for science and technology. East India Company saw an opportunity to increase its influence. It offered aid and experts. These were accepted only to make the local centres self-sufficient.

10. What was the state of India Gangadharpant had seen during the twentieth century?
Ans. India moved towards a democracy. The Peshwas lost their enterprise. They were gradually replaced by democratically elected bodies. The Sultanate at Delhi survived even this change because it exercised no real influence. The Shahenshah of Delhi held a high position but no real power. He simply gave official approval to the ‘recommendations’ made by the central parliament.

11. Why do you think Gangadharpant appreciated the India he had seen recently?
Ans. It was an independent and self-respecting country. It had never been enslaved by the white men. It was self-sufficient. It has allowed the British to retain Bombay as their sole outpost. This was due to purely commercial reasons. The treaty was signed in 1908. That lease was to expire in the year 2001.

12. Where from did Gangadhar Pant get the clue for the question. ‘‘How did the Marathas win the battle?’’ and what did he think about it?

Ans. He got the clue from a book called Bhausahebanchi Bakhar. He found the Bakhars interesting to read, but he seldom relied on them for historical evidence. The detailed but falsified accounts were quite vivid but truth lay hidden somewhere.

13. Which lines revealed that Vishwasrao had come quite close to being killed?

Ans. The lines read: Then Vishwasrao guided his horse to the melee. Elite troops were fighting there. He attacked them. God was merciful. A shot passed by his ear touching it lightly. Even the difference of a til (sesame) would have led to his death.

14. Why was Professor Gaitonde staring at the platform in Azad Maidan as if mesmerized?

Ans. He found a lecture in progress there. He saw a table and a chair on the platform, but the presidential chair was unoccupied. The sight stirred him to the depths. He could not approve of the public lecture without a presiding dignitary. For him it was a sacrilege.

15. How did the audience react to Professor Gaitonde’s remarks: ‘‘an unchaired lecture is like Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ without the Prince of Denmark’’?

Ans. The audience reacted sharply. They were sick of remarks from the chair, of vote of thanks and of long introductions. They had abolished the old customs long ago. Hence that lecture series had no chairperson. The chair was symbolic. They only wanted to listen to the speaker. They asked him to vacate the chair and keep the platform empty.

16. What happened as Professor Gaitonde kept on trying valiantly to correct the sacrilege?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde kept on talking and reminding the audience of the importance of presiding dignitary. The hostile audience reacted sharply. First they showered tomatoes, eggs and other objects on him. Then they rushed to the stage to eject him bodily. He was lost in the crowd.

17. Why do you think Rajendra’s ‘smile’ was replaced by a ‘grave expression’?

Ans. Rajendra had smiled on hearing Professor Gaitonde’s strange narrative. Perhaps he thought that Gaitonde’s mind was playing tricks and his imagination was over excited. He became serious as he read a page torn out of a book. This page from Bakhar contained vital evidence about the different turn history had taken.

18. What do you think made Rajendra realize that ‘‘facts can be stranger than fantasies’’?

Ans. Professor Gaitonde presented two totally different written accounts of the Battle of Panipat as contained in Bhausahebanchi Bakhar. The one he had come across in the other world described how Vishwasrao narrowly missed the bullet. The other account which he had in the familiar world, described that Vishwasrao was hit by the bullet.

19. How does Rajendra explain the disparity in the two accounts of the same crucial event in the Battle of Panipat?

Ans. Rajendra applies catastrophe theory to the Battle of Panipat. The outcome of the battle depended on the leadership and the morale of the troops at the critical juncture. In one of them, the troops lost their morale and fighting spirit at the loss of their leaders. In the other, the bullet missed Vishwasrao and this boosted the morale of troops and they won.

20. ‘‘We live in a unique world which has a unique history,’’ says Professor Gaitonde. What prompts him to make this remark?

Ans. Rajendra tries to explain the outcome of the Battle of Panipat with the help of catastrophe theory. The Marathas might have won it, but actually they lost it. Napoleon could also have won the Battle of Waterloo, but he was defeated. The idea of ‘it might have been’ is all right for the sake of speculation but not for reality.

21. What do you know about ‘reality’ on the basis of your study of Jayant Narlikar’s ‘The Advanture’?

Ans. We can experience reality directly with our senses and indirectly via instruments. Reality is not limited to what we see. It may have other forms. Reality may not be unique. This has been found from experiments on very small systems such as atoms and their smallest parts.

22. What do you understand by, ‘‘The lack of determinism in quantum theory’’?

Ans. Quantum theory is based on the idea that energy exists in units that can’t be divided. Determinism is the doctrine that all events and actions are determined by external forces acting on the will. The phrase thus means that the energy contained in electrons is not determined by the external forces that fire it.

23. How, according to Rajendra, was Gangadharpant able to experience two worlds?

Ans. According to Rajendra, Gangadharpant made a transition from one world to another and back again. By doing so, he was able to experience two worlds, although one at a time. One has the history we know, the other a different history. The separation or bifurcation took place in the Battle of Panipat.

24. ‘‘But why did I make the transition?’’ asks Gangadharpant. How does Rajendra try to convince him with guess work?

Ans. Rajendra has no readymade answer or explanation for this query. He makes a guess. Some interaction is needed to cause a transition. Perhaps Gangadharpant was then thinking about the catastrophe theroy and its role in war. Or he may be wondering about the Battle of Panipat. The neurons in his brain triggered the transition.

25. What had Professor Gaitonde been thinking at the time of collision?

Ans. At the time of his collision with the truck, Professor Gaitonde was thinking about the Battle of Panipat. He was wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the battle had gone the other way, i.e. if the Marathas had won the battle.

26. What do you learn about Professor Gaitonde’s thousandth presidential address?

Ans. His thousandth presidential address was made on the Azad Maidan. He was then rudely interrupted. He wanted to tell the audience what might had happened if Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat. Since people had misbehaved, he could not deliver this address.

B. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (Answer in 100-125 words)

1. ‘‘Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.’’ Elucidate.

Ans. Gangadharpant was an eminent historian of Pune. He had written the History of India in five volumes. During his train journey he was wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the Battle of Panipat had gone the other way. This helped him to make a transition to the other world. India was altogether different country in this world. Unlike the India he knew so well, the India he was witnessing around him was self-sufficient and self-respecting. It was independent. It had never been enslaved by thwhite menmen. It had allowed the British to retain Bombay as their sole outpost. This was done for purely commercial reasons. The buildings and offices in this British Bombay were the same as in typical high street of a town in England. East India House, thheadquartersrs of the East India Company was housed in an imposing building outside Bombay’s VT. The station itself looked remarkably neat and clean. The staff mostly comprised of Anglo-Indians and Parsees along with a handful of British officers. The Bombay he knew was altogether different. The tower of OCS building peeped above the shorter Victorian buildings. There was Handloom House as well22. What, according to Gangadharpant, would have been the consequences if the Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat?

Ans. The consequences of Maratha victory in the Battle of Panipat would have beefafar-reaching. It would have boosted their morale and established their supremacy in northern India. The expansionist programme of the East India Company would have been shelved. The political cleverness and bravery of Maratha rulers would have helped them to expand their influence all over India. The East India Company would have been reduced to pockets of influence near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, just like its European rivals, the Portuguese and the French. The Peshwas would have been real rulers of India. They would have kept the puppet Mughal government in office for political reasons. Recognising the importance of technological age in Europe, they would have set up their own centres for science and technology. The twentieth century would have moved India towards democracy. The Peshwas would have been replaced by democratically elected bodies. The Shahenshah of Delhi would then merely approve the recommendations made by the central parliament.

3. How does Rajendra Deshpande try to rationalize the experience of Professor Gaitonde about his transition to another world and back?

Ans. According to Rajendra, Professor Gaitonde had passed through a fantastic experience, or more correctly, a catastrophic experience. He tried to rationalize it on the basis of two scientific theories that were current then. One was the catastrophe theory. The result of the battle would have been determined by the acts of the leaders and the morale of troops at the critical juncture. The blow of losing the leaders would have led the o loss of morale and fighting spirit. An utter rout would have followed. If the crucial event had gone the other way, its effect on the troops would also have been the opposite. Their morale would have been boosted and they might have won. The course of history would have been different. The other explanation is through the lack of determinism in quantum theory. Catastrophic situations offer radically different alternatives for the world to proceed. All alternatives are viable so far as reality is concerned. However, the observer can experience only one of them at a time. Professor Gaitonde made a transition from one world to the other as he had been thinking about the catastrophe theory and Battle of Panipat. The neurons in his brain acted aa s trigger.

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The Adventure by Jayant Narlikar Summary, Questions

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The Adventure by Jayant Narlikar

INTRODUCTION: The story The Adventure is a blend of science and history. The story highlights the difference between the real world and the parallel world, it also shows the possibility of things happening in the parallel world that cannot happen in the real world.

It is science fiction. Gangadharpant was a historian. He was also known as Professor Gaitonde. He was travelling by the Jijamata Express. His mind was moving fast. He had arrived at a plan of action. In Bombay, he would go to a big library and look through history books. He will try to find out how the present state of affairs was reached. He had also planned to return to Pune and have a long talk with Rajendra Deshpande. He hoped that Rajendra would surely help him understand what had happened. At Sarhad station, an Anglo-Indian in uniform went through the train, checking their permit. This indicated the border of the British Raj. The tiny Union Jack painted on each blue carriage of the Greater Bombay Metropolitan Railway reminded them that they were in British territory. The imposing building outside Bombay V.T. (Victoria Terminus) announced its identity as ‘East India House, Headquarters of the East India Company’. Professor Gaitonde was prepared for many shocks. But he had not expected this.

The East India Company was wrapped up shortly after the 1857 events. Yet It was not only alive here, but also flourishing. So history took a different turn, maybe before 1857. He had to find out how
and when it happened. He found a different set of shops and office buildings as he walked along Hornby Road. These were like a city in England’s typical high street. He turned right on Home Street and entered the building of Forbes. He said the English receptionist that he wanted to meet Mr Vinay Gaitonde.

She consulted telephone list, the staff list and directory of employees of all the branches of the firm. She politely replied that she couldn’t find anyone of the name there or in any other branch. He thanked the girl politely and came out. Taking a quick lunch at a restaurant, he went to the library of the Asiatic Society to solve the riddle. The Town Hall housed the library. He asked for a list of history books including his own. While reading the fifth volume of history, Gangadharpant finally came to the moment where history had taken a different turn. That page in the book described the Battle of Panipat.

It mentioned that the Marathas won it handsomely. Abdali was defeated and pursued back to Kabul by the Maratha army. This victory was a great morale booster to the Marathas. It also established their supremacy in northern India. East India Company suspended its expansionist programme. The company’s influence was reduced to small areas of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Vishwasrao and his brother Madhavrao combined political sharpness with bravery and expanded their influence all over India. They kept the puppet Mughal regime alive in Delhi. They were clever enough to recognise the importance of science and technology. The East India Company offered aid and experts. The twentieth century brought further changes. Inspired by the West, India moved towards democracy. The Peshwas were gradually replaced by democratically elected bodies. The Shahenshah of Delhi survived this change as he exercised no real influence. He okayed the recommendations made by the central parliament.

Gaitonde read on and began to appreciate the India he had seen. It had never been the slave to the British. Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him. He felt his investigations were incomplete. He wanted to know how the Marathas won the battle. He looked for the accounts of the battle itself. He came across ‘Bhaushebanchi Bakhar’. He knew that Bakhars contained detailed but falsified account. He hoped to see the germ of truth. He read the three line account of how close Vishwasrao had come to being killed. As the professor left the table, he shoved some notes into his right pocket. Absent-mindedly, he also shoved the ‘Bakhar’ in his pocket. He found a guest house to stay in, took his meals and set out for a stroll to the Azad Maidan. A lecture was in progress there. He found the presidential chair unoccupied. He swiftly moved towards the chair. The audience asked him to vacate the chair and leave the platform.

Gangadharpant kept talking to the audience. He had the experience of speaking at 999 meetings. He became a target for a shower of tomatoes, eggs and other objects. Finally, the audience swarmed to the stage to eject him. Gandgadharpant could not be seen anywhere in the crowd. Two days later Gangadharpant narrated everything to Rajendra Deshpande. He was back in the world he was familiar with. He did not know exactly where he had spent two days. Rajendra asked him what he had been doing just before his collision with the truck. Professor Gaitonde replied that he was thinking of the catastrophe theory and its implications for history. Then he produced a page torn out of a book. It was a page from the Bakhar. The book was lost in the melee at Azad Maidan. Rajendra read the page which described how Vishwas Rao narrowly missed that bullet and how that event turned the tide in their favour. Then Gangadharpant produced his own copy of ‘Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’. The relevant page described how Vishwasrao was hit by a bullet. Rajendra tried to rationalise his experience on the basis of two scientific theories known till that day.

One was the catastrophe theory. The juncture at which Vishwasrao, the son of the Peshwa and heir, was killed proved to be the turning point. History says that his uncle, Bhausaheb, rushed into the melee and was never seen again. The blow of losing their leaders was crucial for the troops. They lost their morale and fighting spirit. An utter rout followed. The torn page showed the crucial event gone the other way. Rajendra said that reality may not be unique. It has been found from experiments on very small systems of atoms and their particles.

There is a lack of determinism in quantum theory. So there may be many world pictures. All the alternative worlds could exist just the same, though we know the world which is talking about. Catastrophic situations offer radically different alternatives for the world to proceed. So far as reality is concerned all alternatives are viable, but the observer can experience only one of them at a time. By making a transition, Prof.Gaitonde was able to experience two worlds although one at a time—one he lived in then and the one where he spent two days. He was experiencing a different world though he was in the present. Gangadharpant asked why he had made the transition. Rajendra replied that one needed some interaction to cause a transition. Perhaps he was thinking about the catastrophic theory and its role in the war, or he was wondering about the Battle of Panipat. Perhaps the neurons in his brain acted as a trigger. Professor Gaitonde admitted that he had been wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the battle had gone the other way.

The Adventure by Jayant Narlikar

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NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVEDA. UNDERSTANDING THE TEXT (Word limit: 40 words)

I. Tick the statement that is true in the following:
1. The story is an account of real events.( )
2. The story hinges on a particular historical event.( )
3. Rajendra Deshpande was a historian.( )
4. The places mentioned in the story are all imaginary. ( )
5. The story tries to relate history to science. ( )

Ans. 1. False, 2. True, 3. False, 4. False, 5. True.

II. Briefly explain the following statements from the text: (Answer in up to 40 words)

1.‘‘You neither travelled to the past nor the future. You were in the present experiencing a different world.’’
Ans. Gangadharpant, according to Rajendra Deshpande, had made a transition from one world to another and back again. By making a transition, he was able to experience two worlds although one at a time. He neither travelled to the past nor to the future. He was in the present but experiencing a different world.

2. ‘‘You have passed through a fantastic experience: or more correctly, a catastrophic experience.’’
Ans. Gangadharpant had passed through a strange experience. He had the experience of living in two worlds–the one he lived in now and the other where he had spent two days. This world had a different history. Rajendra explains his experience by terming it as a catastrophic experience.

3. Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with that he was witnessing around him.
Ans. Gangadharpant knew India which had seen the decline of the Peshwas and experienced the slavery of the British. But the India he had seen in two days was entirely different. It had not been subjected to slavery for the white men. It was self-dependent and enjoyed self-respect. He compared the two countries–the one that he knew already and the other that he was witnessing around him. Both had different histories.

4. ‘‘The lack of determinism in quantum theory!’’
Ans. The quantum theory is based on the idea that energy exists in units that cannot be divided. This theory lacks the belief that people are not free to choose what they are like or how they behave because these things are decided by their background, surroundings and other things over which they have no control.

5. ‘‘You need some interaction to cause a transition.’’
Ans. Rajendra Deshpande explained to Gangadharpant that the latter was able to experience two worlds by making a transition. Gangadharpant wanted to know why he made the transition. Science does not provide a ready-made answer to it. Rajendra observed that one needs some interaction to cause a transition. He made a guess. Perhaps Professor Gaitonde was then thinking about the catastrophe theory and its role in wars or he might have been wondering about the Battle of Panipat.

B. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT (Answer in 100-125 words)

1.Discuss the following in groups of two pairs, each taking opposite points of view:

(i) A single event may change the course of the history of a nation.

Ans. Sometimes a single event may prove so disastrous that it can change the course of the history of a nation. For example, take the Battle of Panipat. Ahmad Shah Abdali had come all the way from Kabul to attack Delhi. Since the Mughal Emperor at Delhi had no real strength to fight his army, it was the Marathas who faced Abdali in the decisive battle at Panipat. There was no difference between Abdali’s troops and the opposing forces. Their armour was comparable. So, a lot depended on the leadership and morale of troops. At a critical juncture, Vishwasrao was hit by a bullet. He was the son of the Peshawa and his heir. His death proved to be the turning point. Bhausaheb rushed into the crowd and was never seen again. The blow of losing their leaders was crucial for the troops. They lost their morale and fighting spirit. The Marathas were completely defeated. The Britishers were now free to start their expansionist programme. Gradually, they enslaved the whole of India, except some states which had treaties with them.

(ii) Reality is what is directly experienced through the senses.
Ans. What is reality? Some say that reality is what we experience directly through the senses. Other are of the opinion that we may experience reality through instruments as well. Then another question arises: Whether reality is limited to what we see or if it has other forms to make itself known. Reality may not be unique. Experiments on atoms and their particles have proved it. The behaviour of these small systems is quite startling. It cannot be predicted definitively, even if all the physical laws governing those systems are known. An electron fired from a source may be found here, there, anywhere. So there may be many world pictures. In one world the electron is found here, in another, it is over there. In yet another, it is in a still different location. Once the observer finds where it is, we know which world we are talking about. But all those alternative worlds could exist just the same. A transition is needed to reach the other worlds. Hence reality is always not what is directly experienced through the senses.

(iii) The method of inquiry of history, science and philosophy are similar.

Ans. History, science and philosophy—all depend on analysis of facts. History is a detailed account of the events that occurred in a particular area—a state, nation or world during a particular period. Science has its laws codified which are based on observation, experiments and conclusion. Philosophy is the study of nature and meaning of the universe and of human life. It deals with deeper questions. However, the methods of inquiry in all these branches of knowledge, i.e. history, science and philosophy are the same. We apply the methods of induction and deduction. Observation and analysis are the tools of the researchers. Every finding is carefully analysed and verified. A historian collects facts and tests their veracity (truthfulness) by comparing them with contemporary accounts. Similarly, a scientist does not evolve a law on the basis of a single experiment. A principle in Philosophy is an outcome of sustained observation, analysis and comparison. Today we find the methods of science being used to explain history.

2. (i) The story is called ‘‘Adventure’’. Compare it with the adventure described in ‘‘We’re not Afraid To Die.’’
Ans. The adventure described in ‘‘We’re not Afraid To Die’’ involves the experiences of six characters namely the narrator, his wife Mary, son Jonathan, daughter Suzanne and crew members Larry Vigil and Herb Seigler, whereas the story ‘Adventure’ recounts the experiences of only one person—professor Gaitonde. Both stories present human beings imbued with a spirit of adventure and inquiry. The ship ‘Wavewalker’ carries its passengers around the world in a sea voyage where they come across disastrous sea waves in strange seas. Professor Gaitonde’s railway journey in Jijamata Express carries him to the part of the country which he has seen for the first time. Both stories contain horrible circumstances and dangerous events. The collision of the ship ‘Wavewalker’ with huge sea waves puts the lives of all the passengers in danger. Professor Gaitonde’s collision with a truck makes him senseless. The captain and crew, caught in the web of huge sea waves, make efforts to save the ship and reach a place of safety. Professor Gaitonde tries to persuade a hostile audience and is manhandled. He seeks a scientific explanation of his transition to another world and returns therefrom. ‘‘

(ii) Why do you think Professor Gaitonde decided never to preside over meetings again?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde had the experience of speaking at 999 meetings and had faced the Pune audience as being most hostile. During his visit to the other world, he found a lecture going on at Azad Maidan. The presidential chair on the stage was unoccupied. Professor Gaitonde who believed in propriety and decorum in social and public life, considered it to be a sacrilege and wanted to correct the wrong act. He went to the mike to express his views. But the unfriendly audience was in no mood to listen. They declared that they were sick of remarks from the chair, of the vote of thanks, of long introductions. They only wanted to listen to the speaker. They had abolished the old customs long ago. The presidential chair was just symbolic. The crowd interrupted Professor Gaitonde in his lecture and pushed him with force bodily. This was a very harrowing experience for the eminent historian and he decided never to preside over meetings again.

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