Plot Summary, Characters and action, Theme, Symbolism, and Moral of  The Happy Prince

Plot Summary, Characters and action, Theme, Symbolism, and Moral of ‘The Happy Prince’

High over the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. It was an amazing statue and was extremely respected indeed. The statue of Happy Prince looked simply like an angel. One night there flew over the city a little swallow. His companions had left to Egypt a month and a half before however, he had remained behind, for he has an adoration for a most excellent reed. Throughout the day it flew and during the evening time, he arrived at the city.
There he saw a statue on a tall saw. He landed just between the feet of the Happy Prince. As he was going to sleep a huge drop of water fell on him. He gazed upward and saw the eyes of the Happy Prince filled with tears. The Happy Prince told the swallow that he didn’t have an inkling what tears were, for he lived in the royal palace. So he lived and passed on and the people set him at the tall column wherefrom can see all the misery and ugliness of the city. Swallow promised to live on with Happy Prince. Little swallow did persistently whatever Happy Prince directed.
She helped the poor mother with ruby from the top of Happy Prince’s sword. Then helped the young fellow completing his play for the theatre with the valuable sapphire, that was, Happy Princ’s eye and after this, he provided the little match girl with another sapphire from his second eye. The little swallow could not perform such work anymore as Happy Prince has turned absolutely blind. But the Prince insisted him to continue the job. The Prince told the little swallow please help the hungry and poor people. He said, “I am secured with gold; you should take it off leaf by leaf and offer it to the needy people.” The little swallow removed the gold leaf by leaf, till the prince looked very dull and grey.
Time passed by, and the swallow realized he was going to die. Swallow says goodbye to the Happy Prince and died at his feet. The heart of Happy Prince made out of lead split. God sent his blessed messenger to acquire the two most valuable things in the city. Angel carried them to Heaven.

The Happy Prince summary

The characters and actions of ‘The Happy Prince’

“The Happy Prince” is a fairy tale Oscar Wilde wrote for two sons but its humane value goes far beyond the fairy world of children. The story develops sympathy for the poor and makes people look back on their attitude towards people in and around them. All the good actions of the Happy Prince are so worthy and it deserves respect and admiration. The characters set around Happy Prince are the little Swallow, the poor Mother, the Little Match Girl, and the Playwright. The Happy Prince’s actions of helping the poor indeed, are noteworthy. Without the sword hilt, the seamstress’s sun may die a fever. His immediate and valuable gift of sapphire to the playwright to buy food and firewood and escape from hunger shows Happy Prince’s deep sympathy towards the playwright.

Happy Prince prevents the poor little Match Girl from being beaten by his father as she has dropped all the matches in the dirty street and has spoiled them. With the help of the remaining sapphire from his body, Happy Prince was not hesitant to strip himself off all the gold leaves to save the children from hunger and cold.

Symbolism used in the short story:

In literature, symbolism is that figure of speech where an object, person, or situation has another meaning other than its literal meaning. Writers use symbols to signify ideas and qualities in an indirect manner. So, the deep hidden meaning that leads readers to understand the message conveyed in a story is what relates to symbolism.

The Happy Prince is a story that pictures the deeds of two understanding and loving beings, though they are not human; the Happy Prince and the little swallow. The swallow is a symbol of loyalty and friendship as he remains with the prince and helps him fulfill his wishes. The lead heart of the prince is the symbol of love and immortality as it did not melt and was placed with the dead swallow. The Mayor and his council members are a symbol of authority and repression. The old woman, a young playwright and the girl represent the poor section of society who suffer and strive hard to earn a living.


“The Happy Prince” has a fairy tale mode of expression; fantasy. It is basically a reality that is woven creatively within fiction. It was first published in the 1888 anthology ‘The Happy Prince and other Tales’ written by Oscar Wilde.

The story carries various themes such as:

a. Love: The compassion of the statue for other people and the bird’s swallow depicts great sensitive feelings. The prince gives away everything to help people and the swallow and prince share a fantastic love bond.

b. Sacrifice: While the prince gives away his ruby, eyes and gold leaves, the little swallow sacrifices his life to serve humanity. The bird did not reach Egypt to meet its companions, instead stayed with the prince in harsh cold weather and at last died at the feet of the statue.

c. Appearances can be deceptive: This story has a great lesson to teach as it portrays a statue coated in gold but basically it is made up of lead. The appearance was grand but when all gold coating came off, the statue looked ugly. Another thing associated with it is that the prince was happy when he was alive and enjoyed his wealth but the time he saw human beings suffering, he was saddened by the poverty and pain around him.

d. Exploitation and hypocrisy of the ruling class of society: This theme is vibrant in the story as the Mayor and his members of office judged the statue and chose to pull it down as they thought it looked ugly. Also, the happy prince lived in his palace not knowing the misery of human beings as he never bothered to look beyond the huge walls of his palace. The rich live lavishly and the poor are not treated well.

e.True Friendship: The prince in the story shares a great bond of friendship and respect with the little swallow. Whatever the prince commands, the swallow follows the orders religiously. The friendship they had was so true and loyal that they were put in heaven together.

Moral Value Of The Happy Prince

‘The Happy Prince’ – the story has a fine moral. Good rewards those who feel for the poor and make sacrifices to remove miseries and sufferings of other people. The Prince and the Little Swallow who helps him are rewarded in Heaven for their kind deed on earth.

Here, one finds men and women who love those who robe them or beat them, as though the soul were intoxicated by its discovery of human nature, or found even a secret delight in the shattering of the image of his desire. It is as though it cried, “I would be possessed by” or “I would possess that which is humane: what do I care if it is good or bad?”
There is no “disillusionment”, for they have found that which they have sought, but that which they have sought and found is a fragment.

The Happy Prince Questions and Answers

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 English


Summary Of The Happy Prince

This is an intriguing story about the statue of a Happy Prince and a little Swallow. The Prince was a sublime statue situated on a tall column high over the city. The idol was plated with fine leaves of gold and he had two brilliant sapphires settled instead of eyes. He had likewise a precious ruby settled in his sword hilt and his heart was made of lead. Every one of these things made the Happy Prince captivating.

The Happy Prince

The Happy Prince

One night a little swallow flew there over the city. He was worn out and needed some rest. He saw Happy Prince and choose to spend the night between his feet. As he was set up to rest a large drop of water fell on him. It was interested in light of the fact that there was no cloud in the sky. Sooner or later, another drop of water fell on him. The swallow was exasperated. He chose to escape from that point to search for somewhere else for relief. Simply then the third drop of water fell on him, he gazed upward and incredibly, he saw that these were the tears overflowing from the eyes of Happy Prince.

On seeing this, the heart of the swallow was filled with pity. He asked Happy Prince who he was and for what reason, he was crying. The Happy Prince replied the swallow that he lived in the palace when he was alive and had a human heart. There was no sorrow and distress around him and his courtiers called him Happy Prince. After his passing, he had been set up on the high column. His heart is comprised of lead yet it generally sobs when he sees the ugliness and hopelessness of his city. He told the swallow that at a distance in a little street, there is a little child of a seamstress who is feeling the fever. He is crying because his mother couldn’t give him oranges to eat. He requested that the swallow giveaway his ruby to the poor lathe day when he was going to Egypt. He complied with the Happy Prince and after that, he flew and laid the ruby on the table of the poor woman.

Happy Prince then saw a writer. He was cold, moreover, he was starving. Happy Prince asked the swallow to give the writer one of the sapphires. The swallow had no wish to remove the sapphire from his eyes, but he was reluctantly obedient.
The Happy Prince then saw a match girl and her matches had fallen into the rubble. At his command, the swallow again unwillingly slaughtered the other sapphire from the Happy Prince’s other eye and the prince was now blind completely. The swallow slipped the sapphire on the palm of the match girl. After that, the Happy Prince permitted the swallow to take off to Egypt but the swallow chose to remain with the Prince who had turned blind now.

The Happy Prince Summary

The Happy Prince

The swallow revealed the plight of poor people. The swallow took from the statue the gold leaves and spread them among the destitute individuals as per the direction of the Happy Prince. The statue was currently dark and dull. The ice made the swallow colder and colder and he was going to die. He went to the Happy Prince, who asked him to kiss him on his lips. At the foot of the statue, the swallow fell and died. The leaden heart of the Happy Prince broke into two halves. The Mayor came and said that the statue should be pulled down, as it was either unpleasant not helpful. The broken heart did not dissolve in the furnace.

It was thrown out on a waste stack, which included the dead Swallow also. God asked the angels to bring to Him the two most precious stuff in the city. God applauded the decision of the angel’s decision in presenting to him the heavy heart of the Happy Prince and the dead Swallow

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Questions Of The Happy Prince

Q.Why do the courtiers call the prince ‘the Happy Prince’? Is he really happy? What does he see all around him?

Ans. The courtiers call the prince the “Happy Prince” because he lived in the palace where sorrow was not allowed to enter. He did not know what tears were and sorrow was not allowed to enter his palace. He was really happy because he was brought up in luxurious surroundings. For this reason, the courtiers called him The Happy Prince. When the prince died and his statue was set up in the city square. He could now see the reality of life from that height. He could see the misery of the poor and their pitiable condition. He could feel the pain his people were suffering from. All this left him no happier.

Q. Why does the Happy Prince send a ruby for the seamstress? What does the swallow do in the seamstress’ house?

Ans. The prince wanted the swallow to pick out the ruby from his sword-hilt and take it to the poor seamstress because he saw the poor woman’s son was seriously sick. He was crying on his bed. The boy was asking for oranges. But the woman could not afford. Therefore, the Happy Prince sent a ruby for her. The swallow put the ruby on a table and fanned the boy’s forehead with its wings.

Q. For whom does the Prince send the sapphires and why?

Ans. The prince sends one sapphire for a playwright and the other to a poor match girl.
The Happy Prince saw a young playwright. He was leaning over a desk covered with papers. His hair was brown and crisp and his lips were red. He had large and dreamy eyes. He was trying to finish a play for the theatre. But he was feeling cold as there was no firewood, and hunger had made him faint. So, he could not finish the play.

The Happy Prince also saw a poor match girl. The match girl was weeping after she accidentally throws her matches into a drain. She was afraid that her parents would beat her.
The Happy Prince helped both the playwright and the poor girl by sending them the sapphires.

Q. What does the swallow see when it flies over the city?
Ans. When the swallow flies over the city, it sees the rich enjoying in their houses while the baggers begging at their gates. The swallow even sees two little-wretched boys lying in each other’s arms to keep themselves warm. In this way, the swallow sees the stark contrast between prosperity and poverty.

The swallow was a nice bird. He wanted to go to Egypt with his friends. At first, when he rests between the feet of the Happy Prince, he had no feeling of helping others. His quality becomes obvious when we notice tears in his eyes on seeing the Happy Prince’s heart aching. He discharges his duty with full loyalty and obedience. When he starts living with the Prince, he becomes more sympathetic towards others. He has a deep sense of service. He helps the seamstress by bringing her a ruby and fanned the sick boy with his wings. He helps the playwright and the match girl too. He rejected his idea to go to Egypt when the Happy Prince became blind. In the end, he died and fell down at his feet.

Q. Why did the swallow not leave the prince and go to Egypt?

Ans. The Happy Prince had become totally blind. The swallow was impressed with his charity and kindness. He had sacrificed everything for the good cause of helping the poor and downtrodden in their needs.
He sacrificed even the two sapphires of his eyes thereby making it hard for anybody to prove more generous than himself. These unusual traits of the Happy Prince had a deep impact on the heart of swallow. The swallow loved the prince now much that he could not leave him in that state. He decided not to go to Egypt. He remained there till his last breath.

Q.Why is the statue of the Prince described as looking like a beggar and being no longer useful?
Ans. The statue of the prince had lost all that had made it great and resplendent. It had lost all it gold, sapphires and the ruby. It looked worn out like a beggar.

The Happy Prince Questions and Answers

The Happy Prince

Q.What proclamation does the mayor make about the death of the birds?

Ans. The proclamation made by the Mayor was that no birds should be allowed to die in the city

Q.What impression do you gather of his personality form this?

Ans. From the Mayor’s remarks, we gather that he was an irrational and censorious person. Instead of thinking about the disappearance of the prince assets and what has made the statue so shabby above how has the bird died, he makes proclamations without any rationale. He just looks at the external appearance of things instead of thinking about the essence of things.

Q. What were the two precious things the angel brought to God? In what way were they precious?

The two most precious things mentioned in the story are the leaden heart of the happy prince and the dead swallow. The happy prince had sacrificed these to serve the suffering humanity and help the poor. The swallow fulfilled the wishes of the happy prince. He sacrificed his self-interest in going to Egypt. He carried gold and jewels to the suffering people. He remained with the prince in the bad weather also. He died at the prince’s feet. So, the angel was right when it took the leaden heart of the prince and the dead swallow to Heaven.

Q. What happened to the prince ’s heart? What feelings does the end of the story arouse in you?
Ans. The prince’s heart broke into two halves when the bird fell dead at its feet. When the leaden heart was put into the furnace, it does not melt. So, it was thrown away. Therefore, the dead bird and the leaden heart met even after death. The end the story arouses in us deep sympathy for the two. The angels considered the leaden heart the most precious thing in the city. They took it to heaven.


Q. What made the statue so beautiful?
Ans. The statue was covered all over with the fine leaves of gold. Two bright sapphires were fixed in place of eyes, and the heart was made of lead. A large ruby was fixed in his sword hilt.

Q. Why did now the Happy Prince what the tears were?

Ans. When the Prince was alive, he lived in a palace. The prince lived happily and knew no sorrow. Even the courtiers called him the happy prince. So, he did not know what tears were.

Q. How did God reward the Happy Prince and the Swallow for their sacrifice?
Ans. God rewarded the happy prince and the swallow by giving them a place in heaven. The swallow will sing forever in the garden of paradise and the happy prince will live in the city of gold.


Q. What obligations does the story teach us towards society?
Ans. Society is where the protection of all individuals is the primary concern. We find people in society who suffer from all manner of ills such as poverty, hunger, diseases and natural disasters. Students can play an active part in social protection. Students can take on tasks such as educating poor children and adults. The fundamentals of learning can be taught to those without education. Students can play a major role in promoting concepts like hygiene and sanitary treatment. The importance of cleanliness should be taught to people. Moral values can be conveyed in addition to this. Short stories based on honesty, the discipline of truth, and so on can be popularized. This allows students to be a great bridge between the haves and have-nots. Students can create a society without sorrow or misery.

Q.What is the conclusion of ‘The Happy Prince?

The story concludes that goodness is everlasting and ever- rewarding. The Happy Prince was good for everyone. The widespread poverty and misery of people moved him. He gave his eyes, gold and jewellery to the needy. His heart was divided into two halves when the swallow died at his feet. The Gappy Prince’s statue was not useful anymore. It was dull and useless. The heart of the statue did not melt in a furnace as goodness could never be destroyed. The prince and swallow were both recompensed by God and gave them a place in Heaven.

Thus, good deeds are ever rewarding. In other words, good deeds always pay in one’s life. It is true that mortal life is meant to decay and death and good deeds make one immortal. In life, we get the utmost contentment and inner pleasure by doing some charitable act or by helping others. In the story ‘The Happy Prince’, both the happy prince and the swallow were rewarded for their good deeds by God. They found a permanent place in heaven. The swallow will sing forever in the garden of paradise and the happy prince will live in the city of gold. Thus the story teaches us to live a meaningful life by helping those who are in need.

Q. Do you agree that happiness from making others happy is far greater and deeper than any other happiness.

There are fun, happiness and thrill in buying things for ourselves and enjoying life on your own but the happiness got from making others happy is far greater and deeper than any happiness. We can get them by doing things just for ourselves. There is a Chinese proverb, “Fragrance clings to the hand that gives roses”. The fragrance of happiness clings to the heart that spread happiness to others. In the story, the Happy Prince could not see the misery of people. He lived a comfortable life inside the palace and never saw the misery and ugliness of the people around him but in the form of the statue when he witnessed the pathetic condition of the poor he sacrificed all to serve the suffering humanity and got everlasting happiness in heaven.

Q. The story presents a shocking contrast between external appearance and the essence of things. How?

This is a strange world. It presents a shocking contrast. Nothing succeeds like success here. So long you are powerful and strong you are respected and obeyed. In this dazzling world of wealth and riches, human feelings have no relevance. The statue of the Happy Prince was installed at the highest column in the most important square of the city. It was gilded all over with fine gold. His eyes had two bright sapphires and a large red ruby glowed on his sword hilt. He was a symbol of power, beauty and grandeur. The moment he lost his gold, sapphires and the grand ruby, he became very ordinary, ugly and useless. He was to be pulled down and melted in a furnace. The Mayor and the Town Counsellors were cruel and selfish.

Q. What is the moral lesson of “The Happy Prince”?
Ans. The moral lesson of “The Happy Prince” is that the worst aspects of modern society can be overcome by righteousness Righteousness always plays an important in role bringing prosperity. The case might be of a person, a family, a country or a nation. Of course, wealth and power can provide luxury and comfort. But mental satisfaction and spiritual peace cannot be brought. Every spiritual and religious leader recommend that people take the right path and avoid the way of vice. It is possible to take care of the old, weak and downtrodden sections of society when you are virtuous. When you go the right way, the nation rises to great heights. Righteousness blesses a man with great satisfaction and happiness. In the story, the Happy Prince reached the highest level with his fellow swallows through righteousness.

Check Your Progress

  1. What is the theme of The Happy Prince by Oscar Wilde?
  2. What is the moral of the Happy Prince?
  3. What is the conclusion of the Happy Prince?
  4. Who is swallow in Happy Prince?

  1. What is the moral of the Happy Prince?
  2. What is the genre of the Happy Prince?
  3. Why is the prince called happily was he really happy Why?
  4. What is the conflict of the story The Happy Prince?
  5. Why was the Happy Prince crying?
  6. What is the climax of the Happy Prince?
  7. Where was the statue of Happy Prince?
  8. How did the statue of the Happy Prince look?
  9. What is the theme of the story The Happy Prince?
  10. Why was the Happy Prince crying?
  11. What kind of life did the happy prince lead when he was alive
  12. Why was the Happy Prince crying?
  13. What are the precious things mentioned in the story The Happy Prince?
  14. Why is the prince called happy? Was he really happy? Why?


Cart Driver Questions Answers and Summary

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English – Cart Driver

Central Idea: The poem “Cart Driver ” is a wonderful poem written by Padma Sachdev. The poem talks about the love that a mother has for her children. It is an atmosphere of mystery that creates fear and dread. The bulbul feels the danger of fire in its home (forest) in the poem. To save her fledgelings, she wants to rush to them, but she finds herself unable to move or fly out of fear.

Cart Driver Summary

This poem is about the love a mother has for her children. It is a hair–raising atmosphere that created fear an dread. It is a tussle between love the mother has for her own self and she has for her children. In the darkness of night, a bulbul is looking for food for its four little ones. It is moving its steps very cautiously. On hearing a sound the bulbul gets unstable. It wants to reach its nest quickly with grain in its beak. A bullock cart passes through the forest. The bulbul hides. The cart is moving but the driver is asleep. The bird imagines that if the hookah overturns the forest will catch fire. The bulbul wants to fly to its nest but it is not able to lift its legs out of fear.

Cart Driver Summary

Cart Driver


In the fearful silence of the forest

I hear

The sound of the footfalls

Of a careful bulbul

Out in the night shaking the feathers on his head

To find food for its four little ones

Hungry in the next

Moving slowly, afraid,

its ears pricked to pick

some sound somewhere
with the grain in its beak

it hastens to the nest

its twittering fledgelings do not know

the forest is in the throes of fear

they continue chirping.

The bulbul trembles

Moves with his head raised

Alert, all ears.

Suddenly there is a sound of wheels

The sound of dry leaves crackling

The sound rising and subsiding

The bulbul hides itself in the bushes.

It sees

A bullock cart laden with good

Bullocks moving by themselves

Heads down

The driver asleep, snoring

Eyes covered with the head of his turban

What if the cart stumbles

The cart drivers’ hookah overturns’

The forest catches fire’

It imagines the forest on fire

Wishes to run towards its nest

To save its young ones

But cannot lift its legs

Out of fear

(Translated from the Dogri by Dr Karan Singh)

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Cart Driver Poem

Cart Driver

Paraphrase of Cart Driver

Line (1 – 7): The poet says he hears the sound of the footfalls of a careful bulb in a fearful silence of the forest. The bulb was out in the evening, shaking its feathers on his head. In the frightening night, the bulbul finds food for his young ones hungry in the nest.

Line (8 – 18): The poet says the bulbul is slowly moving out of fear. It has raised its ears because of the sound that it has heard from somewhere.

The bulb with the grain carrying in it hastens to its nest. The fledgelings make a series of short, high sounds in the nest, without knowing that their living place ( forest) is in danger. They continue to chirp, but the bulb continues to tremble out of fear. The bulbul carefully moves with its ears raised and remains itself on a complete alert.

Line (19 – 28): All of sudden, there is a sound of wheels in the forest. The wheels of the bullock-cart also produce a sound of dry leaves crackling. It is a sound that grows and then becomes less powerful. When this sound is heard, the bulbul rushes to the bushes and hides behind them. It saw a bullock-cart loaded with goods, the driver sleeping. He snores and his eyes are covered with a turban on his head. The bullocks move with their heads down by themselves.

Line (29 – 36): The bulbul is worried, filled with fear. He fears that if the cart stumbles and the hookah of its driver overturn and then the entire forest( Bulbul ‘s dwelling) could catch fire. The bulbul imagines the forest is already on fire. She wants to hasten to her nest, where she has kept her chicks, but cannot lift her legs out of fear.

Cart Driver Question and Answers

Q.1 Why is the bulbul afraid? Why does the bulbul hasten to its nest?

Ans: The bulbul is afraid because the forest is in the throes of terror. There is fearful silence all-round. In this fearful silence the bulbul hears some sound. It is the sound of wheels and the sound of the crackling of leaves. The bulbul hastens to its nest in order to take care of its four fledgelings which are hungry and alone in the nest.

Q.2 Why does the bulbul hide in the bushes?
Ans: It hides behind the bushes because it doesn’t want to be noticed by anyone. The bird gets terrified of hearing the sound of the wheels of the cart.

Q.3 What does the bulbul imagine?
Ans.: It imagines the forest on fire.

Q.4 What feeling does bulbul”s imagination arouse in the readers?

Ans.: Bulbul’s imagination arouses in the readers the feeling of selfless love and attachment that a mother has for its young ones. Mothers are always worried about their children more than themselves. The imagination also arouses in the readers the feeling sympathy for the bird.

Q.5 Why is a poem named “Cart Diver”?
Ans.: It is the cart driver’s irresponsible behaviour that petrifies the bulbul. The poet conveys his message through the folly of the cart driver. From the beginning, we also see the mother bird work hard to feed her young ones but it is only at the arrival of the cart driver that we come to know the extent of love a mother has for the children. Therefore the poem has been named “Cart Driver”.

Q. What images does the poet use to create an atmosphere of fear and silence in the poem?
Ans. An atmosphere of tear and silence is created by the following images in the poem:

1. Fearful silence of the forest.
2. Ears picked to pick some sound
3. Throes of fear
4. Hooka overturns
5. The forest on fire
6. Can‘t lift its leg
7. Sound of paws
8. Bulbul trembles
9. The bulbul hides in the bushes

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No Men Are Foreign Summary And NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 English



Universal brotherhood is the paramount need of the hour. This poem underlines the same concern of universal brotherhood. The poet tries to emphasize the similarities between the different races. The poet says that, although there are differences in colour, caste or religion, all people share many characteristics that distinguish them from animals.

The poet says everyone has the same body. All men’s bodies breathe, eat, sleep, drink alike. People live the same kind of life everywhere. All people live on the same earth. The same earth feeds all of them. We should, therefore, shun hatred. To hate others is to hate ourselves. People defile the purity of the earth by engaging in wars. The earth is everywhere our own. The poet says nobody is strange and there is no like a foreign land. Love all and hate none is the main theme of the poem.

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 NCERT Solutions of No Men Are Foreign

No Men Are Foreign


It is true that many people tell that they live a peaceful life for a long time. We never follow with their message. We also know that our greed for wealth and power can not give us peaceful lives. But some deep-rooted evils in our society distinguish us from others. We know that people have made all their customs and conventions. God made everyone equal. But for our selfish motives, we make differences between people. We hate even our family members more because of our ego. We’re finally harming ourselves. We are hateful objects for society. People in society dislike selfish people.

Therefore, before we hurt the feeling of others, we should, first of all, consider whether doing this with others is justified by other people or society. We should learn to do something, that is, live like brothers with others. We should learn to tolerate and forgive. Only then our life would only be happy and peaceful.

Sometimes selfish people incite the innocent to harm others. They do it for their selfish purpose. The ordinary person doesn’t understand their tricks and begins to hate their fellow human beings. They tell them to provoke riots. The poet says that nobody’s advice should be followed without brooding over it. The poet says again and again that there is no difference between them and foreigners. All the people of the world the same.

Everyone is responsible for the war. If we begin to hate our brothers, we will become the cause of tension, and the tension will one day be transformed into war. Therefore, nobody should hate and despise anybody. Our prejudice and impolite behaviour towards other people is the cause of unnecessary wars.

Summary No Men Are Foreign

No Men Are Foreign


The main theme of the poem “No Men are Foreign” is the unity of humankind The poet explains beautifully the shallow differences of colour, race, nationality and religion. He teaches that every single person is our brother or sister. The people who spread scorn and take up arms are hoodlums and have the right to be condemned. The poem vehemently discussed the matchless quality of affection, accord, companionship and friendship among all people in this world.

We are all alike. We have the same structure of the body. For many purposes, we all need air to breathe, sun to get sunlight and warmth and water. Our daily routine is nearly the same, too. In the morning we get up, have a bath, have breakfast and go to work or school. We all long for love. We all sleep at night and wake up in the morning. When we have the same needs and feelings, we should treat everyone equally. We should not look at anyone based on their colour, their caste, their region or their sex. Everyone should be our brother and sister. Sadly, some self-centred people are fighting and trying to hurt others. They believe others have hurt them.

They believe others have hurt them. They are our brothers, too. We should forgive them or compromise with them if they make any mistakes.


“No Men are Foreign” is an appropriate title for the poem because it gives the message of the widespread fraternity. People throughout the world have identical structural and behavioural features. The distinctions on the basis of manmade ideas of caste, ideology, colour and so forth are unnatural. Each individual shares the same blessings. Thus, no individual is a foreigner or an untouchable.

Theme No Men Are Foreign

No Men Are Foreign

NCERT Solutions of No Men Are Foreign

Questions: Q.1 What does the poet mean by “uniforms” the poem?

Ans. The word “uniforms” in the poem probably means the dresses that the different people of different nationalities, religions and castes wear on the basis of their culture and geography. It may also mean the uniforms that the soldiers of different nations wear on their borders.

Q.2 What according to the poet makes all the people alike on earth?

Ans. All the people on this earth wake up, sleep, eat and drink likewise. Every one among us has the like feeling of love and hate.
We all share the same sunshine, air and water. All have the same structure of the body. The daily routine is nearly the same, too. In the morning all get up, have a bath, have breakfast and go to work or school. We all sleep at night and wake up in the morning. When we have the same needs and feelings. Everyone on earth has suffered some loss. These are the features which according to the poet make all people alike.

Q.3 What outrages the innocence and beauty of this earth?

Ans. It is the hatred against each other that outrages the innocence and beauty of this earth. By engaging in wars and shedding blood of innocent people the man defiles this earth.

Sometimes selfish people incite the innocent to harm others. They do it for their selfish purpose. The ordinary person doesn’t understand their tricks and begins to hate their fellow human beings. They tell them to provoke riots. The poet says that nobody’s advice should be followed without brooding over it.

Q.4 What message do you get from them?

Ans. The poem gives us a lesson of universal brotherhood. The poem is an attempt to keep people away from hating other people. The poet also tries to make it clear that we should not dismantle the peace and harmony. We should not look at anyone based on their colour, their caste, their region or their sex. Everyone should be our brother and sister

Q.5 Do you find any rhyme scheme in the poem?

Ans. No, there is no rhyme scheme in this poem. It has been composed in free verse.

Q.6 What is free verse?

Ans. A kind of poetry berated from the shackles of rhyme and metre.

Q. 7 What is the style used by the poet in the poem?

Ans:- The style of the poet is quite impressive. The poet has tried to explain each and every point with the help of distinct examples and expressions; he tried to convey the message of oneness and the importance of universal brotherhood.
The poet has used repetition and refrain in the poem to emphasise the message of brotherhood in the poem. The word ‘remember’ has been used in many places in the poem.

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More Study Notes and Attractions

➡ It is true that many people have been telling us to live harmoniously since long. We never follow their message. We also know that our greed to get more wealth and power cannot give us a peaceful life. But some deep-rooted evils in our society make us draw a distinction between people. We know that all customs and conventions have been made by people. God has made all people equal. But we make differences between people for our selfish motives. We start to hate even our family members due to our ego to be more powerful. By doing so, we at last harm ourselves. We become objects of hate for society. In society, people dislike selfish people.
So before going to hurt other’s feeling, first of all, we should think whether doing such act with others are justified by other people or society. We should learn to live with others as brothers. We should learn to tolerate, forgive and compromise. Only in this way, our life would be happy and peaceful.

➡ Sometimes some selfish people instigate the innocent to harm others. They do it for their own benefit. The common or ordinary man does not understand their tricks and starts hating his fellow human beings. They tell them to cause riots. The poet says that one should not follow anybody’s advice without brooding over it. The poet repeatedly says that there is no difference in them and the foreigners. The people of the entire world are the same.

➡ Everyone is responsible for the war. If we start hating our brethren, we will become the cause of tension. And the tension is converted into war one day. So nobody should hate and despise anyone. Our biased and impolite behaviour toward fellow human beings becomes the cause of unnecessary wars.

➡ We all are alike. We have the same body structure. All of us need air to breathe, sun to get sunlight and warmth and water for many purposes. Our daily routine is also almost the same. We get up in the morning, take a bath, have breakfast and go to work or school. All of us long for love. We all sleep at night and wake up in the morning. When our needs and feelings are the same, then we should treat all people equally. We should not look down upon anybody on the basis of his her colour, caste, region or gender. We should treat everyone as our brother and sister.
Unfortunately, some self-centred people fight with others and try to hurt them. They think that others have harmed them. They are also our brothers. If they make any mistake, we should forgive them or compromise with them.

1. All people in theonaonh are alike. How?
Ans. The poet suggests that all people on earth are the same. They breathe, eat and walk in the same way. They all are aware of the sun, air and water. They all love peace and hate war. They have similar eyes the poet says. No men are foreign and no countries strange; we all have a common entity of being humans.

2. What does the poem tell us to remember?

Ans. In the poem ‘No Men Are Foreign’, the poet asks us to remember that under all uniforms, a single body breathes like ours. We all walk on the same land. We all live and work in the same way

3. Poet does not believe in narrow patriotism. What is patriotism to the poet?
Ans. The poet does not believe in narrow patriotism. He says human beings are equal. All the men are like us. They wake up and sleep equally. Love is common and can win all. There is no difference among the nations.

4. How does the poet explain that all people are the same?
Ans. The poet says that all live and suffer the same. The human body is the same everywhere. All are aware othe f the sun, the air the and water. All prosper when there is peace. All starve when there is war. War destroys everyone equally.

The Adventures of Toto: Summary, Question Answers,

NCERT Solutions For Class 9 English

The Adventures of Toto | Summary

The author’s grandfather was a great lover of animals. He had made a zoo at home in which he would keep animals and gave them a lot of care. In his zoo, one could see a tortoise, a pair of rabbits, a tame squirrel and pet goats. One day he saw a pretty monkey. The monkey was a pet animal of a tonga driver. The tonga driver used to keep the red monkey tied with the feeding trough but it looked extremely tragic there. When the grandfather saw the monkey, he was so fascinated that he purchased the monkey from the tonga driver for a total of five rupees.

The Adventures of Toto

The Adventures of Toto

However, Toto’ a presence was not revealed at home because the grandmother disliked the new arrival of animals at home. Toto was extremely insidious and destructive. When the writer and his grandfather concealed Toto in a pantry and fixing him to a peg, he broke the peg, tore wallpapers and author’s blazer and caused ruin in the room. The following day, when he was kept in the servant’s room with different other animals, he didn’t give them a chance to rest throughout the night. In this way, he never let other animals live in harmony with the other pets. He proved to be an expensive deal.

One day the grandfather had to go to Saharanpur for work, he chose to take the monkey along with him. He conveyed Toto in a solid sack made of canvas and shut the zip pleasantly so that Toto couldn’t get away. Toto made unsuccessful attempts to escape the sack, which made the sack back bounce and roll. This excited the interest of individual travellers at the railway station. At the Saharanpur railway station when grandfather was getting his ticket checked, Toto looked out of the sack and grinned at the ticket collector. As the ticket collector proclaimed that it was a dog, grandfather needed to purchase a fare ticket for 3 rupees for him.

The Adventures of Toto

When at last grandmother came to know about Toto and also acknowledged him, it was given a place in the stable along with the donkey Nana. Toto did not coexist with Nana too. The night Toto passed with Nana was full of disturbance. When Grandfather visited the stable he found Toto fastened on to Nana’s long ears with his sharp little teeth. They could never become friends.

Toto would take delight in washing up in warm water in the winter season. One day, he nearly bubbled himself when he hopped into a kettle of boiling water.

One evening, Toto ate the family feast of pulao. He tossed the unfilled dish from the tree and it broke it into a few pieces.

Toto’s mischiefs developed constantly and grandfather realized that they couldn’t afford him at home. At last, he found the same tonga driver and sold Toto back to him for an aggregate of three rupees.

The Adventures of Toto | Questions And Answers

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Question No.1 How did Toto come to grandfathers private zoo?
Answer:- Toto was a pet animal of a tonga driver who used to tie the monkey to a feeding trough. When the grandfather saw the monkey, he thought that the monkey would be a good thing for his private zoo. Thus, he bought Toto from the tongawallah for five rupees.

Question No. 2 Toto was a pretty monkey In what sense is Toto pretty?
Answer:- Toto was a pretty beast in the sense that it had pearly white teeth and bright mischievous eyes. His tail, besides helping him scooping up things, also added to his good looks.

Question No. 3 Why does Grandfather take Toto to Saranpur and how?
Answer:- Toto was a menace for everyone in the household. He would not let the other pets sleep at night. So, in order to provide some relief to other animals in the zoo Grandfather thought of carrying Toto to Saharanpur with himself. He fetched a canvas kit bag, put Toto in it and carried him to Saharanpur.

Question No.4 Why does the ticket collector insist on calling Toto a dog?
Answer: The ticket collector was following his rulebooks. As there seems to be no rule for fixing a monkey’s fare so he equated Toto with a dog for the monkey was a quadruped. Ticket collector’s insight categorised all pets of a certain size and form as dogs.

Question No.5 How does Toto take a bath? Where has be learnt to do this?
Answer:- Toto firstly tests the temperature of the water with this hand. Then he steps into the bath until he is neck-deep into the water. After that, he starts rubbing himself with a cake of soap. As monkeys are good at aping others, Toto has also learnt all these steps of bathing while watching the narrator doing the same.

Question No.6 How does Toto almost boil himself alive?
Answer: A large kettle full of water has been left on the fire to boil for the tea. Finding the water warm enough, Toto tumbles into it. He is on tenterhooks when the water starts boiling. It seems Toto is not intelligent enough to understand the danger of hot water so he pops his head up and down in the kettle. Fortunately, Grandmother sees and hauls him half boiled out of the kettle. OR

Toto was an adventurous and mischievous monkey. He enjoyed upsetting everything. He enjoyed a bath.
Once a large kettle containing water had been left on the fire to prepare tea. Toto removed the lid and got into
the kettle. Soon the water began to boil. Grandmother happened to come into the kitchen. She saw that Toto stood in the kettle. She hauled him out of the kettle.

Actually grandmother saved his life, otherwise, Toto would have burnt himself alive.

Question No.7 Which activity of Toto annoyed grandmother?
Answer: Grandmother had arranged a large dish of pullao on the dining table for lunch. Finding the food on the table, Toto picked up the dish of pullao and escaped out through a window. He stayed in the branches of the jackfruit and stuffed with all the grains of rice. After that, he threw the dish down from the papaya tree. When the dish broke into pieces, he chattered with merriment. Nobody would like such kind of behaviour, and grandmother was no exception.

Question No. 8 Why does the author say, “Toto was not the sort of pet we could keep for long”?
Answer:- Toto had adopted a habit of ruining things, tearing clothes and breaking dishes. The author was not in the position to afford the repeated loss of things because he was not well-to-do. So, he says, “Toto was not the sort of pet we could for long”.

The Adventures of Toto | Extra Short Answer Type Questions

Ans. Toto was kept in a canvas kit-bag. The canvas was too strong for him to bite. Toto wanted to escape. While making efforts to get out, he occasionally rolled about or jumped into the air. As he was inside the bag, the onlookers could not see him. In this way, the onlookers on the Dehradun platform got attracted.

Q. Give one instance showing Toto was a mischievous beast.
Ans. No doubt, Toto was mischievous. He kept creating problems not only for animals but for the members of the family also. The night Toto passed with Nana was full of disturbance. When Grandfather visited the stable he found Toto fastened on to Nana’s long ears with his sharp little teeth. They could never become friends.

Q. Why did the grandfather decide to buy Toto?
Ans. Toto seemed out of place with the tonga-drive. He looked pretty also. Grandfather wanted to include him in his zoo. So, he decided to buy him.

Q. Toto’s tail acts as a third hand for him. How?
Ans. In addition to adding its good looks, Toto’s tail works like a third hand for it. He can hang on to the branches of trees with its help. Moreover, with it, he can reach up to a thing which is out of his hand’s reach.

Q. Toto arrival at home was not revealed by grandfather? Why?
Ans. Grandmother did not like the arrival of any new animal or bird in the house. Grandfather wanted to avoid the fuss. He waited for a favourable time to tell her. So, he hid him.

They put Toto in the closet. They came back after a few hours and found that Toto had pulled the peg out of the wall. He had also cleared off the wallpaper, which grandfather had decorated with.

The Adventures of Toto | Value-Based Long Answer Questions

Q. Monkeys are naughty like a kid. Discuss.
Ans. Monkeys are naughty like a kid. They love to destroy things. They feel pleasure in tearing things. They are habitual of turning everything into rags. They want to live freely on their will. So if someone tries to check them, they get annoyed. In general sense, monkeys are not faithful animals. As in the story ‘The Adventure of Toto’, Toto not only creates chaos in the house but also annoys grandmother in different manners. He breaks things and feels delighted in teasing grandmother. Overall, he does not like to live in the limitation. So he creates various troubles for the family members.

Q. Do you have a pet? If yes, is it mischievous like Toto?

Ans. Yes, I have a pet. It is a dog. It is also very mischievous but not as mischievous as Toto. Its name is Puffy. It was only a month old when I brought it home. In the beginning, it caused a lot of problems for us but gradually it improved. We provided him with training also. It does not damage the objects around him. He plays with his toys only. He is very friendly with our guests also. He can differentiate between known and strangers. When Puffy is there, no intruder can dare to enter the house. He is very powerful. He is nowhere similar to Toto. Thus it is true that a dog is a faithful animal.

Q. Do you think it is good to restrict the freedom of animals?

Ans. Animals and men are the creations of God. They like to live a free life in nature. Freedom is loved by all. But these days many animals are kept in cages.

Although they are kept as pets, they lead the life of slaves. People keep them as pets for entertainment but their freedom is restricted. The life of these animals is confined to the cages when they like to walk, run and move freely in nature. God has created
natural habitats for them. Forests provide them shelter and the running streams give them water to drink. But when these animals are caged and given not sufficient food to eat, sadness develops in their life. Their hearts weep for freedom. Therefore, it is not reasonable to keep animals in cages and restrict their freedom.

Q. Was grandfather right in keeping Toto in his private zoo? OR
Why did grandfather sold back Toto to The tonga driver?
Ans. Grandfather had immense love for animals. He had created a private Zoo in the house. In his zoo, one could see a tortoise, a pair of rabbits, a tame squirrel and pet goats. He took the special care when grandmother had an aversion for pets. When Toto was brought home, his arrival was kept a secret. Toto was a naughty monkey.

All the time he kept creating problems in the family. Since the very day Toto entered the house, he started damaging the household things. He pulled out the peg, tore wallpapers and the author’s blazer. Moreover, he never let other animals live in harmony with the other pets. He proved to be an expensive deal. So, grandfather was not right in keeping Toto in his private zoo. Grandfather should also have kept in mind the likes and dislikes of grandmother.

Q. Grandfather was a great lover of animals. Discuss.

Ans. Grandfather was a kind-hearted person. He was an animal lover by choice. He had his own private zoo
in his house. He kept bringing home new animals that he liked. He was a fully determined person. He had a lot of patience and took all things positively. When he brought Toto, he felt satisfied. He wanted to keep Toto with other animals. But Toto kept disturbing other animals. Yet Grandfather transferred him frequently from one place to another in order to make Toto adjust with the other animals. He was a man of strong mind and body. His taste made him a naturalist. He enjoyed his life in the lap of nature. He treated his pet animals as his family members.

The Adventures of Toto | Language Work:

I) Use the following phrases in your own sentences.
1. Out of place: She seems out of place in our class.
2. Out of reach: I tried to call him, but he was out of reach.
Provide for: All the facilities were provided for the same.
In vain: He tried to convince his brother, but all in vain.
Taken aback: He was not taken aback by the warning.
Well-to-do: Her dresses say she might be well-to-do at home.
Make an exit: Whenever I enter his room, he makes a quick exit.
Get hold: She aggressively gets hold of his collar.
Scoop up: He tried to scoop up the book on the shelf but could not reach it.

II) Use ‘too’ in the following sentences and make modifications wherever necessary:
The question was so difficult that he could not solve.
~The question was too difficult for him to solve.
She is so weak that she cannot stand.
~She is too weak to stand.
He is so clever that he cannot be cheated.
~He is too clever to be cheated.
It was so hot that he could not stand in sun.
~It was too hot for him to stand in the sun.
It was so dark that he could not see anything.
~It was too dark for him to see anything.

The Adventures of Toto

The Adventures of Toto

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Questions Answers of Gulliver In Lilliput

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English


Q.1 Why did Reldresal visit Gulliver?

Ans. Reldresal visited Gulliver to discuss some important matters of the state. They were facing a threat from Blefuscu and it was thought that Gulliver would be of some help for the empire.

Q.2 How did Gulliver receive Reldresal?

Ans. Gulliver welcomed him with honour. Gulliver offered Reldresal to lie down so that he could conveniently speak to him, but he preferred that Gulliver should hold him in his hand.

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Q.3 What were the two political parties in Lilliput? What was their difference?

Ans. The two political parties in Lilliput were the High Heels and the Low Heels. There difference laid in the type of heels they use to their shoes. The High put on shoes with the high heel while the Low Heels wore the shoes with low heel.

Q.4 Why was the government in the hands of the Low Heels though they were less numerous than the High Heels?

Ans.Though the Low Heels were less numerous than the High Heels the government was in their hands because the emperor of the state was in favour of the Low Heels.

Q.5 What was the external danger that the country had to face?

Ans.The external danger that the country was fearing an invasion from Blefuscu which according to Lilliputians was the other great empire of the universe.

Gulliver's Travells

Gulliver’s Travels

Q.6 What was the question of religious principle that gave rise to the war between Lilliput and Blefuscu?

Ans. The religious question was whether one should break an egg at the bigger end or at the smaller end.

Q.7 Why was the ancient way of breaking an egg prohibited in Lilliput?

Ans. The ancient way was prohibited because the present emperor ‘s grandfather, when he was a boy, had cut one of his fingers when breaking an egg at the bigger end. One emperor lost his life and another his crown and 11000 people suffered death. They preferred death to his honour.

Q.8 How did the people take a new law?

Ans. There was bitter opposition to the new law, and there were frequent rebellions on account of it.

Q.9 What was the emperor of Blefuscu’s part in the internal troubles of Lilliput?

And.When rivalry started in Lilliput over the so-called religious principle, a lot of people lost their lives while others fled to Blefuscu. The emperor of Blefuscu gave them his sympathy and encouragement, thus interfering in the internal affairs of Lilliput. Blefuscu frequently charged the Lilliputian emperor with causing a division in the religion.

Q.10 What was the teaching of their ancient religion about the right way of breaking eggs?

Ans. The teaching of thier ancient religion about the right way of breaking an egg was that their holy book read “All believers shall break their egg at the convenient end”.

Q.11 What in Reldresal’s opinion what was the meaning of the teaching?

Ans. In Reldresal opinion the teaching of the holy book means a person to decide on their own which end would be the convenient one.

Q.12 What did Gulliver promise to do for the emperor?

Ans. Gulliver promises Reldresal that he would defend the honour of the country and that of the emperor like a soldier.


Q.1 Where was Blefuscu situated and what separated it from Lilliput?

Ans. The empire of Blefuscu was located to the north-east of Lilliput. It was separated from Lilliput by a channel about 800 metres wide.

Q.2 Why did Gulliver avoid appearing on the north-east of Lilliput?

Ans. Gulliver did so that the enemy should not get a glimpse of him. Gulliver’s giant appearance would have easily put the enemy in agitation.

Q.3 How deep was the channel? What were the devices with which Gulliver armed himself?

Ans. The channel was 5-6 feet deep. Gulliver armed himself with some strong cable and bars of iron. The cable was no more than a bundle of pack-thread, and bars of iron were like knitting needles.

Q.4 Why did Gulliver seek the advice of the most experienced sailor?

Ans. Gulliver sought his advice because the former had no prior knowledge of the channel and surroundings of that would-be battlefield. He wanted to be successful in his mission.

Q.5 What did the Blefuscan soldiers do while Gulliver was fastening hooks to the warships?

Ans. On getting a glimpse of Gulliver, Blefuscan soldiers were so frightened that they leapt out of their ships and swam ashore.

Q.6 What did Gulliver do to save his eyes?

Ans. In order to save his eyes, Gulliver put on his eye-glasses so that the arrows could not strike his eyes.

Q.7 Why did the ships not move when Gulliver pulled them?

Ans. When Gulliver pulled the ships, they did not move because they were all fast held with anchors.

Q.8 What did Gulliver do to relieve the pain caused by the arrows?

Ans. To relieve the pain caused by the arrows Gulliver rubbed on an ointment on his skin.

Q.9 What did the emperor and the court think on seeing the fleet at distance?

Ans. On seeing the fleet at distance, they thought that Gulliver would have been killed and that the enemy fleet was advancing for battle.

Gulliver's Travels

Gulliver’s Travels

Q.10.How did Gulliver show his loyalty to the emperor?

Ans. Gulliver had promised Reldresal that he would help them in case Blefuscu wages a war against them. Gulliver helped Lilliput and fulfilled his promise. When he reached back with the fleet. He cried in the loudest voice, ” long live the mightiest emperor of the state”. Therefore, Gulliver proved his loyalty and he was made a great lord by the emperor.

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Questions and Answers of The Fun They Had

NCERT Solutions For The Fun They Had Class 10 English

The Fun They Had Explanation
The Fun They Had is an amusing story about the possible future schools written by Issac Asimov. It can be envisioned that a period will come when every one of the schools will vanish. Instruction will be bestowed through computers and virtual classrooms. Considering this general concept, the story ‘The Fun They Had’ is set in future when the conventional system of schooling will be discarded. Every one of the students will move towards becoming techno-savvy. They will interface with the teacher on screen. Let’s see the main attractions of the story.

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Main Attractions of The Story

It is seventeenth May 2157. Marige writes in her journal, “Today Tommy found a real book”.
Margie’s grandfather says that it is an extremely old book. It is of the time when the books were printed on paper.

That time the books contained the static words. The words did not move as they move a screen. One more interesting thing about the books is that the books had similar words on them when the pages were turned back to the previous pages.
Hearing this, Tommy disgustedly expresses that it is an exercise in futility since when you read a book then you simply throw it away. He includes that on screen we have a large number of books and substantially more and consequently it isn’t conceivable to discard it.
Margie concurs on these expressions of Tommy about the old books. Margie is eleven and has not read the same number of tele-books as Tommy has on the grounds that Tommy is one year aged than her. He is thirteen.
Margie asks Tommy where he found the unusual book. Tommy answers that he discovered it in the attic. Margie further asks him what the book is about and Tommy answers that it is about School.

Margie is hateful when she hears that the book is about the school. She trusts that there is nothing that can be written about school. She communicates that she despises school.

The Fun They Had

The Fun They Had

Marie always detests school, however now she hates it like never before. The reason behind this is her mechanical teacher who has been giving her test after test in geography but her performance has been more regrettable and more terrible. At last, her mother takes her to the County Inspector to find the issue with her.
The County Inspector is a little man with a red face. He has an entire box of devices which contain dials and wires. When he sees Margie he smiles at her and gives her an apple to eat.
The County Inspector then opens the parts of Margie’s teacher. Margie believes that he won’t know to join the parts again but he knows everything. After some time he makes the mechanical instructor prepared once again. The teacher is huge, dark and appalling with a gigantic screen on which every one of the exercises appears and questions are inquired. The space that Margie loathes the most is the place she needs to fill homework and answers. She generally needs to write the things in a punch code which she has learned earlier. The mechanical teacher computes the scores in a matter of seconds.

The Inspector pats Margie’s head and advises to her mother whose name is Mrs Jones that it isn’t the girl’s fault however he supposes the speed of geography segment has been organized somewhat speedier than her level. He includes that occasionally a wonder such as this occur and he has eased back the speed parallel to her level.

Margie is frustrated. She has thought that her teacher will be removed by and large as once Tommy’s teacher has been removed for an entire month when history segment has blanked out totally.

Margie asks Tommy why anybody will expound on school. Tommy clarifies that she is imbecilic in light of the fact that it isn’t the sort of school they have. This is the old sort of school which existed many years back.
Margie now wants to know whether the old school had a teacher. Tommy explains to her that the schools had an educator however it was not the mechanical instructor but rather a man.

Margie is amazed. She can not believe that a man can be a teacher. She believes that a man isn’t savvy enough to be a teacher. In any case, Tommy discloses to her that it feasible for a man to be a teacher. He discloses to her that his father has a considerable a lot of knowledge not less than his teacher has.

Margie still has a few questions about the human teacher. She reveals to Tommy that it is strange to keep a man in her home to educate her. Hearing this, Tommy shouts with laughter. He clears Margie in old schools the man teacher did not live in the place of the student. They had a special building for the purpose where every one of the kids went for learning. In addition, every one of the kids learned the same things on the off chance that they were of a similar age.

Margie is shocked. She remarks that her mother says that a teacher will conform to fit the psyche of a kid and that he shall teach every kid diversely in light of the fact that every individual is unique.

Tommy reacts that the old teacher did not do that. He tells Margie if she doesn’t care for the book she shall not read about it.

Margie is presently inquisitive to think about the funny schools that existed much previously. She needs to find out about them. She has not half completed reading of the book, her mother calls and reminds her that it is the school time. She tells Tommy if she can read the book more with him after school. Tommy agrees.

Margie goes into the schoolroom. It is next to her bedroom. Her mechanical teacher is already on and on sitting tight for her. The mechanical educator is always on at the same time aside from Saturday and Sunday.
The screen of the mechanical teacher flashes and says, “Today arithmetic lesson is on the addition of proper fractions”.Please fill yesterday’s homework in the appropriate slot”
Margie sighs and does what she is instructed to do. She is considering the old schools. She is ruled by the thoughts that in the old schools every one of the school children from the entire neighbourhood came, laughing and shouting in the schoolyard, sitting together in the classroom and toward the day’s end going home together. Additionally, they learned similar things so they could help each other in studies and above all, the teachers were people. Margie believes that it might have been a lovely experience for the children in the bygone days. She is contemplating the fun they had.

The Fun They Had | Thinking About Text

I. Answer these questions in a few words or a couple of sentences each.
1. How old are Margie and Tommy?
2. What did Margie write in her diary?
3. Had Margie ever seen a book before?
4. What things about the book did she find strange?
5. What do you think a tale book is?
6. Where was Margie’s school? Did she have any classmates?
7. What subjects did Margie and Tommy learn?

1. Margie is eleven years old and Tommy is thirteen-year-old.
2. Margie wrote, “Today Tommy found a real book!”.
3. Margie had never seen a book before. She had only seen tale books.
4. To Margie, it was strange that the words printed on a book stood still instead of moving the way they did on a screen. She also found it queer that the words on the pages always remained the same as the first time they were read. Moreover, the idea that someone would write a book about schools was itself strange idea for Margie.
5. A tale book is an electronically composed digital book that can be displayed on the television screen.
6. Margie’s school, unlike today’s schools, was in her home itself, right next to her bedroom. No, she did not have any classmates.
7. Tommy and Margie mainly learned three subjects namely geography, history, and arithmetic.

II. Answer the following with reference to the story.
1. “I wouldn’t throw it away.”
(i) Who says these words?
(ii) What does ‘it’ refer to?
(iii) What is it being compared with by the speaker?

(i) Tommy stated these words.
(ii) ‘It’ refers to the television screen of the mechanical teacher.
(iii)” It” is being compared to the real books in earlier times in which words were printed on paper. Tommy believed that after reading such books, they were thrown away. However, he would never have to throw away his tale books.

2. “Sure they had a teacher, but it wasn’t a regular teacher. It was a man.”
(i) Who does ‘they’ refer to?
(ii) What does ‘regular’ mean here?
(iii) What is it contrasted with?
(i) “They” refer to the students who learned in the old kind of schools centuries before the time the story is set in.
(ii) Here, ‘regular’ refers to the mechanical teachers which taught Tommy and Margie.
(iii) The mechanical teacher is contrasted with the teacher of the olden times, who was a human being.
III. Answer each of these questions in a short paragraph (about 30 words).

1. What kind of teachers did Margie and Tommy have?
Margie and Tommy had mechanical teachers. They were big, dark and ugly and had large black screens on which all the lessons were displayed and questions were asked. These mechanical teachers had a special slot in which the students had to put their homework and test papers. They had to write their answers in a punch code and the mechanical teacher calculated the marks instantly.

2. Why did Margie’s mother send for the County Inspector?
Margie had been allocated many tests in geography by the mechanical teacher, but there was no progress in her performance. It only kept getting worse. It is for this very reason that Margie’s mother sent for the County Inspector to discover why this was happening to her.

3. What did he do?


The County Inspector gave Margie an apple and began working on the mechanical teacher. He took it apart and then checked it. Margie had hoped that the Inspector would not know how to put the mechanical teacher together again, but he managed to reassemble it. He slowed down the geography sector of the teacher because it was geared a little too quick for an average ten-year-old student.

4. Why was Margie doing badly in geography? What did the County Inspector do to help her?
Margie was doing badly in geography because the geography sector of the mechanical teacher had been geared a little too quick for an average ten-year-old student. The County Inspector rightly told her that she could not be held responsible for her poor performance.
The County Inspector slowed down the speed of geography sector of the mechanical teacher to an average ten-year level. He also told Mrs. Jones that Margie’s overall achievement pattern was satisfactory.

5. What had once happened to Tommy’s teacher?
The history sector of Tommy’s teacher had blanked out completely.

6. Did Margie have regular days and hours for school? If so, why?
Yes, Margie had regular days and hours for school. She learned at the same time every day. This was because her mother believed that learning at regular hours helped little girls learn better. Her mechanical teacher was also on at the same time every day except Saturday and Sunday.

7. How does Tommy describe the old kind of school?
Tommy described earlier kind of school as a special building where all kids studied together. There were hundreds of students studying and playing together. They used to learn the same things. The also used to shout and laugh together in an open yard.

8. How does he describe the old kind of teachers?
Tommy said that the old kind of teachers were humans, who taught the students inside a special building. The teachers taught the children in groups and gave them homework and asked them questions.

The Fun They Had | Extra Questions

IV. Answer each of these questions in two or three paragraphs (100 –150 words).

1. What are the main features of the mechanical teachers and the schoolrooms that Margie and Tommy have in the story?
Answer: The Mechanical Teacher: Margie and Tommy had mechanical teachers. They had expansive dark screens on which every exercise appeared and questions were inquired. They had a special slot in which students needed to put their homework and test papers. They needed to put down their answers in a punch code and the mechanical educator calculated the scores quickly.

The Schoolroom: Their schools were in their homes itself just beside their rooms. They didn’t have any colleagues. They learned geography, history, and maths. They had customary days and hours for school. The mechanical instructor constantly turned on in the meantime consistently with the exception of Saturdays and Sundays on the grounds that her mother said that young ladies adapted better when they learned at regular hours.

2. Why did Margie hate school? Why did she think the old kind of school must have been fun?
Answer: Margie loathed school since it was not fun to study on the screen. Her mechanical teacher used to teach her consistently at the same time. It was a repetitive and boring experience. Now, she had been doing badly in the geography tests that her mechanical educator had been giving her. Her mother was despondent with her performance and sends her to the County Inspector. She expected that the inspector would remove the mechanical instructor. She is baffled when the County Inspector manages to reassemble every part of the mechanical instructor. The part that she detested the most was inserting the homework and test papers in the slot on the mechanical instructor.
She didn’t like the way that she needed to write her answers in a punch code. She believed that the old kind of school must have been fun as she envisioned every one of the children from the whole neighbourhood meeting up, laughing and shouting in the schoolyard. She envisioned that they would sit together in the classroom and go home together toward the day’s end. They would take in similar things and could help each other with the homework and discuss it. Additionally, the educators were individuals. All these viewpoints influenced her to believe that the old type of school must have been enjoyable. She hungered for such a good time.

3. Do you agree with Margie that schools today are more fun than the school in the story? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer: Yes, I concur schools today are more enjoyable than the school in the story. In the story, there is no collaboration among students about studies and examination. Studying and replying questions is by all accounts a boring thought. Doing homework without anyone’s assistance and writing them in a punch code would likewise be depleting and exhausting. Above all, children build up a superior understanding of one another and of their surroundings when they go to a school together and collaborate with one another. It is a more advantageous and social method for learning.

It is always more intriguing to listen to the instructors clarifying exercises than reading the whole exercise on a mechanical machine. Additionally, if any student faces any issue with the subject or in homework, he can talk about it with the educator and different children. It is difficult to talk about issues and circumstances with a mechanical instructor that is just programmed to educate in a specific way.

The excitement of waiting to know the marks scored in exams is greater when one is sitting in a classroom with different students. It doesn’t have a similar impact when the marks are figured promptly after a test has been taken.
Lastly, the friends that you make at school are most likely the best friends that you will ever make in your entire life. The different characteristics that you learn in schools like compliance, authority, regard, graciousness for other people, sharing, interest in school recreations, sports, and different exercises are all the necessary part of school education today. In this way, schools today are more enjoyable than the school in the story. They promote a fruitful environment for the students to study and learn things.

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Questions Answers of Moti Guj

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Outline of The Story Moti Guj Mutineer

Moti Guj is a large and powerful elephant that clears the forest land for coffee planting. He is owned by a dissipated mahout, Deesa, to whom he is devoted. One day Deesa asks to leave for a drunk orgy and the planter gives him ten days off, provided that Moti Guj works well while he is away. Deesa tells the elephant that he has to work for Chihun for ten days, another mahout, and departs. To the surprise of the planter, Moti Guj works well–for 10 days. However, on the eleventh day he refuses to do his daily work and walks around the camp in search of Deesa and voilently causes trouble.

Moti Guj Mutineer

Moti Guj Mutineer

Moti Guj Mutineer Summary

The story is about a powerful and magnificent elephant referred to as Moti Guj, who is employed by a coffee-planter to uproot stumps in some forest land that is being cleared for coffee planting. This “very best of elephants” belongs to “the terribly worst of mahouts” – a drunkard known as Deesa. After a tough day’s work, Deesa continuously gets drunk with a mixed drink, sharing his liquor with the elephant, and calling him with a range of terms of endearments and abuse.

One day, Deesa decides that he wants a break from his workman’s toil, and decides to go off in search of drunken orgy. He wants himself properly drunk. He asks for permission from the planter, who tells him that he will depart for 10 days, however on condition that he can instruct Moti Guj to work under the directions of another driver, a gentle married man referred to as Chihun. Deesa agrees, and Moti Guj begins hauling stumps beneath Chihun’s care. Chihun’s partner and baby pamper Moti Guj, and Chihun treats him very well. However, Moti Guj “was a bachelor by instinct, like as Deesa was”, and doesn’t perceive these “domestic emotions”. For 10 days he’s employed regardless, and on the eleventh day, Deesa doesn’t come back – and Moti Guj goes on strike and starts rebelling.

Chihun calls to him to come back to figure, however Moti Guj “put his hands in his pockets, chewed a branch for a strip, and strolled regarding the clearing, creating fun of the opposite elephants WHO had simply set to work.” The planner tries to possess him chain-whipped by two different elephants, however, he’s most larger and additional imposing that his taskmasters-to-be decide at the last minute to swing wide of him, and pretend that they had “brought the chain out for amusement”. therefore Moti Guj strolls around, “talking nonsense regarding labour and also the inalienable rights of elephants”, idleness around “like an eighty-ton cannon”, till finally, at dawn the following day Deesa returns, has a joyous reunion with Moti Guj, and – to the planter’s astonishment – they get back to work clearing stumps.

I love this story. Joseph Rudyard Kipling has the gift of drawing implausibly desirable characters, and his human description of Moti Guj is completely uproarious.

I consider Joseph Rudyard Kipling to be India’s initial Nobelist, and definitely the best Indian author and author of the twentieth century. I don’t suppose Rudyard Kipling himself would have liked abundantly to be referred to as AN Indian author. however, after you write one thing, your story defines you rather than vice versa, and an author isn’t delineated by his status quite most as by the nations he writes regarding. Kipling’s poems are the most effective – he incorporates an ear for the rhythms of English language that is incomparable by any author before or since – however, his short stories (like Moti Guj) are patently terribly, very good.

Moti Guj

Moti Guj

Moti Guj Mutineer | Questions Answers

1. Why did Muti Guj love his master even though he would beat him sometimes?

Ans. Deesa used to beat Muti Guj whenever he was drunk. Muti Guj did not mind this for he knew that after the beating was over, Deesa would embrace him. He would give him a lot of grass to eat and some liquor Deesa would call him his love. Therefore, Muti Guj had also developed a great intimacy with Deesa.

2. How long was Deesa to be away and how did he tell Moti Guj about this?

Ans. Deesa was to stay away for ten days. Deesa conveyed this to Muti Guj verbally as well as he also hit the elephant ten times on his nails.

3. What were the lies Deesa told his employer? Why did he tell such dread full stories?

Ans. First, Deesa said that his mother had died. Then he lied about the death of his wives. He fabricated these dreadful stories so that he would be allowed to take a leave.

4. How did Dessa look after Moti Guj?

Ans. Deesa looked after Muti Guj very well. Once in a weak Deesa used to take him to the river and rub his body with coir swab and a brick. Deesa used to examine Muti Guj‘s feet, eyes and ears in case of sores.

5. How did Moti Guj bid Deesa good bye?

Ans. Muti Guj bid Deesa good bye by swinging him in the air.

6. Why did Moti Guj become a mutineer?

Ans. Deesa was to stay away for ten days only. But when Deesa did not return on the eleventh day, Muti Guj refused to obey Chihun‘s order. He refused to wrench out stumps and hence became mutineer. The threat of Chihun had no effect on him. He was still unmanageable, ruined the garden, disturbed other elephants in their work and talked about their rights.

7. How did Moti Guj react to Dessa”s return?

Ans. When Deesa returned, Muti Guj was very happy. He fell into Deesa‘s arms.The man and the beast wept and slobbered over each other.

8. Why was chinun angry with Moti Guj? How did Moti Guj react to his remarks?

Ans. When the eleventh day morning dawned, Deesa did not return. Moti Guj refused to work and was converted into a mutineer. Moti Guj came back for food in the evening, but Chihun refused to give him any food. He blasphemed Moti Guj and called him a wild animal. Moti Guj lifted Chihun ‘s child with his trunk Chihun had to give a lot of food and drink to the elephant as a random lot of food and Guj became a mutineer.

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Old Man at The Bridge Questions Answers

Old Man at the Bridge by Ernest Hemingway

Old Man at the Bridge | Summary of the story

The story “Old Man at the Bridge” is set against the background of the Spanish Civil War in 1938. It depicts how wars change our lives, our minds and our daily routine and make us anxious and panicky. The story begins with the portrayal of an old man who was sitting at a bridge. It was a war-like circumstance as the Fascists powers were progressing towards the Ebro.

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The narrator, a news journalist, was in the charge to cross a pontoon bridge to check the headway of the enemy powers. He saw that an old man with steel-rimmed spectacles and dusty garments was sitting adjacent to the road at the bridge while carts, trucks and people were crossing the pontoon bridge to get sheltered safe from the enemies. The old man looked excessively tired. He could not walk any further.

The Old Man at The Bridge

The Old Man at The Bridge

Seeing the old man staying there for quite a while, the speaker went to him and asked him where he came from. The old person replied that he had come from San Carlos, his local town, twelve kilometres from there. The man grinned as it was a delight to him to mention his local land.

At that point, the speaker sat down to talk with that man and came to realize that the seventy-six years of age man had nobody but pets — two goats, a cat and eight pigeons. They were his family and he invested his time and energy taking care of the animals. Since the enemy powers were approaching nearer, he was requested to leave the place. So he was compelled to leave his pets on their destiny. The old man was unable to understand what might happen to his family — the pets. He imagines that the cat would be capable to take care of itself. But what would happen to the pigeons and the goats? He requests that the narrator think about what might happen to his pets? The speaker reassured him that they will be fine. He further asked whether he left the pigeon cage unlocked. As the old man replied in assertive, he proposes that they will fly. However, he can’t throw light on the fate of the goats.

The Old Man at The Bridge

The Old Man at The Bridge

Then, our narrator asked the man to get up and endeavour to walk further as he would now take off. The man attempted to walk but could not. Helplessly, he sat down once again in the dust.

Subsequently, the narrator mentions that it was Easter Sunday and a dark cloudy day. He completes his story by remarking that there was nothing for the old person with the exception of the certainties that the enemy planes were not up in the sky for the overcast weather and that the cat can take care of themselves.

The Old Man at The Bridge: Analysis
Published in 1938

The story “The Old Man at the Bridge” is about a discussion between a news columnist and an old person who needed to leave the place where he grew up amid the Spanish Civil War. Hemingway was selected by the North American Newspaper Association (NANA) however he clearly chose to write it as a short story rather than a news article. As the title”Old Man at the Bridge” proposes, the story spins around the old person. This short and basic story is an incredible delineation of how war influences the lives of ordinary citizens who are “without political issues”. The old man has nothing to do with the approaching war. Yet, he had to leave his home and his darling pets whom he views as his family.

When the Scout sees the old man sitting at the bridge and talks with him. The old man continues to talk about his animals and how he is worried about how they will survive. He states the cat can take care of itself, but that he is worried about the others. At first he tells the Scout he has 2 pigeons, but they are later changed to Doves when asked if the door was open so they could flyaway, now remember that Doves are a sign of peace in war, so them flying away could be like the loss of peace. The old man also has some goats, animal of sacrifice through history, they could also be therefore the term, Scape-Goat. Thus we can say that the Old Man at the Bridge is a story about how an old Man, who has no political connections or family suffered the loss of everything because of war. He was just taking care of animals in the place where he grew up.

The man’s affection for his local town is communicated in his grin while uttering the name of San Carlos. In addition, his blamelessness and love for the creatures are very clear in the story. In any case, such an old man was compelled to leave his local place and his pets — his solitary motivation behind life. Furthermore, he is presently left on the hands of destiny. The creator has attempted to draw our sensitivity for the man by depicting the integrity in his character.

The Old Man at The Bridge

The Old Man at The Bridge

Ernest Hemingway worked as a foreign reporter in Europe for a considerable length of time before he turned into a successful freelancer of stories, books, novels and nonfiction. In the same way as other foreign journalists who had to pack a ton of data into brief dispatches under crisis conditions, Hemingway searches for sights and occurrences that would speak to the master plan of what was happening.

Hemingway was thoughtful to the Loyalist cause. After Franco’s triumph, Hemingway declined to come back to Spain, a nation he adored. He chronicled the Spanish Civil War in what is generally viewed as his best novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). The import of the title is that we all had endured an annihilation alongside the Spanish Loyalists. The title was gotten from a lyric by John Donne, a main English Metaphysical writer.

What Old Man Symbolises?

The elderly man could be said to symbolize the staggering effect that war has on common people. The elderly man has no political sensitivities; he’s totally innocuous. However, he can’t escape the harsh, wicked clash that appears to chase after him wherever he goes. He’s as of now needed to desert the place where he grew up and every one of the animals he’d been thinking about. Presently, with the approaching landing of Fascist powers, he’s compelled to proceed onward once more, only one of the numerous guiltless regular people made up for a lost time amidst the Spanish Civil War.

The old man may have believed that, since he’s never been a political person, he could some way or another stay over the shred, giving the opposite sides a chance to continue ahead with battling one another while he approaches his common life, thinking about his animals in San Carlos. But, in this period of aggregate war, such separation is incomprehensible. Regardless, everybody is associated with the war in one frame or other, even those quiet, safe spirits like the elderly person, who speaks to no danger to anybody.

Thus, the elderly man can be viewed as an image of crushed liberal democracy in Spain, maybe even the thrashing of the desires for liberal vote based system everywhere throughout the world. He is wearing dark dusty garments and has a dim dusty face, showcasing what he has experienced. He is excessively tired making it impossible to go any further. In the event that he stays where he is sitting, he would likely get summarily executed by the Fascist powers, who are taking draconian retaliation against Spanish common people. Yet, he doesn’t have the solidarity to stand up and keep escaping, and he doesn’t appear to mind. He has no place to go, no future.

Themes of Old Man at The Bridge

Some of the themes present in the short story “Old Man at the Bridge” are :

1. The suffering of ordinary citizens in war

2. Man’s love for pets

3. Love for one’s native place

One striking accomplishment of Hemingway here is the vivid description of the character of the old man, the hero of the story in such a short length.

The story is described in the first person narrative technique where the speaker recounts the story from his edge. The dialect utilized is extremely clear and the conversational style makes the story all the more lively. The story is an extraordinary precedent of unadorned and simple style curious to Hemingway.

The Old Man at The Bridge | Thinking About The Text

1. Why were the old man’s clothes dusty? Why did he not cross the bridge?

Answer: The old man’s garments were dusty because he had come through a large distance on foot along an ankle-deep dusty road. He didn’t cross the bridge because he was excessively tired to proceed any farther.

2. Why did the old man leave San Carlo? Why did the old man want to go to Barcelona?
Answer: A captain had told him that there would be some use of artillery in San Carlos. He had exhorted the old man to leave for a secure zone. So he was constrained to leave his living place and the pet animals whom he regarded his family.
He wanted to go to Barcelona because the trucks were heading towards it and he had no other alternative.

3. “Oh I said not quite understanding …. “what was it about the old man‟s statement, “ I was taking care of animals; what was it that the narrator did not understand?

Answer: The narrator was unable to understand what animals the old man was taking care of. He didn’t resemble a shepherd or herder.

4. Where did the narrator expect the approaching battle to take place?

Answer: The narrator expected the approaching battle to take place sooner or later at some point across the bridge.

5. “It’s better not to think about the others”. What does the old man mean by “the others”? why does he say so?

Answer: It is better not to think about the others. By ‘the others’ the old man implies his two goats. He imagines that his cat can take care of itself and the pigeons can fly. However, he wonders what will happen to his goats.

6. Did the old man look upon his animals as his family? What made him worry about them? What did the old man fear would harm his animals?
Answer: The old man views his pets as his family. He cherished them to the degree that he could not imagine his existence without them. He was worried he had to leave them behind and go himself to a secure place. He feared that artillery fire would harm his pet animals.

7. The old man was a victim of the war, but he had no wish to play a part in it. How do you come to know of this in the story?

Answer: The old man did not talk anything other than his animals. He mentions that he had no politics. It didn’t make a difference to him which side wins or loses. He didn’t have anything to do with the impending animals. At the same time, he had to leave his home and his cherished pets whom he regarded as his family.

8. Wars have an adverse effect on our lives. How does the story bring out this truth?

Answer: Wars cause decimation and adversely affect our lives. Wars make people leave their homes and become refugees. The old man of the story had to leave his pet animals which he cherished very much. Hence in wars, a nation loses populace and there is substantial harm to the economy. So, all the people of San Carlos had to migrate. They had to take protection in an outsider land as outcasts.

Old Man at The Bridge End

To The Cuckoo Questions and Answers


Introduction: The poem titled To the Cuckoo is a wonderful poem by William Wordsworth. In this poem, William. Wordsworth is respecting the spring in the most exquisite way. He says that when the spring begins, a feathered creature, which he later named as cuckoo begins singing in the most cheering way. This is a poem comprising of eight stanzas. It has a customary, simple rhyme scheme of abab.

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This a notable pastoral poem with elaborate stanzaic formations.

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To Blossoms | Questions and Answers and Summary

To Blossoms

Central idea: The poem “ To Blossoms ” tells us that all living things must blur. It’s all transient. People also come into this world, put some energy into it, and finally disappear. Every spirit, therefore, resembles a flower that sprouts and decorates this planet for some time and then at the end of time fades away. The poem ‘To Blossoms’ reflects this very fate of living beings.

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To Blossoms | Summary

The poem To Blossoms by Robert Herrick is addressed to the flowers of a tree. When he sees the beautiful flowers of the tree he is filled with happiness. But his heart soon becomes hurtful and solemn when he realizes that the flowers will not last long. The poet wonders, “Why did nature bring such beautiful blossoms if they were to fade away swiftly?” He laments over the rapidly decaying flowers of the tree that fall so early, but the time has not passed. He asks for trees not to shed their leaves so quickly that their time is not yet gone.

He then compares the early departure of the tree with man’s short life. The poet also expresses his view that we are sad about our short life, but everyone must leave early like the leaves of the fruit tree in this eternal world.

Thus, the poet reflects on the short-lived nature of worldly things: flowers, youth and beauty, and all around. The poet compares the flowers with the leaves of a book in which the fate of all things can be read. Every living thing has to meet the same end: death. Therefore, man can learn a lesson from the fading blooms as he comes close to his tomb.

To Blossoms

To Blossoms

To Blossoms | Paraphrase

Robert Herrick’s poem ” To Blossoms ” praises the beautiful flowers of the tree. By ‘pledges’ the poet alludes to the indication of the rice crop. The poet appears grieved because of the rapid fall of the flowers. The poet, full of sorrow, asks the flowers why they fall so soon. He says their days haven’t passed yet. They wouldn’t hurry to expire.

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Question Answers and Summary of The Last Leaf by O. Henry

The Last Leaf is a famous short story by O. Henry, revealed in 1907 in his collection The Trimmed Lamp and Other Stories.

“The Last Leaf” is about Johnsy, a poor young woman who is seriously sick with pneumonia.

She believes that when the ivy vine on the wall outside her window loses every one of its leaves, she will also perish. Her neighbour Behrman, a painter, tricks her by painting a natural looking leaf on the wall. Johnsy recuperates, however, Behrman, who suffers pneumonia while painting the leaf, dies.

The Last Leaf

Critical Analysis of The Last Leaf

In “The Last Leaf” by O.Henry we have the themes of commitment, sacrifice, friendship, sympathy, expectation and devotion. Set in the first decade of the twentieth century the story is described in the third person by an anonymous storyteller and after going through the story, the reader understands that Henry might be investigating the theme of commitment.
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All through the story, there is a feeling that every one of the three painters made reference to Sue, Johnsy and Behrman are focused on something. Sue has a piece to draw and is taking a shot at it all through the story, while Behrman, however, he hasn’t finished his masterpiece stays concentrated on it.

What’s more, Johnsy however not painting is focused on her death when.The last ivy leaf falls from the vine. By featuring every character commitment Henry may also be recommending that the individuals who experience their lives aesthetically are driven or centred. Not at all like the lion’s share of individuals who may experience their lives working nine to five and disregard their work when they check out.

Henry also gives off an impression of being investigating the theme of friendship. There is the unbreakable friendship between Sue and Johnsy with Sue staying concentrated on helping Johnsy improve. Additionally, Behrman, however, when first introduced to the reader seems to be being an irritable elderly person, he is as a general rule attached to both Sue and Johnsy. This affection is most likely dependent on Behrman’s comprehension of how troublesome life is for a craftsman. The sacrifices that they need to make with the end goal to seek after their work. It is just toward the end of the story that the reader acknowledges exactly how dedicated or partial to Johnsy and Sue, Behrman really is when he sacrifices his very own life with the end goal to save Johnsy’s.

It is further discernible that Johnsy from the get-go in the story surrenders any expectation of living or beating pneumonia. This absence of expectation from multiple points of view is reflected by the specialist. He stays functional, mindful that there is nothing he can improve the situation of Johnsy except if she herself additionally makes some form of commitment to remain alive. He feels that as opposed to concentrating on the leaves on the vine it would be more down to earth for her to centre around her recovery from pneumonia.

In spite of the fact that it is also noticeable that Henry may have intentionally set the story with one medical specialist and three artists in it to feature to the reader the distinctions in the elucidation of each of the three (medical versus artist) with regards to characterizing practical. Which may also feature the elevated amounts of commitment (to dying) Similarly as every one of the three specialists are focused on giving their all for their art, in like manner Johnsy is focused on dying.

There is also some symbolism in the story which might be important. Each leaf that Johnsy sees falling from the vine from multiple points of view drives her into further gloom. Anyway, when Behrman paints the one leaf it symbolizes hope for Johnsy. Something discernible when her well-being enhances when she finds that the last leaf has not fallen. The weather itself may also be emblematic as Henry might utilize the climate to feature how for a few people (Behrman) life isn’t as simple as for other people. It is conceivable that Henry is recommending that artist, however, many may state they make life troublesome for themselves, this may not essentially be the situation. Or maybe as already made reference to artists is driven by their speciality dissimilar to the majority of people who will work and afterwards go home.

It is also recognized that Henry makes an examination of the universes of Art and Literature in the story. ‘Young artists must pave their way to Art by drawing pictures for magazine stories that young authors write to pave their way to Literature.’ This line might be imperative as by looking at both the universe of Art and Literature to one another Henry might feature again the sacrifices that an artist or an author must make. Sacrifices that that majority of the people will never comprehend or need to make. The doctor calls pneumonia, Mr Pneumonia and recommends that pneumonia was not ‘what you would call a chivalric old gentleman’. Additionally, the roads made reference to toward the beginning of the story. They are representative of human passion and relations.

The consummation of the story is equally intriguing on the grounds that it is just toward the end does the reader completely understand the sacrifice that Behrman has made. He has given his own life with the end goal to save someone else’s life and from numerous points of view the single leaf that he has painted on Similarly as the pneumonia was inflicting significant damage on her lungs (and breathing) the last leaf has given her back her breath or life. Something that is perceptible when the doctor arrives and sees an enhancement in Johnsy’s well-being.

It is additionally intriguing that on observing the last leaf Johnsy no longer views life as contrarily as she has beforehand done all through the story. Or maybe she understands that ‘it is wrong to want to die.’ This line might be very important as it is noticeable Henry is proposing that whatever the people feel they shall never surrender. That they should continue attempting similarly as Behrman tilled the end when he at last figured out how to finish his masterpiece and reestablish hope into Johnsy’s life.


Textbook Questions of The Last Leaf

1. What was the cause of Johnsy’s illness? How could the illness be treated?

Answer: Johnsy was bedridden with pneumonia. However, the real cause of her illness was her negative thinking. Pneumonia had ravaged her body and mind.
The acute suffering robbed her of all desire to wait with patients without the crisis.
She had made up her mind that she wasn’t getting to recuperate.
Quite illogically, she had linked the dwindling number of vine leaves to her remaining lifespan.
Her illness could be treated only by injecting back hope and willpower in her life. Her doctor also said that if she did not want to live then medicines would not help her.

2. Do you think the sensation of depression Johnsy has, is common among teenagers?

Answer: Yes, teenagers commonly have a feeling of depression. This is because of the present lifestyle. Teenagers are under tremendous pressure to outperform in every field. They are constantly burdened with the studies and anxieties of the future. Sometimes, they fantasize the basic reality of life. They want to see the life through coloured glasses but as soon as reality strikes on them, they lose the hope.

3. What was Behrman’s dream? Did it come true?
Answer: Behrman‘s lifelong dream was to create a masterpiece in painting that could look perfect. It comes true when he paints an ivy leaf which looks a replica of a real leaf and saves a young life and fulfils Behrman’s ambition too. Unfortunately, it costs him his life.

4. How is ‘the last leaf’ the artists’ masterpiece? what makes you say so?

Answer: “The Last Leaf” is definitely the artist’s masterpiece because it seems real and natural.
The painting also rekindles hope and willpower in a person who had lost the desire to live.

Language Work of The Last Leaf

Explain the meaning of the following idiomatic expressions and frame sentences of your own:
1. Make up one’s mind(make a decision): You should make up your mind to crack the I.A.S exams.
2. Out of work(unemployed): A large number of educated youth are out of work in India.
3. By Leaps and Bounds(rapidly): She made her progress by leaps and bounds.
4. Pour out worries(To express feelings): She poured out her worries to me.
5. Shed Leaves(fall of leaves): The trees shed leaves in autumn.
6. Look after ( To take care of somebody): She looked after him as his own son.
7. Take after( To look or behave like or resemble like): Tasleema takes after her mother.
8. Tiptoe into (to walk carefully and stealthily into a room): She tiptoed into her sister’s room.
9. Draw the Certain (to pull the curtain across the window ): Sue draw the curtains when Johnsy told her.
10. Raise the Curtain ( reveal something or to push the curtain upwards for lighting ): The fresh inquiry has raised the curtains from their fishy deals.
We hope you might have enjoyed the reading about The Last Leaf. For any question regarding the above notes of The Last Leaf, please feel free to write to us. Thank you

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