Questions of Global Warming 1

Questions of Global Warming

Global Warming Questions and Answers Class 8th

The term global warming refers to the general increase in the average temperature of the earth caused by the presence of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, causing changes in climate patterns throughout the globe.


Global Warming is one of the major threats to the human race. It refers to the rise of about 0.80C. Its main reason is the increase in the greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Global Warming will increase sea water levels and cause extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts, and heavy rainfall.

Global Warming will melt all the glaciers in the Himalayan region and change the livelihood of millions of people of the subcontinent.

Even place like Kashmir will have an impact of this warming. Glaciers in Jammu and Kashmir are receding at an alarming rate. This has resulted in water scarcity and increased the threat of floods. Global warming has brought in high-velocity storms in the valley which have caused devastation to crops and fruits. The rapid melting of Kolhai glacier by 18% has evoked concern among environmentalist. This is mainly due to increase in temperature, caused by high levels of the population from various sources. The observation made by TERI has shown increased discharge trends due to increase in glacier melt runoff.

Global Warming has brought great changes in climate. The average temperatures have increased. The research carried out by the University of Kashmir has shown that the average increase in temperature in the valley by the end of the 21st century would be between 2 and 3 centigrade. Erratic snowfall, hotter summers, climate variability and change in precipitation levels will affect livelihoods. So, we need to come up with a strategy for the sustainable development of water resources in the region. Our children will curse as if we don’t do it now.

Working with the Text

Q.1 Why has the Earth’s average surface temperature increased?

Ans: One of the major reasons cited for the increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature is the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestration and burning of fossil fuels. The increase in the carbon footprint by the developed and the developing countries is one of the major causes of global warming.

Questions of global warming

Q. 2 Why is the Himalayan region called the Water Tower of Asia?

Ans: The Himalayan region is called the Water Tower of Asia because it has a glacial coverage of 33000 square kilometers and it provides around 8.6 million cubic meters of water per annum.

Q. 3 What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?

Ans: The main sources of drinking water and irrigation in the Kashmir Valley are glaciers.

Q. 4 Why is water the most precious natural resource?

Ans: All life forms in general and the human life in particular are not possible without water. Water sustains life besides presenting itself as one of the major energy resources in the formation of electricity.

Q. 5 How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?

Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in Kashmir are receding at an alarming rate. We have lost 18% of the Kolhai glacier, and about 16% of the glaciers in Suru basin. Besides this Kashmir is witnessing reduction in snowfall, occurance of high velocity wind storms, and drastic changes in prespitation and seasonal changes.

Q. 6 How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?

Ans: Global warming is catastrophic because it is going to render earth barren. Global warming is going to bring droughts, heatwaves and heavy downpour which will have disastrous consequences on the agricultural yields and consequently lead to species extinction. According to Noam Chomsky, after nuclear bomb environmental degradation is the second largest threat faced by man.

Q.7 What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?

Ans: Ans. Global warming is the certain cause of the reduction in snowfall in Kashmir because global warming changes the precipitation patterns and thus leads to weather and eventually climate change.Thus, the main cause behind the decrease in snowfall in Kashmir is global warming.

Q. 8 What has been the impact of global warming on J&K so far?

Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in J&K are receding at an alarming rate as compared to other glacial regions in the world. J&K has lost about 18% of the Kolhai glacier and about 16% of glaciers in Sure basin alone in the last forty years.

Q. 9 What role do scientists play in J&K to deal with the global warming?

Ans: In Jammu and Kashmir, The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) has selected the Kolhai glacier as one of the index glaciers for long term monitoring. The scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI will recommend measures to bring down the glacier‘s recession rate.

Q.10 What do we as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?

Ans: Besides making people aware about the disastrous consequences of global warming, we should try our best to minimize our carbon footprint that can be done by late minimizing air pollution, encouraging afforestation etc.




Q. 1. Why has the earth’s average temperature increased?

Ans. Emission of various greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4 (Carbon dioxide and methane) by several human activities have led to the increase in the Earth’s average temperature as these gases trap the heat released by the earth and do not let it escape into space.

Q. 2. Why is the Himalayan region called the ‘Water lower Asia?

Ans. The Himalayan region has a glacial coverage of 33,000 sq km and it provides around 8.6 million cubic meters of water annually. Therefore, it is aptly called the water tower of Asia.

Q. 3. What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?

Ans. Flood plain lakes, high altitude Himalayan lakes, perennial rivers of Indus system, wet-lands of different dimensions, ponds, snow-fed streams, springs, and reservoirs are the main sources of water in the Kashmir valley.

Q. 4. Why is water the most precious natural resource?

Ans. Water is the most precious natural resource because it saves our lives in many ways. It is used for drinking, maintaining health and hygiene, it helps in the economy, development, livelihood, generation of electricity and in agriculture.

Q. 5. How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?

Ans. Kashmir has been adversely affected by global warming. In spite of being located at a pretty high altitude, the effects of global warming are quite vivid in the state. There has been a loss of 16% of glaciers in the Suru Basin, 18% of the Kollai Glacier has melted, demarcation between seasons is lost, early spring is not experienced in the state, precipitation patterns have changed, heavy rains and high-velocity storms visit the place, flowers have changed their blooming period, water is becoming scarce, there is a reduction in snowfall, icicles are nowhere to be seen in the winter months. Migratory birds have changed their cycle. This and many more are the repercussions of global warming in the Kashmir valley.

Q. 6. How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?

Ans. Global warming is the largest threat to humanity because it brings about changes in the climate and any change in climate shall influence every single organism living on the earth. Due to global warming, the largest glaciers are melting away which will cause the rise in the sea level and the consequent submerging of the coastal areas. The weather will change from moderate to hot. This will lead to droughts and lesser production in agriculture. The entire seasonal patterns will change which will result in the extinction of valuable plant and animal species that are essential for the survival of mankind.

Q. 7. What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?

Ans. Global warming is the certain cause of the reduction in snowfall in Kashmir because global warming changes the precipitation patterns and thus leads to weather and eventually climate change.

Q. 8. What role do the scientists play in J&K to deal with the problem of global warming?

Ans. Scientists do extensive field study and keep a steady vigil on the environment to deal with the grave issue of global warming. Scientists have considered the Kollai glaciers as one of the index glaciers in the Lidder valley. Scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute J&K) will recommend measures to bring down the recession, rate of the glacier. Also, the studies conducted by the Kashmir University have unveiled the fact that if the pollution release in the valley continues to be at the same pace, by the end of the 21st century, the temperature of the valley will rise by 2 to 3 degree Celsius.

Q. 9. What do we as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?

Ans. Each individual needs to realize the graveness of the issue and do his part however little it may be. We got to be aware of our environment and its problems and then spread awareness among others as well. We should try to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases as much as we can. We got to realize the fact that our indifferent attitude shall cause us to pay the piper.


The -ing form of a verb that functions like a noun is called gerund. Gerund is, therefore, also called verbal Noun.

Uses of gerund:

a. The subject of a verb (or subject of the sentence)

i. Swimming helps to build strong muscles. ii. Reading develops wisdom.

i. My favorite hobby is cooking

ii. Our aim was only passing.

iii. His nightmare was flying

(Notice: the gerund answers ‘what’ and not ‘doing what’)

d. As the object of a preposition.

i. He is fond of cooking

ii. Let’s discuss about making excuses
iii. She is unbeatable in arguing.

Questions of Life Class 8th 2

Questions of Life Class 8th


This dialogue is gotten from a dramtic ballad initially written in Dogri language, which is interpreted in English by Shiv Nath and has been exhibited here as a prose lesson. The passing wind solicits to various things from universe, for example, stars, moon, clouds, ocean, earth, and the young girl a similar quetion, that is, “What is life?” Everyone gives its very own definition about life in their own particular manner.

Q. No. 1. What answer did the stars give to the wind?

Ans: Since the stars have their own shine, they responded in their own way. They told the wind that shining with one’s own brightness is life. They have got their own light and they are shining with this light to help others to find their way. They are not dependent on others. It there is dependence in life, it is not the life in the real sense of the word. For them, life is to have their own light.
For stars to shine with their own brightness is life. On a moonless night when millions of stars shine brightly, they feel they are released from captivity and are living an independent life. They answered the wind that to shine with one’s own brightness is life.

Questions of life

Q. No. 2. What was the moon’s reply?

Ans: The moon laments for it is not blessed with a light of its own. The borrowed light has lifted indelible spots on its surface. It is a lifeless entity. It replied that its life is dependent on others and feels lifeless entity and child of the ocean.
The moon replied that its life is nothing without stars because it borrows its light from them and this borrowed light is the cause of its black spots. Due to this, its life is like a widow. Its life is dependent on others and feels lifeless entity and child of the ocean.

Q.No. 3 What was the ocean’s response?
Ans: The Ocean replied that the idea of life was to realize one’s limitations and maintain one’s dignity in order to contain all bitter experiences and to take them as pearls and rubies. Life is also a penance or renunciation as if it (ocean) is the cause of somebody’s death, it also regrets it by giving them pearls and rain as its salty water creates pearls and creates rain-filled clouds.
To realize one’s limits and maintain one‘s dignity; to contain all bitter experiences taking them like pearls, is the idea of life for the ocean.

Q.No 4. What was the earth’s reply to the question put forth to her by the wind?

Ans: For earth, the meaning of life is ‘love’. Earth considers herself the mother of all lives and says that the sympathy of the mother is the gift of life. Earth says that it takes water from clouds, rivers, and streams and distributes everything that sprouts from it, so this taking and giving is life for her.
For the earth, life is love: the flow of affection. The earth gets water from different sources, stores it in pure trust and then distributes among the needy. For the earth, this taking and giving is true life.

Q. No. 5. What was the little girl doing when the wind saw her?

Ans: The little girl was lighting new lamps with the lamp that was already alight in her hand. In other words, she was generously spreading light and joy. Thus she was giving real meaning to her life.

Q.No. 6. Why was the Wind impressed by the little girl?
Ans. The wind was impressed by the girl because from the words that the girl told her she found the real meaning of life. The girl had left some lamps unlighted. When she was asked the reason for this, she answered that there was no point in lighting them since they had no oil in them. She was lighting only those who were longing to awake and waiting to be lighted. It impressed the wind. The wind understood that helping those who have a strong desire to live is the real meaning of life.
Upon asking why the girl left some lamps unlighted, the girl said that those lamps did not have oil in them. She said that she would light the lamps which have had oil in them.

Here oil symbolizes desire and yearning. She said she loves this play of life. The girl‘s philosophical answer impresses the wind.

Q.No. 7. Why did the wind join the girl?

Ans: The wind joined the girl because she was greatly impressed by the girl’s action of lighting the lamps and answer given by her.
The wind understood that helping those who have a strong desire to live is the real meaning of life. Thus the Wind forgot everything and joined her.
The wind joined the little girl because the girl’s answer impressed the wind.


captivity = The state of being imprisoned

shroud = a cloth that is used to wrap a dead body (winding sheet, covering)

confront = to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation (challenge)

penance = an act which shows that you regret what you have done, (atonement, expiation, self-mortification, self-punishment)

rumble = to make continuous low sound (boom, thunder, roll, roar, resound, reverberate, echo, grumble)

parched = very thirsty (dried up, arid, desiccated, dehydrated, baked, scorched; opp: soaking)

mamta = motherhood

boon = something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life (blessing, advantage, godsend,

stroke = of luck; opp: curse)

comprehend = to understand (grasp, take in, apprehend, follow, make sense of, decipher, figure out)

meditate = to think deeply (contemplates, think, reflect, deliberate, ruminate, brood mull over, put on one‘s thinking cap)

yearn = to have a strong desire (long, pine, crave, desire, hanker, wish, covet)

renunciation =The act of leaving or abandoning someone or something.


I. Choose appropriate tiller for the following:(Kindly consult your textbook),(Answers Only):

1. He tames because of he

Ans: (c), He is fond of them.

2. He is so lazy that he

Ans: (c), He can seldom complete his work.

3. Whichever way you approach the problem

Ans: (d), It will not be solved.

4. The doctor warns him that unless he gives up smoking

Ans: (d), He will not recover.

II. Write two synonyms of each of the following Words: (Answers Only):

1. Abhor = Hate, Detest, Dislike, Despise

2. Betray = Expose, Reveal, Deceive, Grass

3. Counsel = Advice, Discuss, Guidance, Direction

4. Delight = Please, Satisfy, Pleasure, Happiness, Joy

5. Educate = Amend, Improve, Teach, Instruct

6. Fate = Destiny, Fortune, Luck

7. Generous = Benevolent, Big hearted, Lavish, Liberal

8. Hasty = Quick, Speedy, Hurried, Swift, Rapid, Fast

9. Intellectual = Knowledgeable, Intelligent, Logical, Scholarly

10. Justice = Fairness, Impartiality, Rightfulness, Uprightness

11. Languid = Lazy, weak, Unhurried, Unenergetic, Relaxed

12. Mend = Aid, Patch, Repair, Fix, Restore

13. Nonsense = Senseless, Gibberish, Babble, Drivel

14. Obstacle = The difficulty, Problem, Complication, Hindrance, Restraint

15. Palatable = Edible, Pleasant, Tasty, Satisfying

16. Queer = Unusual, Unexpected, Odd, Expose, Endanger

17. Religious = Sacred, Spiritual, Holy, Pious, Puritan

18. Sober = Temperate, Moderate, Intoxicated, Serious

19. Transient = Fleeting, Passing, Brief, Temporary, Short-lived

20. Urge =Need, Wish, Impulse, Itch, Craving


Write the following sentences inserting ‘to’ wherever necessary before the infinitive in brackets:

1. I have no money (lend) you.

Ans. I have no money to lend you.

2. We saw the thief (run).

Ans. We saw the thief running.

3. We heard her (sing).

Ans. We heard her singing.

4. They watched their team (play).

Ans. They watched their team play.

5. He made us (wait) for a long time.

Ans. He made us wait for a long time.

6. Let him (work).

Ans. Let him work.

7. Need I (come) tomorrow?

Ans. Need I to come tomorrow?

8. Do you wish to make (make) a complaint?

Ans. Do you wish to make a complaint?

9. A heard a cock (crow) and got up. Ans. He heard a cock crowing and got up.

10. How dare you (read my letter? Ans. How dare you to read my letter?

11. It is up to you (increase) your knowledge.

Ans. It is up to you to increase your knowledge.

12. Bid him (go) there.

Ans. Bid him go there.

13. Goodbye! I hope (see) you again. Ans. Goodbye! I hope to see you again.

14. I would like (be) a teacher.

Ans. I would like to be a teacher.

15. He learned (swim) when he was ten years old.

Ans. He learned to swim when he was ten years old.

16. I’m tired. I want (go) to bed.

Ans. I’m tired. I want to go to bed.

17. What have you decided (do)?

Ans. What have you decided to do?

18. We should learn (speak) the truth. Ans. We should learn to speak the truth.

19. Where is Sumaya? I need (ask) her something.

Ans. Where is Sumaya? I need to ask her something.

20. I’m trying (concentrate). Please stop talking.

Ans. I’m trying to concentrate. Please stop talking.

Let’s Write:

1. Write a dialogue (100-150 words) on ‘Life is Gift’.

Shahid: Hello Shabir, how is your life going on?

Shabir: I’m spending my days pretty well.

Shahid: OK Shabir. Now tell me, how were your exams?

Shabir: Oh yes, I’ve done very well. I expect this year I come out as flying colour.

Shahid: Oh that’s great! I wish for your great success. How’s your friend, Mohsin? I’ve not seen him for the last few months.

Shabir: Shahid, as you know our friend had been suffering from Asthma for the last seven years and…..yesterday he died of Asthma.

Shahid: Oh my God! That is terribly sad news. I can’t believe it! I

Shabir: Actually he was living in the pollution-prone area and he was a little careless about his health.
Shahid: Oh yes, it is certainly said that life is a gift and we must take great care of it.

The Passion of The Earth 3

The Passion of The Earth


Summary of The Passion of The Earth

The poem “The Passion of Earth” is written by an American naturalist and peace activist, Harriet Kofalk. This poem appears in the English textbook of Class VIII in which the author talks about peace and hopes it will ultimately return to the world after the prevailing violence meets its end

In the poem, the poet describes the states of the earth in present times and in ancient times. The poet says that in past the mountains, seas, birds, and trees live together in peace. There was no pollution in the atmosphere. But later the people if the next generations built fences, dug mines, cut trees birds became less in number and songless. By this indiscriminate vandalism, the earth lost its charm. However, the peaceful nights of silence and the enchanting songs of frogs sustained us all those years. The poet says that time will again come when the land will be free and we all in nature will share the world as before.

Question /Answers of The Passion of The Earth

Q.1 Read stanza 1 again and describe the state of the earth in ancient times.
Ans. The state of the earth in ancient times was free and the whole creation shared it equally, with mountains, the seas, the birds and the trees. There was no pollution in the atmosphere.

Q. 2 Who are the ‘others of line 9’? What did they do?
Ans. The others of line 9 are the people of the next generation who built fences, cut down trees, dug mines and drained out its blood, that is, oil.

Q. 3 As a result of what others did what happened to the earth?
Ans. The trees were cut, birds became less in number, their songs became less, people became indifferent in planting trees and getting more flowers. The earth lost its charm.

Q. 4 What is that sustained us “through all those years”?
Ans. The nights of silence and the songs of frogs sustained us through all those years.

Q. 5 Does the poem end in hope or despair? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. The poem ends in an optimistic note. In the end, the poet says that the land will again be free, mountains, seas birds, and trees will live in peace.

The Story of Rainbow Summary

NCERT Solutions For Class 8 English

The Story of Rainbow

This Chinese story tells us how the rainbow was formed. Many years ago a very beautiful girl lived in a mountain village. She was very clever at making lace. She made plants, birds and animals which looked very real. People called her sister lace. They loved her and spoke to everyone about her. She became very famous. The emperor heard about her. He told his courtiers to bring her to his palace. Sister lace did not want to go. She wanted to stay in the village with her friends and teach them to make lace. But the courtiers carried her to the emperor. She was very unhappy. The emperor told her not to be sad. He told her that he would marry her. Then she would not have to work. Sister Lace told the emperor that he would let her go back to her village. The emperor was very angry. He told Sister Lace that he would let her go back to her village if she made a live rooster ( cock) with her lace. If not she would have to live with him. Then he threw her into prison.

The Story of Rainbow Summary 4

Sister Lace set to work. The Lace rooster was ready on the seventh day. She bit her finger. She let the blood drop onto its comb. Then she blinked her eyes. A tear rolled into the rooster’s mouth. With a flap of wings, the rooster stood up. The Emperor came to see the rooster. He was shocked to see the rooster. He told Sister Lace that it was one of the birds in his palace though he knew it was not. Then he had another idea. He told her that she should make a wild partridge. She could go home after doing that.
Suddenly, the rooster jumped up and sat on the Emperor’s head. He told Sister Lace that he was sorry for her and he hated the Emperor. The courtiers tried to drive it away. It scratched the Emperor’s head. The blood began to pour down. Then it flew into the garden and disappeared. The Emperor walked away angrily.
After seven days, the Lace partridge was ready. Sister Lace bit her finger. She smeared the blood on the feathers of the partridge. She blinked her eyes. A teardrop fell into the partridge’s mouth like a pearl. The partridge flapped its wings and stood up.
The Emperor came to see Sister Lace. He was shocked to see Sister Lace had made the partridge. The Emperor told Sister Lace that he had asked her to make a heavenly dragon and not a partridge. If she failed to make a dragon in seven days, she could not go back home.
When the partridge heard these words, it flew at the Emperor’s and scratched his neck. While flying away, it said that it hated the Emperor. Once again the Emperor walked away in anger and shame.

The Story of Rainbow Summary 5

After seven days the heavenly dragon was ready. Sister Lace bit her finger and dyed the dragon red. Then she blinked her eyes and tear rolled into the mouth of the dragon like a pearl. Sister Lace feared that the Emperor would not let her go back to her village.
When the Emperor saw the dragon, he shouted that it was a snake. He wanted to be helped. The dragon was very angry. It sent out a ball of flaming fire which burned the Emperor and all his courtiers to death. Then the fireball rolled out of the prison and burned the whole palace to the ground.

The Story of Rainbow Summary 6

Sister Lace looked sadly around her. She had been very happy in her village. She climbed on the dragon’s back and flew into the sky. She still lives there. Whenever you see a many-coloured rainbow in the sky. You know it is the bright and beautiful lace she is making.


Q.1. How did Sister Lace come to be known by this name?

Ans. Sister Lace was very clever at making lace. She made plants, birds and animals which looked very real. In this way, Sister Lace came to be known by this name.

Q. 2. How did Lace come to the palace?
Ans. When the Emperor heard about the fame and beauty of Sister Lace, he ordered his courtiers to bring her to his palace. The courtiers brought her to the palace in a sedan against her will.

Q. 3 Why did Lace reject the Emperor’s offer? What was its result?
And. Lace rejected the Emperor’s offer because she wanted to go back to her village. She would rather die than stay with the Emperor. The Emperor felt very angry. He told her to make him a live rooster with
her lace. Then she could return home. If she failed to do that, she would have to live with him forever. Then he threw her into prison.

Q.4. What conditions did the Emperor put for Lace to go to her home? Did she fulfil those conditions?
Ans. The Emperor asked Lace to make a living rooster in seven days to be able to go back to her village. Subsequently, she was asked to make a living wild partridge and later a heavenly dragon. She fulfilled these conditions.

Q.5. ” It’s one of the birds in my palace.” What does it refer to here? Why does the speaker say this?.
Ans. It refers to the live rooster made by Sister Lace. The speaker said this because he did not want Sister Lace to leave his palace. He wanted her to live with him as his queen.

Q.6. Why did the dragon feel angry? What did he do?
Ans. When the Emperor saw the dragon, he shouted out for help by saying that it was a snake. The dragon felt very angry. It raised its head, opened its mouth and sent out a burning ball of fire which burned the Emperor and his courtiers.

Q.7. Where did Sister Lace go? How do you know?
Ans. Sister Lace climbed on to the dragon’s back flew into the sky. She still lives there. When we see the rainbow, it is the bright and beautiful lace she is making.

The Story of Rainbow Summary 7

Q.8. Do you think Sister Lace should have rejected the Emperor’s offer? Why?
Ans. By not rejecting the Emperor’s offer, she could have lived as his queen. She could have continued teaching lace-making to the people from her village.

Tag: The story of rainbow

My Family Paragraph 8

My Family Paragraph

Read: How To Write A Paragraph

My family is a joint and a big family. There are ten members in my family. These include my grandfather and grandmother, father and mother, uncle and aunt and we are two brothers and two sisters. All members of the family live peacefully with one another. Our family is a perfect and cheerful family. The grandfather and the grandmother are elderly and most regarded members in my family. All the family members regard them without question. In my family, all the members know their obligation and perform their works well. My grandfather was initially a teacher but he is retired now. However, he teaches every one of my brothers, sisters and me even today regularly. The grandmother is a lady of religious instincts, she invests most of her time in worship. She likewise sets aside some time for the family. She bolsters my auntie as much as possible in homework. She views her as the daughter of the family. My father is a homoeopathic specialist by profession. He has his very own clinic in the city where he goes daily. Patients benefit significantly from him. My uncle is an engineer in the electrical department. In this way, my family gets a good income and the necessities of the family are effectively met. My mother and aunt handle family tasks. Albeit every one of my brothers and sisters is studying in five different schools we read and play together at home.

My Family Paragraph

My Family

Discipline and courtesy are given adequate importance in my family. All the small members of the family respect the elder members and they also give their love and affection to us. All the family functions are often taking place on time. The time for eating, reading, playing and sleeping is certain. If someone gets sick then others take his service. If there is a problem, the family faces the problem by being united. My family lives together with neighbours. We always cooperate with neighbours’ grief and pain. Dad treats neighbours free of charge. Grandfather collects children from the neighbourhood and teaches them. My family engages in increased social work. Due to these qualities, my family gets proper respect in the neighbourhood. Neighbours give examples of our solidarity here, which is a matter of pride for us. Guests are treated fairly in our family. Due to being a big family, friends and guests often visit. They are respected in the guest room. Their comfort is also taken care of. We give enough importance to the ancient Indian concept of ‘Atidivi Devo Bhava’.

My Family Paragraph

There are no differences in my family. We are surprised if neighbouring families fight among themselves. If there is ever any difference among the members of my family, then it is settled peacefully. If children quarrel with each other, the big differences, all the obstacles are solved with mutual harmony and love. This way my family is a happy family. The secret of this prosperity is the discipline followed by family affection and dignity. The feeling of sympathy towards each other is a solid foundation of the family. There is a strong feeling of unity. Nobody can dare to see my family with a sense of humour on the strength of unity.

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How to Write a Paragraph

How to Write a Paragraph: A step-by-step guide

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A well-developed academic paragraph can be hard to write. The following is a recipe for drafting, extending, improving and describing your ideas so that you can write clearly, well-developed paragraphs and discussion posts.

How to Write a Paragraph

How to Write a Paragraph

Step 1: Decision on your paragraph topic

You should know what you are writing before you start writing. First of all, look immediately at the assigned topic or writing prompt. Note all key terms or repeated phrases as soon as you see them because you want to use them in your response. Then ask yourself:

• What topic have I to write about?

• What do I already know about this topic?

• If I do not know how to answer this assignment, where can I go to find some answers?

• What does this prompt mean to me? How am I related to it?

After looking at the topic and following some extra reading and research, you should better understand your assignment and what you need to talk.

Step 2: Development of a subject sentence

Before writing the paragraph, first of all, it is necessary to think about the topic and then what you want to say about this topic. Most often, the topic is simple, but the question turns into what you want to say about the topic. This concept is sometimes called controlling idea.

Strong paragraphs are usually about one important idea or topic, which is often described clearly in a subject sentence. Good topics always have both
(1) a topic and
(2) a controlling idea.

The Topic -The paragraph contains a major theme or idea that is discussed in the paragraph

Controlling idea – This idea focuses on the theme by providing direction to the paragraph.

Read the following topic sentences. All of them contain a topic and a controlling idea. When your paragraph contains a clearly described topic like one of the following, your readers will know what is expected and, therefore, understand your thoughts better.

Examples of topical sentences

• There are many benefits of online education.

• Effective leadership needs specific features that anyone can develop.
• People can avoid smoking by taking some precautions.

Step 3: Demonstration of Your Point

After describing your topic sentence, you need to provide information and description to explain, and/or clarify your viewpoint.

Ask yourself:

• What best examples can I use to support my point?

• What information can I provide to explain my thoughts?

• How can I support my view with specific data, experiences, or other realistic content?

• What information does the reader need to know to see my point?

Here is a list of the kinds of information you can add to your paragraph:

• Facts, subtleties, reasons, examples

• Information from the readings or class talks

• Paraphrases or short citations

• Statistics, surveys, rates, information from research studies.

• Personal experience, stories, accounts, models from your life Sometimes, including transitional or introductory expressions like: for instance, for example, first, second, or last can help direct the reader. Likewise, ensure you are referring to your sources properly.

Step 4: Give Your Paragraph Meaning

After you have given the reader enough data to see and comprehend your point, you have to clarify why this data is applicable, important, or interesting.
Ask yourself:

• What does the given data mean?

• How can it relate with your general point, contention, or postulation?

• Why is this data critical/noteworthy/significant?

• How does this data relate with the assignment or course I am taking?

Stage 5: Concluding the Paragraph

After describing your point with pertinent data, include a concluding sentence. Concluding sentences connect one section to the following and provide another tool for helping you guarantee your passage is bound together. While not all sections incorporate a closing sentence, you should always think about one which is suitable.

Concluding sentences have two critical jobs in paragraph writing:
➡ First, they draw together the data you have introduced to expound your controlling idea by
• Summarizing the point(s) you have made.
• Repeating words or expressions from the topic sentence.
• Using linking words that demonstrate that ends are being drawn (e.g., therefore, consequently, resulting).

➡ Second, they frequently connect the present paragraph to the following passage. They may foresee the topic sentence of the following passage by:
• Introducing a word/expression or new idea which will at that point be gotten in the topic sentence of the following section.
• Using words or expressions that point ahead (e.g., the following, another, other).

Step 6: Look Over and Proofread

The last important step in the great paragraph is editing and correction. Before you present your composition, investigate your work at least one more time. Read your passage aloud so anyone can hear to ensure it makes sense well. Moreover, put forth these questions to yourself:

• Does my passage answer the prompt and bolster my assignment?

• Does it bode well? Does it use the appropriate scholarly voice?

Proofreading And Editing Strategies

Many students do not realize that the final stages of the writing process are proofreading and editing. Every task– a discussion board post, essay, proposal, etc. – should be reviewed and edited before it is submitted to the instructor. There are some revision and editing strategies that work well to guide you in this process:

➡ Take a break.

Allow yourself some time to read and write. Even a five- minute break can be productive because it allows you to distance yourself from what you wrote so that you can return to your paper with a fresh eye and mind.

➡ Read out loud.

When you read aloud what you have written by yourself, you can catch both grammatical errors and awkward organization or ideas.

➡ Involve other people.

If you ask a friend or family member to read your paper, you will have a different view of your writing. A new reader can also help you to catch errors you may have overlooked.

➡ Run the check of the spell.

The Microsoft Word Spell Check function can help you quickly detect spelling and grammar errors in the Word document. You can also use Grammarly to discover your mistakes.

Sample Paragraph

Afforestation and its Uses

Afforestation means planting more and more trees. Trees are very important. They give us many amenities. If we want to live happily, we have to preserve our forests. It is time to remind ourselves of our dependence on the forest. Where would be the modern man without wood? Even the most cursory look at your surroundings in enough to show its importance. Most of the furniture, homes and offices are more or less made up of wood. Many tools like boxes, vessels, bridges and other implements are made up of wood. The benefits of trees are unlimited. Can you imagine life without paper? The life would be halted without paper which is also obtained from the trees. Not only this there are so many other useful things like medicines, rubber and wax which are a few out of limitless blessings obtained from the trees. Trees further bestow us firewood which is called the best friend of the poor. Above all, trees also protect our environment and make it beautiful. They maintain environmental balance and decorate our surroundings with lush greenery and keep it afresh.

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