The poem “The Listeners” is written by the well known modern poet, Walter De La Mare. His literary fame mainly revolves around this poem and works for children. Supernaturalism is a predominant element found in his writings and has written many ghost stories, the most famous being ‘The Eight Tales”.
“The Listeners” is a brilliant piece of literature through which ‘Walter De La Mare’ is endeavoring to narrate an incident of a promise that was kept but was not reciprocated. It is a poem which compels the readers to derive interpretations for this poem. The atmosphere created in this poem is diabolic and haunted, and it is solely up to the reader to bring this poem to life.
The poet is talking about a weary horse rider who eventually reaches his destination in the darkest hour of the night. The moonlight shining bright and bathing a particular house in its glory. Dismounting from the horse, the rider wastes no time in knocking at the mysterious door. The horse relieved of its burden eats the grass to its heart’s content. The forest floor covered with plants. In this atmosphere of absolute stillness, the sounds that are heard are that of the horses chewing the grass and a bird scarring out of the tower of the mansion. It seemed that the bird was awakened by the arrival of the traveler and the supernatural phenomena within the house.
Baffled and perplexed by no response from the depth of the house, the traveler knocked the door for the second time.
In spite of the second attempt no one moved downward from the mansion towards the traveler, nor did a keen welcoming voice call out from the border of the window, laced with leaves.
Neither did anybody bent out of the window to know who the caller might be at the unearthly hour. The traveler expected at least someone to open the ground floor window, peep and stare into the dull and worried eyes of the traveler. The traveler stood transfixed and flustered and sound of silence became his patient listener. But, it seemed that whoever lived in that moonlit solitary house could only acknowledge the presence of the traveler by a deeper shade of silence. The world of the immortals within the house was moved by the only mortal sound around. The only witness to this sight were his horse and the stream of moonlight that unoccupied hall and ascended up those uncanny stairs. It is not that the traveler was not received by anyone but it so happened that they have become the inhabitants of the next world. The spirits within the house heard each word of the caller and were disturbed in their stark silence as the words he spoke penetrated their soul. The supernatural aspect of the house casts a shadow on the traveler who now stands frozen with confusion and fright. The absence of any kind of sound or movement sends a chill up his spine. While the meeting between the mortals and the immortals was progressing, his horse continued eating grass under the shield of the stars and the trees unmoved by the events of the night. Baffled and frustrated, the weary traveler knocks a third time. He screams to the inhabitants of the house to tell them that he was present and he did not fail to keep his promise. The listeners did not respond in any way and the silence kept growing graver, unable to meet the requirements of the traveler and bound by unforeseen circumstances, the listeners heard him departing as he mounted his horse and the sound of the horse was heard on the cobbled ground. With his departure, the sounds of silence moved forward and upward, without failing to notice the unsteady movement and the uncontrollable steps of the horse and its rider.
The poet through this poem basically talks about keeping one’s promises and he also reflects the inability of the mortals to communicate with the immortals who died before fulfilling their promises.
CHAMPED: Another word for chomped
TURRETT: A small tower on top of a larger tower or at the corner of a building or wall, typically of a castle.
SMOTE: Past tense of smite, an old-fashioned word for striking with a firm blow
HOST: A large group
CROPPING: Cutting or harvesting
SPAKE: An old-fashioned word that means spoke
Poetic Techniques of “The Listeners”
1. Alliteration: The repetition of consonant sounds within close proximity, usually in consecutive words within the same sentence or line e.g.;
‘she sells sea shells on the sea shore’,
‘And the furrow followed free’.
Examples of Alliteration in the poem “The Listener” are
‘Forest’s ferny floor’, ‘Stood perplexed and still’, ‘stirred and shaken’, ‘suddenly smote the door’, ‘louder and lifted’, ‘Silence surged softly backward’.
2. Onomatopoeia: When sounds are spelled out as words, or when words describing sounds actually sound like the sounds they describe, e.g. ‘Over the cobbles he clattered and clashed’, ‘the hissing of the snake and the buzzing of the bee disturbed me’.
Onomatopoeia words in the poem are: ‘Chomped’, ‘Smote’, ‘Echoing’, ‘plunging’
3. Binary Image: when the poet makes use of two contrasting things or ideas, it is known as binary technique. It is used to give more poetic weight to the lines that have been written e.g.‘Hot and Cold’, ‘new and old’, ‘thick and thin’, summer and winter’.
The use of two binary images has been done in the poem.
‘Perplexed and still’, ‘leaned over and looked into’.
4. Metaphor: A host of phantomine listeners and the voice of worlds of men
Theme of The Poem
Walter de la Mare’s supernatural poem The Listeners is considered the quintessence of his poetic genius. The most celebrated uncanny feeling and ‘strangeness’ has been the pivotal theme of this particular poem. In this context, it should be mentioned that the lone traveler who experiences the strangeness in his heart is also baffled by communication failure and despondency of the unfulfillment of a promise as indicated in the poem. Did his regressed emotions of the past incidents, or some guilt of breaking a promise submerged deep in his unconscious due to regression and resulted in an uncanny feeling? Were those thronging phantom listeners external manifestation of the traveler’s regressed self? In terms of Freudian concept of ‘uncanny’ the prefix – ‘un’ is a token of regression. Depending upon his theory this article is an attempt to vindicate the traveler’s uncanny strangeness and the phantom listeners to be the projection of the repressed inner self and unsettled notions of a unified personality.
Explanation of The Poem
The listeners, a narrative poem delineating supernatural ambiance within, is a poem composed by Walter de la Mare, first published in London by Constable and Company in The listeners and other poems, a collection of Walter de la Mare’s verses in 1912. The central attraction of the poem is its supernatural element and gothic atmosphere. In addition to it, there remains a vivid description of the traveler’s psychological reaction upon confronting the strangeness of the place on a moonlit night.
The poem initiates with the depiction of a haunted and desolate house where a lone traveler arrives with a predetermined purpose. The entire atmosphere evokes a mysterious sense of horror and strangeness with its brilliant juxtaposition of silence and sound. It is evident from the description that the house is deserted by human and a strange presence of a host of phantom listeners has been depicted by the poet. These listeners are unable to make successful communication. They are at the receiving end. After knocking on the door twice the traveler left dishearted, but he left a message that he kept his promise. The entire effort of communication was on the part of the traveler ending in his assertion of fulfilling his promise. But the promise he mentioned there was never actually maintained. It is the traveler himself who implies the fulfillment in a condolatory tone. This consolation provided by him is the mark of his failure. The nature of this nocturnal visit of the traveler remains unknown matter of conjecture. Apart from that why should he feel so “perplexed”? He left a message – ‘tell them I came and no one answered/that I kept my word.” that implicates that he was conscious of the presence of those phantom listeners who were responsible for the uncanny feeling he experienced. Were these phantom listeners projection of his regressed self? As it has been mentioned in Freud’s expounded the theory of ‘uncanny’ that uncanny feeling is a result of repression.
Repression is a defence mechanism to maintain a balanced personality. To put it more specifically it is a conscious process of forgetting unpleasant and undesirable events of life. It is an involuntary and spontaneous exclusion of those memories from the conscious awareness which are disturbing for the individual. Despite trying hard to suppress them they may invade the consciousness in disguised form. In a menacing form, those feelings may recur and such recurrence unsettles the person’s mind. The traveler’s uncanny feelings may result from such regressive actions of past. His predicament reminds Macbeth’s encounter with the witches upon the heath in William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Macbeth. Though his associate Banquo witnessed the incident but critics are of the opinion that the witches were an external manifestation of Macbeth’s own inarticulate desires.
‘Uncanny’ is a feeling generated for something unfamiliar or incongruous. According to Freud ‘uncanny’ is familiar yet incongruous, as it often creates cognitive dissonance within the experiencing subject due to the paradoxical nature of being simultaneously attracted to yet repulsed by an object. Freud’s revelation enlightened this in his essay on The Uncanny(1919) the German word unheimlich (uncanny, unfamiliar) and Heimlich(familiar, homely) are opposite but close in meaning, if not identical, since Heimlich means apparently belonging to the house also simultaneously juxtaposes the sense of being concealed, hidden, kept from sight. He further relates uncanny first to the survival of the unconscious of a primitive and subsequently repressed animistic mythological and mystic view of the world. Secondly the occurrence of repetition, coincidence and doubles are related to uncanny. He confirms that these are the result of repressed experiences in infancy. Otto Fenichel opines that ‘if the disappearance of the original aim from consciousness is called repression, then every sublimation is a repression.’Lacan also stressed the role of signifier in repression-‘the primal repressed is the signifier-examining how the symptom is constituted on the basis of primal repression of the ‘unterdruckung of the binary signifier…the necessary fall of the first signifier’. While interpreting the traveler’s uncanny feeling or unfamiliar experience his repetitive actions testify a great deal as he repeats the question twice, ‘Is there anybody there?’ He smote on the door twice that leads us to the conclusion of repetitive compulsion on the part of the traveler (Freud’s theory foregrounding Jung’s notion of syncronity).
The traveler’s assertion of keeping his promise probably made to the dwellers of the house incites mysterious strangeness. Nothing is implied distinctly or in specific terms about the promise, like-what was the promise? To whom was it made? Why he came at midnight to see the dwellers of the house? Whatever the answers may be it engenders an all-encompassing feeling of failure, a failure that also engulfs the traveler’s mind. Virtually the uncanny feeling of the traveler may be the reflection of his once repressed experiences or unfulfilled desires. The shock of failed communication, inability to fulfill his promise, such baffled efforts on the part of the traveler might have been experienced by him before and technically repressed into his unconscious. Those repressed memories surged into the surface invading the conscious after encountering the strange milieu of the mansion on a moonlit night. The revival of those feelings caused anxiety which makes him perplexed and still. When repression has rendered it strange and unfamiliar anxiety for uncanny is rediscovered. As Freud justified that certain triggers retrieve childhood memory, conflicts, or primitive beliefs overcome by a person but suddenly seemingly receive renewed affirmation. The atmosphere of the mansion is largely responsible for the resurrection of those submerged uncanny feelings, repressed fears, and suspicions. Recurrence of suppressed experiences generated that uncanny feeling in the perplexed traveler’s mind.
The poet ‘Arvind Krishna Mehrotra’ talks about the sacrifices of mothers for their children. The title of the poem ‘wrinkles’ is symbolical of the sufferings of a mother right from her childhood till she grows up, is married and then becomes a mother. A mother makes sacrifices for the well-being of her children. The poet in the poem has begun to notice the wrinkles on his mother’s face and he intends to iron out these wrinkles. The poet summons the courage to tell his mother of the first wrinkle which she developed owing to her father who pulled her out from the backyard of his house only to place her in the courtyard of her in-laws. She got the second wrinkle at the time when the poet was developing in her womb.
The third wrinkle became apparent owing to the suckling of the poet which wore away the attractiveness of his mother’s face. The fourth wrinkle was caused when the poet got married to a girl who tore him away from his mother. The poet is ashamed of himself for being apathetic. He now picks up the courage to ask his mother for the girl who she has concealed under the folds of her skin. The poet then continues to say about this girl. He says it is the same girl who was suppressed but who would celebrate the raade festival with complete pleasure. It is the same girl who would love to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
In the last stanza, the poet earnestly requests his mother to become the same girl who she was before her marriage. He further tells her that he would bring everything that she would enjoy herself with, only to see her smiling and enjoying the life in full.
1. The poet finds four wrinkles on his mother’s face.
2. The first wrinkle represents the time when she got married and was sent to her in-laws.
3. The second wrinkle represents the time when she got pregnant and the third wrinkle represents the time when she bore her child and suckled him which wore away all her attractiveness.
4. He is seeking the girl who would celebrate the raade festival with utter pleasure, and who would play the game of pebbles and hopscotch with happiness.
5. She used to enjoy the raade festival. She used to immerse the raade seedlings. She used to take bath during Navaratras. She used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
6. The poem ends with the aspiration of the poet who aspires to change his mother back into the girl who knew how to draw enjoyment from all the small things.
Tawi: a river of Jammu
Make bold: becoming courageous
uproot: to pull out or remove
Navaratra: a festival of Hindus, celebrating the birth of Lord
tinsel: glittering decorative metallic strips or threads.
Thinking about the Poem
Q.1. How many wrinkles does the poet find on the other mother’s face?
Ans. The poet finds four wrinkles on his mother’s face.
Q.2. What does the first wrinkle stand for/represent?
Ans. The first wrinkle represents the time when she got married and was sent to her in-laws.
Q.3. What does the second and the third wrinkles represent?
Ans. The second wrinkle represents the time when she got pregnant and the third wrinkle represent the time when she bore her child and suckled him which wore away all her attractiveness.
Q.4. What is the poet seeking under the wrinkles of the mother?
Ans. He is seeking the girl who would celebrate the raade festival with utter pleasure, and who would play the game of pebbles and hopscotch with happiness.
Q.5. What activities the poet’s mother used to do when she was a girl?
Ans. She used to enjoy the raade festival. She used to immerse the raade seedlings. She used to take bath during Navaratras. She used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
Q.6 What is the poet’s wish as it emerges in the last stanza of the poem?
Ans. The poem ends with the aspiration of the poet who aspires to change his mother back into the girl who knew how to draw enjoyment from all the small things.
CHECK THE FOLLOWING ANSWERS
Q. 1. How many wrinkles does the poet find on mother’s face?
Ans. If we read the poem carefully, we will see that the poet has used the word “wrinkle” four times and “wrinkles” two times. So we can say that the poet has found four wrinkles on the mother’s face. Since the poet has written the last wrinkle as suppression, so there may be five wrinkles on the mothers face.
Q. 2. What does the first wrinkle represent?
Ans. The first wrinkle represents the marriage of his mother, when her father got her married and she was separated from her birth home to another’s home where she had to live her entire life with an unknown person.
Q. 3. What do the second and the third wrinkle represent?
Ans. Second wrinkle represents the time when the child was not born and was in the womb of the mother growing there by sucking every drop of blood in the form of mother’s food.
The third wrinkle represents the time when he sucked the attractiveness of her face by sucking her milk from her breasts.
Q. 4. What is the poet seeking under the wrinkles of the mother?
Ans. Under the wrinkle of the mother, the poet is seeking a young aged girl who is fond of playing hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
Q. 5. What are the activities the poet’s mother used to do when she was a girl?
Ans. When the poet’s mother was a girl, she used to celebrate Raade Festival and immerse Raade seedlings in River Tawi. She used to bath during the Navratras and was fond of playing hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
Q. 6. How does the end?
Ans. The poem ends with poet saying that he will bring colours of Raade, colourful stripes for his mother’s dupatta and colourful pebbles for his mother so that his mother would look like a girl as she was in young age. He wishes to bring the happiness and pleasures of her young age so that she would be happy as she used to be in her young age.
‘Making bold today’ is an expression or phrase used in the second line of the poem which means ‘becoming courageous this time’.
Now write the meanings of the following phrases or expressions as used in the poem:
1. from the backyard: her own house.
2. On your blood: food from mother’s womb.
3. nourished myself: kept myself alive.
4. took me away: was married.
5. taking courage: being bold.
6. seeking under the skin: real face
7. just for a day: from her home.
1. ‘Paradise lies beneath the feet of the mother’. Sum up the idea in a brief paragraph.
Mother is the greatest gift of God. She is the sustainer of life. Paradise really lies beneath the feet of the mother. This has been told by the Prophet (PBUH). The mother takes great pains to give birth to a child after nourishing it for nine months in her womb. She feeds the body from her body. She will endure to keep hungry but never ever would she let her child be hungry. Nobody can pay back his / her mother. When the child grows up it is his duty to serve her. And if one does this, he is sure to be loved by God.
2. Write a profile of your mother.
The name of my mother is Khatijah. She is forty years old. She is tall and thin and has a beautiful smile. She is a housewife. She is very active and moves around the house very briskly. She gets up early in the morning and keeps everything ready for me. She prepares my breakfast and readies me for school. She always advises me to speak the truth. She scolds me only when I do some serious mistake. She is quite educated and guides me in my studies. My personality is incomplete without her. She has contributed a great part of her life to make me a nice boy. She is a religious lady. She offers prayer regularly without any fail. She also advises me and others to have true faith in God. She always keeps a smile on her face. She never uses abusive language but everyone is persuaded by her sweet words. By holding my finger, she has taught me how to walk and talk. I like her very much.
Introduction: The “Summer and Winter” by Percy Shelley is a great piece of a poem that compares between summer and winter in the most romantic way: first, by focusing on nature, and then by writing their antagonism as life and death.It was published posthumously in 1829.
The poem “Summer and Winter” is replete with images. The poet in the poem makes a comparison between summer and winter. Summer represents hustle and bustle. While as winter symbolizes lifelessness. The poet says that in the month of June, the beautiful clouds and sky appear dazzling. The wind from the north soothes the aching nerves. It appears, as if, the sun and the clouds are
full of joy. All the things on earth shine out. Greenery is seen everywhere. The river flows quietly at some places and noisily at others, but speaks only of the pleasure which it experiences every time in summer. The fields laden with corn keep smiling and refreshing the minds of bypassers. The reeds, the willow leaves and the foliage of the larger trees shine out in the months of summer and exemplify the naturalistic style of providing solace to the troubled minds.
Everything under the sun appears lively, joyous and thereby a symbol of internal beauty. Winter, on the other hand, reduces the horizon of living creatures.
Winter represents death – the death of many beautiful birds and migration of many others, who cannot resist the bitter chill in the deep forests. Aquatic life is also badly affected. Fishes freeze in waters because the water turns into ice as the temperature lowers in winter. Even the mud and slime of the warm lakes turn into a hard lump like that of a brick. Many living creatures find it difficult to survive in the bitter cold.
In the last three lines, the poet makes a marked contrast between the rich and the poor. However warm the rich and their children are, they would never give up complaining about the cold. But the poor can neither complain nor the find the comforting place to escape the freezing cold.
1. The opening lines of the poem describe the environment of liveliness and happiness.
2. The objects of nature dance and develop mesmerizing beauty.
3. Winter in the poem is described as ruthless because it takes life away from the objects of nature.
4. It means the reeds the willow leaves and the foliage of the larger trees appear beautiful and full of life in the sun. They also soothe the aching nerves.
5. The poem ends on a pessimistic note due to the plight of the homeless beggar, who cannot find any comforting place to escape the bitter cold.
Thinking about the poem
1) What do the opening lines of the poem describe?
Ans. The opening lines of the poem describe the environment of liveliness and happiness.
2) What is the effect of the shining sun on the objects of nature?
Ans. The objects of nature dance and develop mesmerizing beauty.
3) How is the winter described in the poem?
Ans. Winter in the poem is described as ruthless because it takes the life away from the objects of nature.
4) Explain the following lines:
All things rejoiced beneath the sun; the weeds,
The river, the corn fields, and the reeds;
The willow leaves that glanced in the light breeze,
Ans. It means the reeds the willow leaves and the foliage of the larger trees appear beautiful and full of life in the sun. They also soothe the aching nerves.
5) How does the poem end?
Ans. The poem ends on a pessimistic note due to the plight of the homeless beggar,who cannot find any comforting place to escape the bitter cold.
1. Write down some images from the poem.
Ans. Stainless sky; wrinkled clod.
Introduction: “Stars Speak to Man” is one of the greatest poems of Abdul Ahad Azad translated into English by Prof G.R Malik. Azad is often known as John Keats of Kashmir because like Keats he also wrote modernist poems and both died early in the forties. His work is still famous among Kashmiris and he has composed many well known Kashmiri songs which are sung all over Kashmir. He, for the most part, dedicated his verse to Allah (God.) He desired through his poems to make sensibility and to create awareness among individuals. He helped people to remember what they were made for and what they have been doing, they have overlooked the genuine reason they were made for. He wanted people to wake up from the whimsical sleep and accomplish something to support humankind before it is too late. He was born in Ranger Chadoora 1903 and died in 1948.
Summary of ” Stars Speak to Man”
The poet Abdul Ahad Azad in the poem “Stars Speak to Man” talks about the callousness and avarice of a man who happens to be the crown of creation. The poet laments the lamentable state of a man who was born with the capability of making sound decisions but chose the path of destruction and discredited the entire human race. He was designed to share and distribute love and affection but he let go of his conscience by trading in religion and faith. He started amassing the world’s wealth for himself, the doors of which were opened up for him. This wealth he had to share out justly. The poet says that we share one world; we belong to one mankind because we are all one. He then wonders who has put the double standards in the man’s heart. The man who pretends to be supporting his religion is in reality far from being pious, he cares neither for religion nor for faith. Thus, humanity mourns the fall of the man. The poet then asks that should all humans’ chain that religion and faith which is intended to turns the unity of the world into utter chaos. Man has wrought havoc in the name of religion and patriotism. The thing which he calls awakening (enlightenment) is basically an intoxication. Man’s downfall has been brought by the man himself but he holds his fate responsible for it. The poet then asks how can a man expect to move ahead in his life by following the out-dated methods.
There is restlessness in the heart of a man and his eyes are veiled by fantasies which will prove to be mere dreams. The poet urges the man to wake up and come out from the world of fantasies. All his friends are heartbroken, defected owing to his callous attitude. In the last two lines. We’re shown the height of man’s callousness how in his own garden he sprinkles the twigs and leaves and deserts the roots, how he loots his own home (here earth) and causes large scale destruction.
Stars Speak to man
1. They say that man was born with the capability of making sound decisions but owing to his insensitivity chose the path of fire and put the entire human race to shame.
2. The man was designed to share and distribute love and affection bet he let go of his conscience by trading in religion and faith.
3. Because he is amassing wealth only for himself and is not letting anyone get closer to it.
4. Because in the name of religion and patriotism man has wreaked havoc which according to the stars is merely an intoxication.
5. Yes, it is a wakeup call because it reveals the apathy of a man who owing to his insensitivity has brought about chaos on the otherwise peaceful planet (earth).
1) What do the stars say to man in the first two lines?
Ans. They say that man was born with the capability of making sound decisions but owing to his insensitivity chose the path of fire and put the entire human race to shame.
2) Nature had fashioned you to apportion love and affection
But you took to buying and selling religion and faith instead.
Explain these lines.
Ans. The man was designed to share and distribute love and affection bet he let go of his conscience by trading in religion and faith.
3) Why is man described as a serpent?
Ans. Man is described as a serpent because he is amassing wealth only for himself and is not letting anyone get closer to it.
4) “That which you call awakening is a stupefying hangover”. Why?
Ans. Because in the name of religion and patriotism man has wreaked havoc which according to the stars is merely an intoxication.
5) Do you think the poem is a wake-up call? Explain.
Ans. Yes, it is a wakeup call because it reveals the apathy of a man who owing to his insensitivity has brought about chaos on the otherwise peaceful planet (earth).
1. Fill in the blanks to make a meaningful summary of the poem.
The poem is addressed to man. The poet tells Man that he was the light of reason but he put humanity to disgrace. Nature had provided him with treasures of bounties to share them equitably but he sat serpent-like on them. His heart is restlessly vibrating and his vision clouded by fantasies. In his own garden, he cut the roots while watering twigs and leaves . He has ransacked and ravaged his own home.
2. Use the following phrases in your own sentences.
Choose to be: It is up to us to choose to be what.
Take to: He took to smoking when he was very young. Throw open: The road was thrown open for the public.
Pose to be: He posed to be a hero when he was not.
Fall into: The modern man has fallen into an abyss by this corrupt practice.
Tear apart: The police tore apart the building in search of the criminal.
Central Idea: The brook is a tiny stream born in a certain mountain. In the course of its journey, it grows bigger and stronger. As it flows through the pebbles, it makes so many types of sounds. Their movements are varied as well. It slips and slides; its curves and flows are stealing and winding. It’s chattering and babbling, making both musical and harsh sounds. The birth and growth, chatter and babbling of the brook are very similar to a human being’s activities. Overall, the brook represents life. Both have an origin, an intermediate stage, and an end. Both are fighting different adversities, odds and moving forward towards their goal. The brook is life above all. Men may come and men may go, yet life goes on eternal. In the case of the brook, a similar guideline applies. It continues streaming like life everlastingly.
The Brook Summary
The Brook is a beautiful poem written by Lord Alfred Tennyson. The poem is symbolical of human life. The brook usually originates from the mountains and quickly moves down to follow its course. In the poem, the brook has been shown to start from the place of coots and herns and it quickly rushes down sparkling in the sun through a ground of ferns. The brook swiftly moves down many hills and between the long narrow hilltops. The brook rushes down past many villages and bridges. Thus, the brook rushes down past many places making noisy sounds. This noisy and vigorous movement of the brook to reach its destination is symbolical of a man in his youth who is vigorous, enthusiastic and full of energy and for whom anything is possible.
The brook flows by a farm owned by a man named Philip, to join an overflowing river. Here the brook completely describes the cycle of human life. The lifespan of a man is very short and his cycle of coming and going has been there and will remain forever. But, the brook is different from a man because of its immortality. The brook chatters because of its quick flow over the stony ways and pebbles.
The brook curvily flows because the path it takes curves at one point and passes through many fields and unplugged land. Many pieces of land are seen sticking out in the brook, having some plants where colorful insects like butterflies come along with the bright birds. While the brook flows it takes a lot of things along with it like blossoms, trout, foamy flakes, gravel, slit which resembles the way map meets people in his lifetime and moves forward. The brook wears away because of its meandering flow. The brook slips slides, dances and its moment is oven hindered by pebbles and small plants but it overcomes everything to reach its destination river. The last two lines suggest that the flow of the brook is continuous and goes on forever. And, as far as, human life is concerned, it is very short-human life comes to an end to make a room for another generation.
1. ‘I’ in the poem is referred to the brook.
2. The brook starts its journey from the place of water birds, moving down the hills noisily, curving at many places, overcoming the obstacles, and finally reaching its destination – river
3. In these lines, human life is compared and contrasted with the brook. Human beings are mortal because they’ve got a short span of life. They have to go through the cycle of arrival and departure. But the brook is immortal. It witnesses the coming and going of human beings because it itself is eternal.
4. Sudden sally, willow weed, foamy flake, skimming swallows, sandy shallow.
5. Yes, the journey of the brook can be compared with human life. The way
the brook originates and then flows with the vigor overcoming all the hurdles and taking along with it the blossoms, trout, gravel, etc can be compared with the vigour and enthusiasm of human beings when they are young and full of energy to overcome anything here obstacles, in order to reach their destination and in their journey they meet different people and continue to move ahead in their journey of life.
Short Summary of The Brook
The poem ‘The Brook’ is written in the first person, so it strikes a self-portraying note. It continues like a journey, which has various stages, different ups, and downs, demonstrating various types of development.
The Brook starts its adventure from some place in the mountains, which are home to birds like ‘coots’ and ‘heron’ and stops it by joining the ‘brimming stream’. On its way, it goes by numerous slopes, ridges, towns, villages, bridges. The brook’s movement is at times commanding and solid, here and there relaxed. It advances by eroding the banks, through developed, uncultivated terrains and forelands. The brook is also the territory of numerous sorts of fish and is brimming with willows, mallows, and blooms. It moreover gives a gathering point to darlings and surface to swallows to skim. Its surging water fills in as a background for the dance of the beams of the sun.
The Brook starts its adventure from somewhere in the mountains where birds like’ coots’ and’ heron’ live and ends it by joining the’ brimming stream.’ It goes through numerous slopes, ridges, towns, villages, bridges on its way. The movement of the brook is sometimes commanding and solid, sometimes relaxing here and there. It advances by eroding the banks, through developed, uncultivated terrains and forelands. The brook is also the territory of many kinds of fish and is full of willows, mallows, and blooms. It also gives the lovers a gathering point and the surface to skim swallows. Its surging water fills the dance of the sun’s beams as a background.
The brook continues on its adventure slipping, sliding, gliding, dancing, lingering, gushing. The moon, the stars make it mumble. On its way, it beats numerous obstacles also, deterrents yet achieve its last goal at last.
The adventure of the brook becomes parallel to the journey of human life. The poet makes an intelligent remark which highlights the continuity and external existence of the brook to the short-lived nature of human life. The poet wishes to teach that just as good and bad times don’t stop the stream from its voyage, in the same way, people should also take the obstacles and distresses in their stride.
Explain the following lines with reference to context.
a) I come from haunts of coot and hern……..
And half of a hundred bridges.
Reference to context:- These lines have been taken from the poem, “The Brook” written by Alfred Tennyson. The brook has been personified in this poem and it itself narrates its musical journey through mountains, hills, towns, villages, wilderness, farms, fallows, forelands, grassy lawns and stony courses to finally embrace the brimming river. This journey of the brook is akin to human life as human life too like a brook passes through different phases and encounters different situations sometimes good and sometimes troublesome until it finally meets the river of death. The poet has made use of beautiful visual and auditory imaginary to make the recitation of the poem a lifelike an experience. Besides these, the poem has also used onomatopoeic words and alliteration to infuse the poem with a great melody.
Explanation: In these lines, the brook speaking as a living being says that it is born at a place that is visited by water birds like coot and hern. It at once acquires speed and passes through the ferns displaying the shiny texture of its waters. After crossing the ferns, it quickly moves down a valley making a characteristic sound. Then, it passes through various hills at a great speed.
This haste in the brook, immediately after it originates is like that of a child who is eager to learn new things, stumble while reaching out for things and is full of energy.
b) Till last by Philips farm, flow …
I babble on the pebbles.
Reference to context:– Same as 1
Explanation: The brook says that it reaches the farm of Phillip – a common Englishmen. It keeps flowing to finally join the brimming river that is its final destination. The brook says that many men come to this world and many others leave it but it goes on without any halt that is to say life doesn’t stop for anyone. The brook takes a stony course and produces a chattering sound and it hits against the stones. It produces high-pitched sounds while moving along with the stony ways. It sometimes produces bubbles and become a water body full of whirlpools.
c) Till last by Philips farm, flow …
I babble on the pebbles.
Reference to context:– Same as 1
Explanation: The brook further says that as it passes through various fields and uncultivated lands, it twists itself and zigzags through these lands. It tends to say that its journey is never a straight one like that of human’s life which is full of twists and turns. It passes through the capes inhabited by willow trees and wallow plants. It keeps on producing sounds while on the move to join the brimming water. It again mentions that people come and leave this world but the journey of the brook is eternal.
d) I wind about, and in and out…
But I go on forever.
Reference to context: Same as 1
Explanation: The brook says it continues its wavy motion and meets various other creations of nature on its way. Sometimes, it happens to come across a flower sailing on it, sometimes it shelters a strong and active trout and sometimes a grayling finds its home in the brook. As the brook rushes to meet its fate i.e. a brimming river, various foamy flakes rise from it and the brook makes them dance as it moves. The waters of the brook move the gravel along with them. This could be the poet’s way of saying that when a man passes through any stage of life it draws the experiences that he has gained and carries them with him throughout his life. The brook flows to meet the brimming river. People come and leave this world but the journey of the brook is eternal.
e) I steal by lawns…
Against my sandy shallows
Reference to context: Same as 1
Explanation: In these lines, the brook saysc.Y that it passes, through grassy lands. Slowly, it slips the hazel trees, it makes the lovely purple flowers of forgetting – me – not come to motion. These flowers are for lovers. It slips, slides, it grows dark at turns bright as it glides through its deep passages and when it passes through its sandy and shallow courses, it creates beautiful patterns when the sunlight hits its waters. This course of the brook is the most beautiful one. The words used in these lines are all suggestive of a controlled speed of the brook like that of a human being when he reaches its maturity level has acquired the quality of patience and does not rush for everything.
f) I murmur under upon and stars …
But I go on forever.
Reference to context: Same as 1
Explanation: The brook says that it continues its journey even while the sun is hidden and the moon and the stars are out. It produces a murmuring sounds while it passes through the covers of night. It passes through the difficult most part of its course, it is thorny and wild. Its speed slows down as it passes through the rough pebbles. The brook seems to have come of age by now.
The small plants even challenge their speed and hinder its movement and then finally it moves out of these traps to join the brimming river. It says people may come into this world and people may go from this world but its journey has to go on forever. That may be the reason why the poet hasn’t concluded the poem with the mention of the brook finally joining the river. This may be because the poet wants to lay all emphasis on the journey of the brook rather its destination and to acknowledge this flowing process of the brook as a never-ending journey. This theory and wild course of the brook’s journey may be compared to the old age of the human being where his health slows him down and he has difficulties doing the easy and simple jobs even.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS OF THE BROOK
1. Give examples of alliteration and the beautiful images that form the texture of the poem ‘The Brook.’
Ans. Sudden sally, twenty thorpes,
I slip, I slide, willow-weed, field, and fallow, bubble babble are examples
of alliteration. The poem contains many beautiful images- the first one is formed in stanza 2 ‘By thirty hills- a hundred bridges’. This vivid image is of the brook flowing through hills and valleys, under bridges and passing by the
There is one more beautiful and strikingly vivid image in the poem is that of the brook making serpent-like
motions slipping, sliding, glancing among meadows, grassy plots, forget me-nots and floating fish.
2. How is the journey of the brook similar to the journey of life and yet different?
Ans. There are many similarities between the brook and the journey of life, e.g., both have a beginning, a middle age, and an end. There are struggles in the lives of both — human life continues in spite of struggles and ups and downs, and the brook continues to flow against all odds. But one thing is different – man is mortal, whereas the brook is eternal, a man may come and man may go but the brook goes forever.
3. ‘The Brook’ proceeds like a travelogue. Discuss the importance of the various places that the brook encounters on its journey.
Ans. The brook travels through hills and valleys, between ridges and under bridges, next to Philip’s farm, fallow land, and foreland, making its way through, with a flower here and a trout there and a lot of grayling through sand and gravel obstructions until it falls into the big river. It passes thirty hills and fifty bridges.
4. Describe four movements that the brook makes during its journey.
The various movements that the brook makes on its journey are best described by the poet Lord Tennyson through words like sally, sparkle, slide, move, slip, hurry, flow, go, loiter, linger.
It sparkles as it emerges among the plants with slender leaves, it sparkles in the sunshine among the ferns. It hurries down hills and slips between ridges. It steals by lawns and slides, by hazel covers, it slips and slides, it glooms and
glides and glances. It means it moves gently, slowly, unobserved, smoothly and then comes out into the open.
5. What is the symbolic meaning conveyed by
“For men may come and men may go, but I go on forever”?
Ans. The brook is a stream that originates in some mountain. It becomes greater and stronger over the span of its adventure. It makes numerous sorts of sounds as it moves through the stones. Its movements are also varied. It slips and slides; it steals and winds its bends and streams. It chatters and prattles, it makes melodic as well as cruel sounds. The brook’s birth and development, chattering and babbling are very much like the exercises of a human. The brook speaks to life all in all. Both have an origin, a middle stage, and an end. Both battle against different afflictions, chances and continue moving towards their objective. Most importantly, the brook speaks to life. Men may come and men may go, however life goes on forever. A similar principle applies in the case of brook. It continues streaming endlessly, like life.
6. What does the poet want to convey through the poem, ‘The Brook’?
The brook is a symbol of the battle of human life. The poet wishes to call attention to the fact that as ups and down don’t dissuade the stream from its adventure, similarly, human beings should also take the obstacles and sorrows in their stride.
7. Name the different things that can be found floating in the brook.
The brook goes through numerous slopes, ridges, gardens, and valleys. It continues on its journey with extraordinary power. So it carries numerous blossoms, greeneries, stones, weeds with its stream. Commonly brilliant fish like the trout or the grayling can be seen floating in it. When the current is strong, froth assembles on its surface. The brook grasps all that it experiences with great joy.
8. What is the message given by the brook?
The poet wants to convey the message by personifying the brook that like the brook conquers numerous obstacles and obstractions in its adventure boldly and achieves its last goal similarly people should likewise stay undaunted to acknowledge the delights and sorrows of life and, face bodily all the impediments, that come in the way of their aim.
Q1. Who is “I” referred to as in the poem?
Ans. ‘I’ is referred to the brook that has been personified in the poem.
Q2. Trace the journey of the brook.
Ans. ‘The Brook’ is a story about the musical journey of a stream from its origin to its end. It’s a story about the various courses it takes to reach its destination i.e. a brimming river. The brook is personified in the poem and its itself narrates its story of life, therefore, the poem is written in the first person.
The brook originates from a place that is frequently visited by water birds like coot and hern. It at once acquires great speed and flows down producing its characteristic sound. It passes through various hills, ridges, various villages, and a town as well. It flows beneath about a fifty bridges, passes beside Phillip’s farm to ultimately reach the brimming river. It takes stony paths and makes a loud noise while passing through them. It produces whirlpools, it passes curving through the fields and fallows and capes with willows and mallows. It moves in a zigzag fashion and meets flowers, trout’s, gray lines and foamy flakes on its way. It carries the golden gravel with it. It passes through grassy lawns, it glides over its deepest and shallowest passages, it passes through the thorns of the woods, pebbles, cresses and what not with only aim to join the brimming river.
Q3. Explain the following lines:
“ For men may come and men may go but I go on forever”. What purpose do these lines serve?
Ans. The poet has used these lines as refrain i.e., they get repeated at regular intervals.
In these lines, the brook mentions the natural phenomenon of the universe the phenomenon of life and death. Billions of people came to this world, lived their lives and eventually met their inevitable fate i.e. death. Nobody came to live forever unlike the brook, whose the journey started since the creation of the world and is still going on oblivious of the fact that how many people have lived and died during this time.
The purpose of these lines is to impart an idea that the world does not stop for anyone. The phenomenon of nature goes on no matter what. The cycle of life and death keeps moving. Humans are only a part of this phenomenon. There are things that have been there before their arrival and will be there after their departure. Nature is all powerful, everlasting and so humans must not think of themselves as eternal beings.
Q4. Alliteration is the repetition of initial consonant sounds in verse such as “I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance’. Pick out more examples of alliteration from the poem.
Ans. Alliteration is the repetition of the initial sound usually a consonant or first sound of two or more neighboring words in a line of prose and poetry. Examples from the poem are:
Q5. Can the journey of the brook to be compared to human life? How?
Ans. The poet has employed symbolism in the poem using the journey of the brook as a symbol of the human journey. The use of personification and the first person ‘I’ relates the brook to a human even more. The journey of a brook runs parallel to the journey of a man. The changes of size, shape, speed, sound, and courses that a brook encounters along its journey are similar to the different stages and experiences that a man confronts in his lifetime. Like an infant, a brook is born, it is wild energetic. It rushes forward to meet challenges like a human baby. It undergoes various changes making different sounds i.e. showing various dispositions like a human baby then comes the ripe age of the brook where it flows with patience just like a grown-up individual who performs calculated actions. Then comes a stage for the brook where it loiters like an old man who finds it move and after this age. As the brook flows again to meet its fate i.e. brimming river, humans move to their fate i.e. death. The journey of the brook never stops and so does not stop the cycle of birth and death. Individuals die but the existence of the living continues to be there.
Poetic Devices in the poem.
The refrain is a verse, a set or a group of some lines that appears at the end of a stanza or appears where a poem divides into different sections. This technique may, sometimes, involve minor changes in its warding. It also contributes to the rhyme of a poem and emphasizes an idea through repetition.
The refrain is a type of repetition, but it is somewhat different from repetition.
Refrain in a poem, may appear at the end of a stanza, however, repetition may occur in any line of the stanza.
Example of the set of lines used as a refrain in the poem is
To join the brimming river for men may come and men may go, but I go on forever.
It is a type of literary device that stimulates our sense of sight and creates visual images in our mind. Examples from the poem are: sparkle out among the fern, bicker down a valley, slip between the ridges, brimming river, bubble into eddying bays, many a curve my banks, a blossom sailing, lusty trout here and there a gray line, silvery water break, move the sweet forget me no’s. I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance, skimming swallows, netted sunbeam dance, sandy shallows, under the moon, stars brambly wilderness, and round my cresses.
It is a type of literary device that stimulates our sense of hearing and creates audible images in our mind. Examples from the poem are:
Bicker down, chatter over, stony ways, bubble into eddying bays, steal by lawns, murmur under moon and stars, in little sharps and trebles.
Onomatopoeia: it is a technique of imitating natural sounds by expressing them through words e.g. natural voice of a dog is expressed as
‘bow – wow’ when water hits against anything it makes a certain sound that is imitated by the word ‘splash’. There are many onomatopoeic words in the English vocabulary. Examples of onomatopoeic words from the poem are chatter, murmur. bubble, babble.
Personification: It is a figure of speech, in which an inanimate object (lifeless object) or an idea is given human attributes and treated as if they were human beings or having human qualities.
• Death lays his icy hands on kings.
• My pen pleads me to stop.
• Flowers are dancing in the air.
In the poem, ‘The Brook’ the brook has been personified. The brook is actually a lifeless entity but it speaks of its journey and mentions its movements as if it is a human being.
The poem ‘Mercy’ is a sonnet written by William Shakespeare. The poet says that the attribute of mercy is something which every
a human being is born with but few intend to adhere very strictly to it, as we can only plead for mercy in our authority for the same. Mercy is like rain which falls off the heaven upon the earth after the scorching heat to quench its thirst. Mercy is a divine quality. It’s a double a blessing because it gives pleasure to both the giver and the receiver.
Mercy is more powerful than the most powerful kings. Mercy is better than the crown of the king because this crown can entitle him to the temporal authority only. He can threaten the people who’re very meek but he would be far from being admired. Everyone sets a high value on mercy. Mercy dwells in the heart of a real king who treats his people nicely and fairly without forcing them to toil hard. Mercy is compared to a drizzle which quenches the thirst of the earth after scorching heat.
Similarly, mercy soothes the aching nerves and heals the wounded hearts. Mercy is the quality of God. When mercy is mixed with justice, any earthly power can appear like a god.
droppeth: drops; descends
become: to suit; to enhance the appearance of someone
crown: symbolizes the supreme power of the king.
sceptre: the royal wand,
enthroned: seated(in the hearts of kings).
Thinking about the Poem
1. Where does the quality of mercy come from? Who are blessed by it?
Ans. The quality of mercy comes naturally. It is a divine quality which gives pleasure to both the giver and the receiver.
2. How according to the poet is mercy better than the crown of the mightiest (the king)?
Ans. According to the poet is mercy better than the crown of the mightiest because it earns us the love and respect of the people around.
3. What does sceptre stand for? How does it affect the kings?
Ans. Sceptre stands for authority. It affects the kings because many a time they do not use their powers fairly.
4. When does earthly power look like God’s?
Ans. Earthly power looks like God’s when it is mixed with justice.
5. How is mercy alone the “sceptred sway”?
Ans. Because though you can make the people work the way you want them to, they will never feel compelled.
6. What happens when mercy seasons justice?
Ans. It appears to be the power of God.
a) “It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven”
Mercy has been compared to gentle rain using the word “as”. A comparison using the words ‘as’ and ‘like’ are called similes. However, comparisons not using these words are called metaphors.
Find out the similes and/or metaphors in the poem.
Ans. The similes are: As the gentle rain from heaven; power doth then show like God’s.
The Metaphors are: becomes the throned monarch; sceptre shows the force of temporal power.
b) The poet in the second line of the poem has used the word ‘droppeth’ which in poetical language means ‘to drop’. Find out the similar words in the poem and also write their meanings as used in the poem.
Ans. Blesseth – blessed
Doth – does
Reference to context with explanation
A) Reference to context: These lines have been taken from the poem,
‘Mercy’ authored by a renowned English poet, William Shakespeare. This poem is a part of the speech made by Portia when she tries to persuade shylock to show mercy on the poor Antonio and spare his life. In this poem, the poet talks about a godly attribute, mercy. The poet compares mercy to the earthly powers and imparts the idea that it is a mercy that is mightier than the mightiest. The poet wants to say that by showing mercy, humans connect to God as they make an exhibition of a godly virtue.
These are the opening lines of the poem in which the poet says that mercy is such a quality that is natural to a human being. It is not produced by effort, it flows out from a person like a benign river. The poet believes mercy to be a heavenly quality that has descended from the heavens and rested on the Earth.
Mercy is the kind of a virtue that comes with double blessings for it blesses the both – the one who shows it and the one who receives it.
B) Reference to context:- Same as above
Explanation:- In these lines, the poet makes a great deal of praise of the virtue, mercy. He, after comparing mercy to the different worldly powers, comes to the conclusion that mercy has the greatest power among all. A crown which is a symbol of authority and grace is overshadowed by this heavenly quality that is christened as mercy. A king or a ruler can exercise his power, his force throughout his life through his powers are limited on this earth only. They last for a short duration but time. The kingdoms where the king is so full of himself thinks high of himself, considers himself and his orders to be the best, are not the happy ones for there, in the hearts of the people, rests not the respect but fear of the monarch.
C) Reference to context:– Same as above
Explanation:- In these lines, the poet places mercy above the royal rule because mercy doesn’t decorate our heads and is not present in the hands either. It shelters itself in the pious most place of a human body i.e heart. Mercy is the quality that is present in God as well. Humans, by displaying this virtue, can thus relate themselves to the all supreme, the creator the Almighty. Humans ought to be just and fair while pronouncing the verdict against the culprits but they must always remember to adorn their justice with this heavenly quality known as mercy.
Character Sketch of the poet WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s preeminent dramatist. He is often called England’s National Poet, and the “Bard of
Avon”. He was baptized on 26 April 1564 (birth date unknown). Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford. Upon – Avon Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway. Sometime between 1585 & 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing a company called the Lord Chamberlain’s Men.
Few records of Shakespeare’s private life survive, which has stimulated considerable speculation about such matters as his physical appearance, religious beliefs and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.
Some of his most popular plays include:
‘A Mid Summers Night Dream’, ‘Hamlet’,
‘Much ado about nothing’, ‘Richard II’,
Henry IV, ‘Romeo and Juliet’, Julius Ceaser, etc.
His most famous poems include:
‘Sonnet 29’, ‘All the world’s a stage’
‘A Fairy Song, Sonnet 71’, ‘The phoenic and the turtle’
Most biographers believe that Shakespeare was probably educated at the King’s New School in Stratford. He died on 23 April 1616 at the age of 52 in Stratford upon Avon.
Write a paragraph (100-150 words) on ‘Being merciful means being
The tongue has the power to do good or evil to others. Backbiting is common among people. Even the religions books admonish the people who backbite. The Quran strongly condemns scandal-mongering and character assassination Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that the similitude of a person who indulges in backbiting is to a man who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother. The Bible says that a person with a good tongue is a perfect man. The Gita says that a man free from the habit of backbiting is born to god like endowments. And the Guru Granth says that a back bitter carries a great burden of sins. Lord Buddha says that one requires living a life based on right speech.
Robb Simeon Ben Gamalie once asked his servant to bring him something good to eat. The servant brought a tongue for him. The next time the Rabi asked him to bring something that was not good. The servant again brought a tongue. The Rabi was angry with his servant for bringing a tongue on both occasions. The servant explained that there was nothing better than a good tongue and nothing worse than an evil one.
Working with the Text
1. What do the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH) tell us on backbiting and scandal-mongering?
Ans. The Quran strongly condemns those who indulge in scandalmongering and admonishes them. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that a person who indulges in backbiting is like a man who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother.
2) What do the Gita and the Bible tell us on backbiting?
Ans. The Gita tells that a person free from the habit of backbiting is like God. The Bible says that a person free from the habit of backbiting is a perfect man having control over his whole body.
3) What do the Granth Sahib and Lord Buddha tell us on backbiting?
Ans. The Granth Sahib tells us that a backbiter carries a great burden of sins. Lord Buddha lays stresses on right speech as a path towards salvation.
4) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon bring tongues both the times?
Ans. There is nothing better than a good tongue and nothing worse than an evil one. That is why the servant brought tongues on both occasions.
5) Why did Rabbi Simeon invite his disciples for a meal?
Ans. Rabbi Simeon invited his disciples for a meal to teach them the value of having a soft tongue.
6) What according to you is the moral of the lesson?
Ans. The moral of the lesson is that we should not speak ill of others behind their backs.
7) How does our tongue do good or bad to others?
Ans. From the tongue issues the good and also the bad. The tongue does well if one holds it and doesn’t speak badly about others. It proves to be bad if it is given liberty.
Add the correct ending to each of the following words and say what each person does or is connected with.
1. govern: governor = one who governs
2. cater: caterer = one who provides food or drink for a social or business function
3. translate: Translator = One who translates writing or speech from one language to another
4. Novel: Novelist = a person who writes novels
5. Tour: tourist = a person who visits a place for pleasure and interest
6. Politics: politician = a person whose job is in politics
7. Decorate: decorator= a person who decorates the inside of the people’s houses
8. Art: artists = An artist is a performer or someone who draws or paints pictures.
9. Economics: economist = An economist is a person who studies, teaches or writes about economics
10. Drama: Dramatist = A person who writes plays
11. Cricket: cricketer = a person who plays cricket
12. Engine: engineer = a person who uses scientific knowledge to design, construct and maintain engines or structures such as roads, railways, and bridges.
13. History: historian = A person who specializes in the study of history.
14. Mountain: mountaineer = a person who climbs mountains
15. Donate donator = Someone who gives something to a charity.
16. Grammar: Grammarian = A person who studies grammar and writes books about it.
17. Auction: auctioneer = a person in charge of an auction
18. Science: scientist = A person who does research in science
19. Teach: teacher = a person who teaches
20. Electricity: electrician = a person who job is to install and repair electrical equipment
21. Physics: Physicist = A person who does research connected with physics.
22. Write : writer = a person who writes books etc.
23. Speak: speaker = a person who makes a speech at a gathering
24. Win: winner = a person who wins a contest or a competition
25. mathematics = Mathematician = A person who is trained in mathematics.
Complete each sentence with an adverb. The first letters of the adverb are given.
1. We didn’t go out because it was raining he……
2. Our team lost the game because we played very ba…..
3. I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat eas……
4. We had to wait for a long time, but we didn’t complain. We waited pat……
5. Nobody knew Atif was coming to see us. He arrived in unex…….
6. Zeeshan keeps fit by playing tennis reg……
7. I don’t speak Punjabi very well, but I can understand it per…..if spoken sl……and cl……
Ans. (1) Heavily; (2) Badly; (3) Easily; (4) Patiently; (5) Unexpectidely; (6) Regularly; (7) Perfectly, slowly and clearly.
Put in the correct word.
1. Two people were seriously injured in the accident.
2. The driver of the car had _________ injuries, (serious/seriously) 3. I think you behaved very__________ (selfish/selfishly)
4. Razia is__________ upset about losing her job.(terrible/terribly)
5. There was a______ change in the weather. (sudden/suddenly)
6. Everybody at the marriage party was ______ dressed.
7. Aslam speaks English _________ (fluent/fluently)
8. Ved Sir fell and hurt himself quite ____________ (bad/badly)
9. Hafeez didn’t do well at school because he was taught __________ (bad/badly)
10. Don’t go up that ladder. it doesn’t look _________
Backbiting is an evil which causes damage to our own self as well as the society. Mention some other such evils and write about them in a paragraph.
Superstitions are beliefs which are irrational and unscientific. Man has so many beliefs which are nothing but superstitions. These are relics of the ancient times when people were uncivilized and ignorance prevailed among men. They felt awe in the presence of mysterious and mighty forces of Nature and they worshipped all those things which were greater and stronger than them. Whenever they found anything happening in Nature, they tried to give some explanation for it. This explanation was not based on reasoning and naturally, this led to blind faith and superstitions. People had many blind beliefs out of fear or ignorance. All these foolish practices are resorted to, though there is no explanation for them. Fear of misfortune or expectation of good fortune makes us believe superstitions. Superstitions do us a great harm. They hinder our power of judgment and cripple our power of reasoning. They are a great obstacle to the development and growth of our spirit. They destroy self- confidence and encourage fatalism. Superstitions burden and weaken the mind. A superstitious man lives in daily fear of bad omens. He waits for a lucky sign before he starts doing something. Many men waste their time and energy in making calculations of lucky and unlucky days. Thus superstitions stand in the way of progress. They have done more harm than good. Of course, superstitions have gone deep into our blood, but we must try to get rid of them. We should have a rational and scientific attitude towards life.
YOU CAN ALSO CHECK THE FOLLIWING ANSWERS FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING
Questions and Answers
Q. 1. What do the Quran and the traditions of Prophet (PBUH) tell us on backbiting and scandal-mongering?
Ans: The Quran says:
Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and backbiter.
The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that the similitude of a person who indulges in backbiting is to a man who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother.
Q. 2. What do the Gita and the Bible tell us on backbiting?
Ans: The Gita says:-
Freedom from fear, purity of heart, perseverance in (pursuit of) knowledge, freedom from the habit of backbiting, compassion for (all) beings, freedom from avarice are his who is born to god like endowments.
Ostentation, pride are his who is born to demoniac endowments.
The Bible says:-
For we all stumble in many ways. And if anyone does not stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body.
Q. 3. What do the Granth Sahib and Lord Buddha tell us on backbiting?
Ans: The Guru Granth Sahib says:-
The slanderer carries the great burden of sins, without payment he carries loads.
Lord Buddha in his Eightfold Path says:-
One requires living a life based on right speech.
Q. 4. Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon bring tongues both the times?
Ans: The servant of Rabbi Simeon brought tongues both the times because he believed that the tongue issues the good and also the bad. There is nothing better than a good tongue and nothing worse than an evil one.
Q. 5. Why did Rabbi Simeon invite his disciples for a meal?
Ans: Rabbi Simeon invited his disciples for a meal because he wanted to teach them the virtues and vices that a tongue can do.
Q. 6. What according to you is the moral of the lesson?
Ans: The moral of the lesson is that we should refrain from backbiting and scandal-mongering for the injuries caused by the tongue are the hardest ones to heal. We should always be polite and humble in our attitude toward others.
Q. 7. How does our tongue do good or bad to others?
Ans: Our tongue by being polite can please others and bring a smile on other’s face. A tongue has the power to make a sad person happy but the same can prove disastrous as well. It can hurt the other person so deeply that he will always remember our rude remarks. By insulting, and speaking ill of others, we leave an ugly scar in their hearts that always pricks them.
Alice is sound, well-trained, and polite. From the outset, she is a miniature Victorian “lady” of the middle class. Considered in this way, she is the perfect foil, or counterpoint, or contrast to all the unsocial, bad-mannered eccentrics she meets in Wonderland. Her courage is the constant resource and strength of Alice. Her dignity, her directness, her conscience, and her art of conversation all fail her time and time again. But when chips are down, Alice reveals something to the Queen of Hearts-that is spunk! Indeed, Alice has all the Victorian virtues, including a quaint rationalization capacity; yet it is the common sense of Alice that makes the quarrelsome creatures of the Wonderland seem perverse despite what they consider to be their “adult” identities.
Surely, Alice doesn’t fit any conventional stereotype; she’s not an angel or brat. She just has an overwhelming curiosity, but restraint and moderation match it. In other ways, she’s also balanced. She only “samples” the cake labeled “EAT ME” to control her growth and shrink. And there’s never a hint she’d try to use her size advantage to control her destiny and set dictatorial behavioral rules for Wonderland. When she complains about being three inches tall, the Caterpillar takes offense. And the Duchess is unreasonable, brutal and coarse. But their “civility” veneer is either irrational or transparent in each case.The Caterpillar finds joy in teasing Alice into a corrupt “set of stupid rules” with his pointed, formal verb games, and the rude Duchess mellows. Yet, behind their playfulness, Alice senses resentment and rage. It’s not that Alice is kept “simple” so that the monstrous aspects of Wonderland characters are thrown into relief. Rather, it is because Alice sees herself as simple, sweet, innocent, and confused as she conceives her personality in a dream.
Some critics feel that Wonderland reflects the personality of Alice and her waking life; that may be the case. But the story itself is independent of the “real world” of Alice. As it were, her personality stands alone in the story, and it has to be considered in terms of the character of Alice in Wonderland. In all Alice’s responses to Wonderland, a strong moral consciousness operates, yet on the other hand, she exhibits the insensitivity of a child in discussing her cat Dinah with the scared mouse in the pool of tears.
In general, the simplicity of Alice owes much to the feminine passivity and repressive domestication of Victorian women. Slowly, in stages, the reasonableness of Alice, her sense of responsibility, and her other good qualities will emerge on her journey through Wonderland and in the trial scene in particular. They have a long list of virtues: curiosity, courage, kindness, intelligence, courtesy, humor, dignity, and a sense of justice. With the pig/baby, she’s even “maternal.” But her constant and universal human characteristic is simple wonder— something that can be easily identified with by all children (and the child still living in most adults).
Ans: Alice remembered following a rabbit and reaching to a wonderland through a rabbit hole. There she saw a lot of odd creatures who spoke and acted strangely. Alice remembered meeting a king and a queen there and attending a mad tea party. She also remembered drinking a strange liquid that made her grow smaller, and then she ate a cake to grow larger again.
Q2: Why, according to Gryphan, were the jurymen putting down their names?
Ans: According to Gryphan, the jurors were writing down their names for the fear of forgetting them at the end of the trail.
Q3: The first witness was: Alice, White Rabbit, King, Mad Hatter.
Ans: Mad Hatter.
Q4: “Give your evidence or I”ll have you executed whether you are nervous or not”. Who says these words and to whom? What do you mean by “I will have you executed”?
Ans: These words are told by the King of Hearts to Mad Hatter. To have somebody executed means to punish unto to death.
Q5. What according to Alice, is the first wise thing that the king has said that day?
Ans. “You are a very poor speaker” told by the Kind to Hatter is the first thing according to Alice that he has said that day.
Q6: Knave denies having imitated somebody”s handwriting. What evidence does he give?
Ans: He denies having written the letter. He says had he done so, he would have signed it at the end.
Q7: What happens when the whole pack of cards and all the animals fall upon Alice?
Ans: When all the animals fall upon Alice, She screams and tries to beat them off. The animals run in different directions and disappear.
Q8: A strange trail was a dream which Alice dreamt. (true/ false)
A. Match the phrasal verbs on the left with their meaning on the right:
i. Put down: Write down
ii. Pick up: Take in hand
iii. Send for: Send someone a message asking them to come to see you.
iv. Take off: Remove
v. Put on: Wear
vi. Stare at: Look at something continuously
vii. Hurry up: Makes haste
viii. Look at: See
ix. Fall in: Make a line
x. Hand over: Give
xi. Beat off: Defeat
xii. Hit out: Criticize strongly
D. Give the antonyms of the italicized word in the following sentences:
1. Honesty is the best policy.
Ans. (b). Deceit
2. The chairman initiated the proceeding with a brief speech.
Ans. (c). Closed
3. William Wordsworth is celebrated for his lucid style.
Ans. (a). Notorious
4. A faithful officer is always vigilant towards his duties.
Ans. (d). Careless
Ans. I told the peon that all his faults would be pardoned if he confesses them.
10. I said, “I shall finish my work as early as I can.”
Ans. I said that I should finish my work as early as I could. B. Change the following sentences into direct speech:
1. The employer warned him that he would be dismissed if he did attend the office. Ans. The employer said to him, “You will be dismissed if you do not attend the office.” 2. Sanjay said that his brother had met with an accident the previous day. Ans. Sanjay said, “My brother has met with an accident yesterday.” 3. I informed him that I might not come the next day.
Ans. I said to him, “I may not come tomorrow.”
4. The principal announced that the next day would be the holiday.
Ans. The principal said, “Tomorrow will be a holiday.”
5. The teacher told us that we were intelligent and hard working.
Ans. The teacher said to us, “You are intelligent and hard working.”
Ans: Raman’s wife was fed up with the abject poverty as she and her husband had to go hungry for days together.
Q2: What did Raman see when he peeped into the well?
Ans: Raman saw a tiger, a monkey, a snake and a man in the well.
Q3: Why was Raman scared of the snake?
Ans: Raman was scared of the snake because he thought if the snake was taken out of the well; it would bite him leading to his death.
Q4: What did the monkey do when Raman was hungry?
Ans: The monkey gave Raman delicious and juicy mangoes to satisfy his hunger.
Q5: What did the tiger give him?
Ans: The tiger gifted him a golden necklace which was given to the tiger by a prince for saving his life.
Q6: What did the goldsmith do when Raman showed him the necklace?
Ans: When Raman showed the necklace to the goldsmith, The goldsmith told Raman to sit and wait for him at the shop. He himself went to the king and showed him the necklace of the missing prince. He made the king believe that Raman had murdered the prince.
Q7: How did Raman cure the queen?
Ans: When the queen was bitten by a snake she lay unconscious and nobody could cure her. The king announced a reward for the person who will cure her. The announcement was made even in prison.
Raman offered his services to cure the queen. He was taken to the queen‘s chamber from the prison. He touched the queen‘s forehead as advised to him by the snake. Immediately, the queen opened her eyes and she was cured of the snake bite.
Q8: Why did the king send the goldsmith to jail?
Ans: After curing the queen, Raman narrated his sorry tale to the king. The king realized the thanklessness of the goldsmith. Consequently, Raman was freed and the goldsmith was put behind the bars.
A. Who said the following and to whom?
a. “Why don’ t you go to the nearby town and seek some job?”
Ans. Raman‘s wife to Raman.
b. “I live in Varanasi and I am goldsmith by profession.”
Ans. Goldsmith to Raman.
c. “Once I saved a prince’s life. In return, he gave this necklace.”
Ans. Tiger to Raman.
d. “You have killed our prince and stolen his necklace.”
An s. King to Raman.
e. “How did you land up in trison?”
Ans. King to Raman.
f. “Go home and live happily.”
Ans. King to Raman.
B. Make sentences using the following phrasal verbs:
Fed up with, Pass-through, Help out, Pull out, Call out, Slither away, Wait for, lock up, wake up, land up in, peep into, take to, slip into
1. Raman’s wife was fed up with poverty.
2. In order to reach home, he had to pass through the forest.
3. The tiger requested Raman to help him out of the well.
4. Raman pulled out the tiger out of the well.
5. Rashid called out Hafeez at his home.
6. The snake after thanking him for his help slithered away.
7. When the match was over, all the players wait for each other to go home.
8. There was a lockout strike of employees yesterday.
9. I was sleeping and was waked up by the sudden noise in the street.
10. The king enquired Raman how he was land up in the prison.
11. It was raining when I peeped into the garden.
12. The culprit was locked up in the prison.
13. The murderer was taken to the court for the sentence.
15. I quietly slipped into my room when I reached late to my home.
Change the narration:
1. “Let us push on a little further”, said Shabir.
Ans. Shabir said that they might push on a little further.
2. He said to me, “Let us wait for our friend.”
Ans. He proposed to me that we should for our friend.
3. Mubashir said, “Abuja, let us go to the Nishat Bagh.”
Ans. Mubashir proposed to Abuja that they should go to the Nishat Bagh.
4. The boy said to the teacher, “Let me take my seat, Sir.”
Ans. The boy (Obediently or with honour) told the teacher that he should take his seat.
5. Rashid said to Hamid, “Let me have a cup of tea.”
Ans. Rashid told Hamid that they should have a cup of tea. 6. He said, “Let him run fast, he cannot catch the train.”
Ans. He said that he might run fast, he cannot catch the train. Or He assumed that it is useless for him to run fast to catch the train.
Lesson No.2 : Achilles
Words You May Not Know
mythology: a body of myths (stories about superhuman beings taken as a true in ancient cultures)
fairy-tale(adj) : extremely happy or fortunate
weired: very strange and unusual
rippling: making a sound of water flowing quietly
floppy: soft and not able to maintain a firm shape or position.
dangle: to hang loosely, or to hold something so that it hangs loosely
cravat: a wide straight piece of material worn loosely tied in the open neck of a shirt.
lilting: gentle and pleasant.
waggle: to (cause to) move quickly up and down or from side to side.
fiesta: a public celebration in Spain or Latin America, especially one on a religious holiday, with entertainments and activities.
pantomime: an amusing musical play based on traditional children‘s stories performed especially at Christmas.
whirl : (to cause something to) spin around.
sprightly: energetic and in good health.
warble: to sing, especially in a high voice.
lumber: to move slowly and awkwardly.
regal : royal, supreme.
respite: pause or rest from something difficult or unpleasant.
satin(n) : a silk material shining on a side.
sprightlier (adj) : energetic and in good health .
Ans: Rose-Beetle Man’ s dress was fantastic. On his head, he had a hat with a wide floppy brim. His shirt was worn. Round his head dangled a cravat of blue stain. His patched trousers drooped over a pair of leather shoes with upturned toes.
Ans. Rose-Beetle Man was dressed in a wide hat on head, shirt and a startling blue satin cravat around his neck. He had worn a coat with bulged pockets, patched trousers and a pair of leather shoes with upturned toes.
Q2) How do we know that the Rose-Beetle Man cared well for his pets?
Ans: The Rose-Beetal Man had polished the shells of the tortoises & he had decorated their front legs with little red bows. This shows that he cared well for his pets.
Ans. He had kept his pets in a sack. When he undid his sack half a dozen tortoise came out tumbling. He had polished their shells with oil and decorated their front legs with little red bows. This shows that he cared well for his pets.
Q3) What made the narrator select one particular tortoise from among the other animals?
Ans: When the Rose-Beetle Man undid a small sack, half a dozen tortoises tumbled out of it. One among them took the narrator‘s fancy. It was small with a shell size of a teacup. Its eyes were bright & its walk was alert. This made the narrator select it from among the other animals.
Ans. From among the other animals one was energetic than others. Its shell was of the size of a teacup. Its eyes were bright and its walk was alert. This fascinated the narrator and he was convinced to select this particular tortoise as his pet.
Q4) How did Achilles enjoy eating strawberries?
Ans: The fruit that Achilles liked the best was wild strawberries. He would become hysterical at the mere sight of them. The small strawberries he could devour at a gulp. But if he was given a big one he would grab the fruit and take it to a quiet spot among the flowerbed, where he would eat it at leisure.
Ans. Achilles liked the wild strawberries the most. He easily swallows the small-sized strawberries but when he was given the big one, he would grab it to a quiet spot among the flower beds to eat it at the leisure time. He was very fond of wild strawberries.
Q5) How were Roger and Achilles rivals?
Ans: Roger, the pet dog of the narrator became a rival of Achilles for both had to compete for getting more and more grapes.
Ans. Both Roger and Achilles liked grapes. Before the arrival of Achilles, Roger enjoyed full part of grapes. Now the Achilles became his partner, therefore there was a great rivalry between them.
Q6) Why did Achilles find Roger irritating?
Ans. Achilles was very fond of grapes, when he ate grapes, the juice would run his chin, and Roger would lie watching him his mouth dripping saliva. Roger would creep up to Achilles and lick him vigorously to get the grape juice which irritated Achilles.
Ans: Achilles loved grapes as much as Roger did. Achilles would sit mumbling the grapes in his mouth, the juice running down his chin and Roger would lie watching him, his mouth drooling saliva. Then Roger would creep up to Achilles and lick him vigorously to get the grape- juice which irritated Achilles.
Q7) How did Roger feel at Achilles’ funeral?
Ans: Roger felt happy at Achilles‘ funeral. He kept on wagging his tail throughout the burial service.
Ans. Roger felt happy at Achilles’ death that is why he was waging his tail at his funeral.
Q8) The family wandered about the olive-groves, shouting “Achilles … Strawberries, Achilles …” at length, we found him.
a) How had Achilles escaped?
Ans: One day the garden gate was left open and Achilles was nowhere to be found.OR
Ans. Achilles was habitual to walk through the whole garden. One day, the garden gate was left opened and Achilles got an opportunity to escape from the garden.
b) Explain why the family shouted “strawberries” during their search.
Ans: Strawberries were the favorite fruit of Achilles. The family wanted Achilles to hear the call and get tempted & return. OR
Ans. Achilles was very fond of strawberries, so to find him any way they should make him greedy for his favourite fruit so that they could easily find him.
c)Where did the family finally find Achilles? What had happened to him?
Ans. Finally, the family found Achilles in the well, the wall of which had long since disintegrated. He had fallen into the well and was quite dead.
Ans: The family found him dead in a well.
Q9) There are many instances of humor in the story. Pick out any two of them.
Ans. The story has many humorous instances. Eating of grapes by Achilles and running of juice from his mouth is humorous. Searching down the path of sunbathing person and sleeping on a belly is a humorous instance in the story.
Ans: The character and costumes of the Rose-Beetle Man is humorous. The licking of Achilles by Roger is full of humour. Achilles‘ act of mountaineering on a human body is a humorous incident.
Make anagrams using the following words with the help of the clues given in the table below:
Word Anagram Meaning
Looped Poodle= an intelligent breed of dog.
Schoolmaster = The Classroom where lessons are taught.
Listen Silent = making no sound.
Admirer = fan.
Rabies Serbia = country in Southeast Europe.
Real = fun Funeral performed after someone’s death.
Retain Retina = part of the human eye. Charm March movement of soldiers.
(i) Some of the following sentences are incorrect. Correct them.
1) We get a lot of English home works. Ans. We got a lot of homework.
2) I’ve got some sands in my shoe.
Ans. I’ve got some sand in my shoe.
3) Did you hear the news about Sara? Ans. Did you hear news about Sara?
4) We need more chairs in this room. Ans. We need more chairs in this room.
5) Can I have some more pasta?
Ans. Can I have some more pasta?
6) He carried my luggage to the taxi.
Ans. He carried my luggage to the taxi.
(ii) Insert ‘a’ or ‘an’ wherever necessary.
1. Why are you taking an umbrella? It isn’t raining.
2. I had soup and a bread roll for lunch.
3. It was a good idea to have a party.
4. She’s looking for a job in Jammu.
5. I often go to her for advice.
(iii) Fill in the gaps with a noun from the words given using a/an/the wherever necessary.
3. I haven’t got much luggage with me. Just this bag
4. It’s a sunny day today.
5. There weren’t any accidents on the roads yesterday.
(iv) Which of the underlined words in the parts of these sentences is correct?
1. Hurry up? We haven‘t got many / a lot of time.
Ans. a lot of
2. I don‘t eat much/many chocolates. Ans. many
3. I didn‘t take much / many photographs. Ans. many
4. I don‘t listen too much / many classical music.
Lesson No. 3: Colors of Rainbow – A Short Story
Awning: a piece of material attached to a building to give protection against the sun and rain
Barely: almost not
Oblivious: not aware
Splendiferous: splendid, grand in appearance
Convolutions: twists, troubles, difficulties,
Tiff: a slight argument
Brewing: about to happen
Cherish: to love, care and protect
Good riddance: used to express happiness that someone or something unwanted has gone.
Hauteur: excessive pride
Awry: not right
Well-to-do: rich, prosperous
Breach: to break through
Incarnation: the human form
1. What did the narrator observe when he looked out?
Ans: When the narrator looked out of the window he saw drops of water falling down from the awnings. He also observed drops of water drip and slide down the chili plants outside.
2. Why was the narrator unable to pay attention to what his daughter was saying?
Ans: The narrator couldn’t pay attention to what his daughter was saying because he was watching the beauties of nature.
3. Why did the narrator have a tiff with his family?
Ans: The narrator belonged to a poor family. Poverty had made their life hard. It had affected the couple‘s relationship. They would often argue over petty issues.
4. What did the narrator find when he returned home late at night?
Ans: After a tiff with his wife the narrator left home, spent the day with his friends, and returned late at night. On his return, he found that his children/kids had gone to sleep and his wife was waiting for him.
5. Why did the narrator not have an appetite?
Ans: The narrator did not have an appetite because he had taken food outside with his friends.
Lesson No.4: Rustum and Sohrab
Words You May Not Know
shield: a large flat metal object held by soldiers to protect themselves dare: to have enough courage to do something
in the family was: expecting a baby send word to send a message
feat: an act showing great skill, strength or courage warrior: one who fights in a war, soldier
combat: a fight
savior: a person who saves from danger
armor a protective covering for the body
longing: having a great desire
fate: the power that is supposed to control all events
unnerve: to become nervous
pierce: to go into or through something
avenge: to punish for wrongdoings
opponent: adversary; rival
clash(v): to fight
Ignorance: lack of knowledge; unawareness
Thinking about the text
Q1) Why was Rustum not able to live with his wife?
Ans) Rustum had to part with his wife because he was called by the king of Persia. The king felt unsafe in the absence of Rustum.
Q2) Why did Tanimeh send word to Rustum that their child was a daughter?
Ans) She did so because she feared if Rustum would come to know that he had a son, he would take him away and make him follow his footsteps. Tanimeh did not want to lose her son.
Q3) What secret did Sohrab learn from his mother?
Ans) The secret Sohrab learned from his mother was that he was the son of Rustum, the shield of Persia
Q4) What did Tanimeh want Sohrab to do when he met Rustum?
Ans) Tanimeh wanted Sohrab to show the precious stone to his father, Rustum so that he could recognize his son.
Q5) Why was Rustum at first not ready to fight Sohrab?
Ans: Rustum did not want to fight Sohrab because he had grown old and had to serve his aged father in the faraway village.
Q6) Why did Rustum not tell Sohrab who he was?
Ans: Rustum did not tell Sohrab who he was because Rustum thought that if he did so, Sohrab might withdraw from the fight and make peace with him.
Q7) How was Sohrab wounded?
Ans) Rustum, after fighting for three days with Sohrab, felt that he was going to lose the fight. Then Rustum uttered his war cry ―”Rustum!” which made Sohrab nervous and he dropped his shield. Rustum, instantly, thrust his sword into Sohrab‘s body. That is how Sohrab was wounded.
Q8) What were Sohrab’s last words?
Ans) Sohrab told his father to take him home and bury him there so that people will say, “Here lies Sohrab, the mighty Rustum’s son, whom his father did kill in ignorance”.
B. Find words/phrases given below for the following expressions:
Break down, precious, mighty, bury, combat, send word, invader, chief, protect, send for, parting, determined, strong-minded
a. A fight, especially in a war = Combat
b. To keep somebody/something safe from harm, injury, etc = Protect
c. Going away or separating from somebody = Parting
d. To send someone a message. = Send word
e. Wanting to do something very much regardless of difficulties. = Strong-minded
f. Determined to do something or get something. = Determined
g. Someone who enters a country by force in order to take control of it. = invader
h. A long distance away or a long time in the past or future. = Distant
i. To become very upset and start crying.= Break down
j. Of great and special value = Precious
k. An officer of very high rank in the army = Chief
l. Put a dead body in a grave = Bury
m. Very powerful = Mighty
n. To call someone back = Send for
C. Choose the correct option:
1. “Persia is safe as long as Rustum leads our soldiers,” said The King of Persia
2. “I do not fight in single combat with anyone who is of low birth,” These words are spoken by The Challenger.
3. “If you must go, I want to tell you something.” Said Tanimeh
4. “Who is so rash and thoughtless that he thinks he can attack Persia?” asked Kaikoos
5. “Carry me to your home and bury me there.” These words are spoken by Sohrab
D. Match the words in Column A with the explanations given in Column B:
Column A Column B
a. War cry a word or cry shouted in battle.
b. Challenger one who calls someone for a fight.
c. Arts of war skill in the use of weapons and infighting.
d. Champion one who fights for or defends some other person.
e. Swordsmanship skill in the use of a sword.
f. Spirit quality of courage and vigor.
g. Terror great fear.
h. Clasp hold tightly.
i. Amazed extremely surprised.
j. Ambition a strong desire for success, power or wealth.
A. Combine the following pairs of sentences with unless Answers Only;
1. Unless you run fast, you cannot catch the train.
2. Unless work hard, you cannot get the first class.
3. Unless you hurry, you will not catch the bus.
4. Unless you do as I tell, you will not regret it.
5. Unless you tell me about your problem I cannot give you some solution.
B. Match each clause from Column A with a clause from Column B and make meaningful sentences:
1. If I had worked harder, I would have got more marks.
2. If the driver in front had not stopped, the accident would not have happened.
3. If the weather had not been so bad, we could have gone out.
4. If you have arrived earlier, you could have seen her.
5. If you have moved the injured to hospital immediately, you might have saved his life.
6. If you had not lent me the money, I would not have been able to buy a car.
A. Report the following sentences in indirect speech:
1. She said, “My father will return from Jammu tomorrow.”
Ans. She said that her father would return from Jammu next day.
2. They said, “We will die for the sake of our country.”
Ans. They said that they would die for the sake of their country.
3. The teacher said, “Baber won the first battle of Panipat.”
Ans. The teacher said that Baber won the first battle at Panipat.
4. I said to him, “You have made a false statement.”
Ans. I told him that he had made a false statement.
5. They said to us, “We will play a match tomorrow.”
Ans. They told us that they would play a match the next day.
6. I said to him, “I am an early riser.”
Ans. I told him that I was an early riser.
7. He said, “My father died last year.”
Ans. He said that his father died the previous year.
8. She said to me, “The climate of this place does not suit me.”
Ans. She told me that the climate of that place did not suit her.
9. I said to the peon, “All your faults will be pardoned if you confess them.”
NCERT SOLUTIONS ( SOLVED QUESTIONS ) CLASS 8TH ENGLISH
For God’s Sake Hold Thy Tongue
Thy: (old use) your Thee: (old use) you, used when speaking to one person Scabbard: a long thin cover for the blade of a sword, which is usually fixed to a belt. Thine: (old use) your Do down: to belittle or humiliate someone. Vent: to release or express an emotion, idea, etc in a forceful way. Admonish: to advice someone to do or not to do something. Scandalmonger: a person who spreads malicious talk about other people. Condemn: to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for normal reasons. Mimicry: to copy the sounds or movements of other people. Sarcasm: remarks that mean the opposite of what they seem to say. Belittle: to make an action or a person seem unimportant. Similitude: resemblance, example. Refuge: protection or shelter from danger, trouble, unhappiness, etc. Denounce: to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly. Stumble: to fall or begin to fall while walking or running. Bridal: to control or restraint. Slander: a false statement which damages somebody’s reputation. Refrain: to avoid doing something. Malice: the wish to harm or upset other people. Deceit: an act of deceiving or misleading. Reproach: to criticize someone for doing something wrong.
Q1) What do the Quran and the traditions of Prophet (PBUH) tell us on backbiting and scandal-mongering?
Ans: The sacred scriptures of Islam, that is, the Holy Quran and the books on the traditions of the Holy Prophet(SAW) strongly condemn the acts of backbiting and scandal-mongering. In these scriptures, a person who indulges in such acts is compared with one who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother.
Q2) What do the Gita and the Bible tell us on backbiting?
Ans: About backbiting, the Gita says that the man who does not indulge in backbiting is a godly man whereas the man who indulges in it has demonic endowments. The Bible says that one who does not backbite and does not stumble in what he says is a perfect man.
The Holy Bible says, ― For we all stumble in many ways. And if anyone doesn‘t stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body.
Q3) What do the Granth Sahib and Lord Buddha tell us on backbiting?
Ans: The Granth Sahib says, ―The slanderer carries the great burden of sins without payment he carries loads.‖ Lord Buddha elucidates in his eightfold path that one requires living a life based on right speech.
Q4) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon bring tongues both the times?
Ans: He did so because according to him, it is the tongue that issues the good as well as the bad words.
Q5) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon invite his discipline for a meal?
Ans: Rabbi Simeon invited his disciplines for a meal in which both soft and hard tongues were served. The disciples ate the soft ones and left the hard ones untouched. Noticing this, the Rabbi said, -As you choose only soft tongues here, so you should be soft in your conversation.
Q6) What according to you is the moral of the lesson?
Ans: The lesson teaches us that one should always refrain from backbiting and scandal-mongering.
Q7) How does our tongue do good or bad to others?
Ans: If we refrain from backbiting and malicious talk, we won‘t harm the image and dignity of our fellow citizens while as indulging in such acts will hurt others and we shall also earn disrespect.
POLO- THE KING OF GAMES
Working with Text
Q. 1 Why is polo called the game of kings?
Ans: Polo is called the game of kings because it was widely played and patronized by kings and nobles.
Q. 2 Where did polo originate?
Ans: Polo originated in central Asia. From central Asia, the game made its way to Japan, China, Tibet, and India.
Q. 3 What was the status of polo during the Mughal reign?
Ans: Under the Mughals, polo was the national sport of India until the end of the sixteenth century. During this period, polo enjoyed the patronage of kings and nobles.
Q. 4 In whose reign did polo come to Ladakh and how?
Ans: Legend has it that polo came to central Ladakh from the neighboring Baltistan. According to history polo was brought to Ladakh either through King Jamyang‘s marital alliance with a Balti woman or through the colony of Baltics settled at Chushot.
Q. 5 How is polo played in Ladakh?
Ans: Ladakh polo is fast & furious. It is a test of human endurance, skills and horse strength to play continuously. The matches are played in the late afternoon.
Q. 6 How is polo in Ladakh different from the international format?
Ans: Ladakh polo differs from the current international format in player count as well as duration. Unlike the modern versions of the game, Ladakh polo has two rounds of 20 minutes each and few restraints and rough riding.
Working with text
Q1) Why did a certain party of Romans wish to kill Julius Caesar?
Ans: They wanted to kill Julius Caesar because they believed that he had become ambitious. They feared that Julius Caesar might be offered the crown at the National Games. They wanted to keep him away from sitting on the throne.
Q2) Why did Calpurnia beg Caesar not to go to the Capitol?
Ans: Calpurnia begged Caesar not to go to the Capitol because she had a nightmare the previous night in which she had seen Caesar‘s statue, standing in the market place, pouring forth blood. Many Romans were bathing their hands in it and smiling.
Q3) What two reasons did Antony give to show that Caesar was not ambitious?
Ans: The first reason Mark Anthony puts Record:forth is that Caesar was always kind and generous to the poor. As the second reason, he says that Caesar had refused the kingly crown three times at the games.
Q4) Why was Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi wrong?
Ans: Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi was wrong because he and his tired men had to confront Octavius and Mark Antony who had the advantage of a good defensive position and a fresh and rested army.
Q5) Why has Brutus been called “the noblest Roman of them all”?
Ans: Brutus has been called “the Noblest Roman of them all” because unlike others he did wrong but his intention was right. He had no malice in his heart.
Stink: bad smell
Synthetic: a substance made through artificially done chemical process
resin: a thick sticky substance that is produced by some trees
Polymer: chemical substance composed of large molecules made from many smaller and simpler molecules.
ethylene: a colourless, inflammable gas in coal gas
residue: the part that is left behind
biodegradable: able to decay naturally
sewerage: the system of carrying away waste water and human waste from houses through large underground pipes or passages
moderate: neither small nor large
myriad: a large number of something
ecosystem: plants, animals, and humans living in an area together with their surroundings, considered as a system of relationship
biomagnification: growing concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of organisms
debris: broken pieces of something larger organic: coming from living plants and animals marine: related to the sea
bryozoans: minute mollusc animals living together in moss
polychaetes: a class of sea worms
crab: a sea animal with five pairs of legs
mollusk: an animal with a soft body often covered with a shell, usually living in the water
carcinogen: cancer-causing substance
leach out: pass on
to contaminate: make impure
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome: a serious disease caused by a virus which destroys the body‘s natural protection from infection, and which usually causes death
thrombosis: formation of a blood clot in a vessel
retard: to make something slower
non-permeability: the condition of not allowing gases or liquids to go through
stray: of an animal without shelter or an owner
veterinary: connected with taking care of the health of animals
SRO: Statutory Rules and Orders
Posterity: future generation
Working with Text
Q.1) What is polythene and who discovered it?
Ans. Polythene is a tough, light flexible synthetic resin made by polymerizing ethylene, chiefly used for plastic bags, food containers, and another packaging.
It was discovered by a German scientist, Hans von Pechmanne who had, completely by accident, made it, away residue at the bottom of his test tube.
Q.2) What does Rakesh’s father expect from the kids?
Ans. Rakesh‘s father expects from the kids that they will stop using polythene bags which the elders have so far failed to do. They have to make a promise not to use polythene and also encourage other kids in their schools and neighborhood not to do so. Q.3) Why is polythene widely used?
Ans. Polythene is widely used because the bags made from it are cheap and easy to carry. They are also used as packing bags. Most people also find them easy to dispose of after use as they are very light and can be easily thrown away.
Q.4) What is biodegradation ?
Ans. Biodegradation is a process with which the things, like sewage constituents, packaging material, etc.
decompose on their own by bacteria or other biological means. But so far as polythene is concerned, it does not decay on its own. It can‘t be even burnt/burned as the burning would cause immense air pollution.
Q.5) What are the harmful effects of polythene?
Ans. Polythene has many harmful effects in our day to day life. It is the cause of diseases like malaria, cholera, etc. It also increases infertility. In addition to this, it plays a major role in the blockage of water systems like sewerage and water pipes, causing floods during moderate or heavy rainfall. Nowadays, rivers, lakes and small streams have become dumping sites of polythene bags which has become the cause of several problems for plants and animals living in and under water.
Q.6) How is the soil affected by polythene?
Ans. Polythene, after remaining in the soil, damages the ecosystem of soil by retarding its carrying capacity. Besides, it has the property of non-permeability, so it cuts off respiration of soil system which in turn not only affects plant life but also other creatures living in the soil.
Q.7) How does polythene affect animals?
Ans. The polythene bags that lie on the roads are often eaten by stray animals which can cause their death.
Besides, it is estimated that about one billion marine animals die each year due to polythene pollution.
Q.8) What is SRO 182?
Ans. SRO 182 (Statutory Rules and Orders) (dated 18/06/2008) is a law made by the government of Jammu and Kashmir by which use of polythene has been banned within the territorial limits of the state.
Q.9) How can we save our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene?
Ans. In order to save ourselves and our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene, it is our responsibility to completely avoid the use of polythene.
Q. Say which of the following sentences are simple, compound and complex.
1) I don‘t like girls/boys who are lazy
2) He called her but didn‘t respond
3) She went because she was invited
4) You should work hard or you will fail Compound sentence.
5) Man proposes, but God disposes Compound sentences.
6) He stood first in the class
7) They must apologize or they will be punished.
8) She must apologize to avoid punishment.
9) The mother hit him and made him cry.
10) She succeeded in the very first attempt. Simple sentence.
11) She has lost the book that my brother had given her.
12) Men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
13) We eat so that we may live.
14) They serve God well who serve His creatures.
15) One blushes when one is guilty.
A Nation’s Strength
defy== to resist boldly
throng == to gather around in a crowd
shaft == the column of a building‘s foundation
rust == to become or cause something to become covered with rust; (here) decay
decay == to cause something to become gradually damaged, worse or less
pride == feeling of importance
luster == brightness
a people = a nation
dare == to have the courage to do something difficult
fly == to run away in fear
Summary of A Nation’s Strength
The poem “A Nation’s Strength” is written by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The poet wonders about the things that make a nation strong. How can a nation‘s pillars be made high and its foundations strong? How can a nation become strong enough to defend itself against powerful enemies? The poet wonders about these questions. Then the poet says that it is not gold and silver that can make a nation great and strong, but it is the people who sacrifice for their country and make it great and strong. According to the poet, it is the brave men of a nation who work hard while others sleep and build the nation‘s pillars deep and lift them to the sky. So it is not the riches but the honest and brave people that make a nation great.
Thinking about the text
Q.1) In the first stanza, the poet wonders about a certain thing. What are they?
Ans) In the first stanza the poet wonders about what makes a nation‘s pillars high and its foundations strong, and what makes it strong to defend against its enemies.
Q.2) What are the foundations of a strong kingdom built on?
Ans) The foundations of a strong kingdom are built on the greatness and toughness of people. It is built on their courage and truthfulness.
Q.3) What happens to a nation that depends on an army to keep its strong?
Ans) A nation that depends on an army does not last long after they shed blood which leads to their decay. Their glory ends soon after the bloody war.
Q.4) When a nation becomes proud, what does God do?
Ans) When a nation becomes proud and arrogant, God strikes it luster down and reduces it to ashes.
Q.5) Do you think wealth can make a nation great and strong?
Ans) No, wealth can‘t make a nation great and strong. It is only men who can stand fast and suffer hardships for the sake of their nation.
Q.6) What can the brave do?
Ans) The brave work hard while others sleep. While others fly, the brave dare. They, therefore, can make a nation great and strong.
Q.7) Explain the following line
The build a nation”s pillars deep
And lift them to the sky
Ans) In these lines the poet says that the brave men lay the pillars of a nation deep on a strong foundation and lift them to the sky to great heights of glory.
1. In this poem, certain consonant sounds dominate e.g., m, n, f, s, r, d, p, h, b, g, l. List the words beginning with these consonants.
2. The poem has a fixed rhyme scheme in each stanza i.e. abab. Pick out the rhyming words e.g.
Ans. List of rhyming words:
Lesson No. 2 : Porus and His Elephant
ballad == a story told in verse
foe == enemy
battle pride == martial glory
in state == in a dignified manner
unbroken rank == close order that is difficult for the enemy to breakthrough
fray == attack
rage == anger
betide == to happen
gallant == brave
trumpet == (of a large animal, especially an elephant) to produce a loud call
foreman == the first or chief soldier in the army
hold at bay == keep back
pant == to breathe heavily
legend == a story or set of stories from ancient times
e‘er === contracted form of ever
Summary of Porus and His Elephant
The poem “Porus and His Elephant” is a lyrical ballad. It is written by Mary Dobson. The poem narrates a legend about a king named Porus and his faithful elephant. Porus is confronted with his enemy Alexander. They fought a fierce battle. Porus was fighting bravely on his elephant. But suddenly Porus got injured and fell down from his elephant. The faithful elephant came to his rescue. The elephant did not allow the enemy to come near Porus. Then the elephant took his master to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. Porus survived but his faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds/injuries. The beasts who are dumb also have feelings as proved by the elephant.
Thinking about the poem
Q.1) How did the elephant save the life of Porus?
Ans) During the fierce battle between the armies of Porus and Alexander, Porus was wounded. When the wounded Porus fell down, his elephant provided him cover from the shower of arrows, spears, and swords. The elephant lifted Porus on his trunk and took him to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. The faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds, but his master survived. Q.2) What does the poet mean by:
Ah! These dumb things that cry and pant,
They, too, can love, for God made them so.
Ans) In these lines the poet says that the beasts are unable to speak, but they too can feel pain and express their emotions. These creatures are also capable of loving because God also made them like that. Q.3) Write the story told in the poem in your own words.
Ans) See the summary of the poem.
Q.4) What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?
Q.5) The poem reflects the faithfulness of an elephant towards his master. Explain.
Ans) The elephant, in the poem, stands on the epitome of faithfulness and of exemplary courage. The elephant risks his own life only to be loyal to his master. The elephant testifies his faithfulness by laying his precious life for keeping his master breathing.
Q6. Tick the right answer:
a. Porus met his enemy on the bank of a. The Nile b. The Jhelum c. The Ganges d. The Satluj .
Ans. b. The Jhelum
b. Alexander in the poem is referred to as a. Friend b. Foe c. Brother d.Statesman
Ans. b. Foe
c. Who was wounded? a. Alexander b. Porus c. Both d. None
Ans. b. Porus
d. The wounded Porus is lifted by a. His own soldiers b. Soldiers of Alexander c. The Elephant d. None
Ans. c. The elephant
e. Who saves Porus? a. His Elephant b. His soldiers‘ c. Both d. Villagers Ans. a. His Elephant
I. Use the following words, phrases, and expressions in your sentences:
Days gone by, fray, to hold at a bay, battle-pride, fought the more, gallant part, mighty trunk
Ans. Days gone by Days have gone by, since the battle between Porus and Alexander.
Fray: Alexander came to India for the fray.
To hold at bay: Our soldiers hold at bay our enemies.
Battle-pride: Participation in the war in olden times was considered as battle-pride.
Fought the more: Porus fought the more, against Alexander.
Gallant part: The elephant played a gallant part in the fight between Porus and Alexander.
Mighty trunk: The lifted his master on his back with his mighty trunk to save him.
II. Use the following words as nouns and verbs in your sentences: Record, Present, Object, Contest, Produce
(Noun) I keep the record of my all expenditures.
(Verb) In Kashmir, the maximum temperature was recorded as 35ºC.
(Noun) He gave me a present on my birthday.
(Verb) The student presented himself before the headmaster. Object:
(Noun) Do not touch an unclaimed object on the road.
(Verb) He was objected by people in his rude language.
(Noun) A music contest was conducted at Radio Kashmir Srinagar on Saturday. (Verb) He contested for writing an essay in English.
(Noun) Plants produce oxygen for animals.
(Verb) A large quantity of paddy is produced in Kashmir.
Lesson No. 3: The Bangle Seller
loads == collections (of bangles)
rainbow-tinted == having the colours of the rainbow in them
lustrous == bright; shining
meet (adj.) == proper
flushed == shining brightly
tranquil == calm
aglow == shining
limpid == transparent and clear
hue == colour
tinkling == making a light ringing sound
luminous == shining
gold flecked == spotted with gold dots
for her … midway == for a middle-aged woman
cherished = = nursed
Summary Of The Bangle Seller
The poem “The Bangle Sellers” is written by Sarojini Naidu. The poem is about bangles and bangle sellers. The bangle sellers carry loads of bangles to sell at the fairs. The bangles are delicate bright and colourful circles of light. As a woman journeys through the different stages of her life, the colour, texture, and design of her bangles also change accordingly. The bangle seller says that some bangles are for happy daughters and some for happy wives. The narrator draws colorful images from nature to reflect the exact hue and tint of the bangles. The bangle seller says that he has bangles not only for maidens but also for a middle-aged woman who in her fruitful pride worships the gods at her husband’s side.
Thinking about the poem
Q.1) Who is the speaker in the poem?
Ans) A bangle seller is a speaker in the poem.
Q.2) How are the bangles described in the first stanza of the poem and who are these bangles for?
Ans) In the first stanza, the bangles are described as shining, delicate and bright. They are described as rainbow-tinted circles of light and as tokens of radiant lives. These bangles are for happy daughters and happy wives.
Q.3) The poet uses different similes for the bangles. What are these?
Ans) The poet compares the bangles to the mountain mist, to the flower buds, to the fields of sunlit corn, bridal laughter and to the bridal tear.
Q.4) Name the different colours mentioned in the poem. What do they represent?
Ans) Colours of the rainbow, silver, and blue, sunlit corn colour, purple and gold-flecked grey are the different colours mentioned in the poem. These colours represent the bangles suitable for different age groups of women.
Q.5) The word “some” has been repeated in the poem. What is it?
Ans) The word some represents the different types of bangles being sold by the bangle seller.
Q.6) Explain the following lines.
Some are meet for maiden‟s wrist
Silver and blue as the maintain mist
Ans) In these lines the narrator says that some bangles are suitable for the wrist of unmarried women. Some bangles are of silver and blue colour as the mountain that is under a blanket of mist.
Lesson. No. 4 : Prayer for Strength
penury == extreme poverty; (here) hardheartedness, lacking love and compassion
This poem “Prayer for Strength” is written by Rabindranath Tagore. The poem is a prayer. The poet prays God to make his heart strong enough to bear joys and sorrows. The poet entreats God to clear the malice in his heart and fill it with love and compassion. He asks God to give him strength never to abandon the poor or kneel before a tyrant. At the end of the poem, the poet prays to God to keep him away from the insignificant things of the world and let him have the strength to submit his will to the Will of God.
Thinking about the poem
Q.1) Why does the poet want God to strike at his heart?
Ans) The poet implores God to strike at his heart to remove the hardheartedness and remake it with love and compassion. He wants to be a loving and caring human beings.
Q.2) What does the poet want the strength for?
Ans) The poet wants strength to bear joys and sorrows. He wants strength to make his love fruitful in service. He needs strength never to disown the poor or bow before a tyrant. Moreover, the poet needs strength to avoid the daily trifles and submit his will to the Will of God
Q.3) How can love be made meaningful in one”s life?
Ans) Love is meaningful when it bears fruits of service, service of mankind.
Q.4) What should be our attitude towards the poor?
Ans) Our attitude towards the poor should be very sympathetic. We should never disown or neglect them.
We should always help the poor and work for their welfare.
Q.5) What does “bend my knees” signify?
Ans) The bending of one‘s knees means to surrender before a powerful person. Here, the poet prays to God to give him the strength to resist and not to bend the knees before a tyrant.
Q.6) Why does the poet want to raise his mind high above “daily trifles”?
Ans) The poet wants to raise his mind high above the daily trifles so that he would not be involved in the issues that fill one‘s heart with malice and prejudice.
Q.7) Why does the poet ask for strength to surrender his will to God”s will?
Ans) The poet wants to surrender his will to the Will of God in order to live a pure and obedient life. As it is not easy to submit one‘s will, the poet prays for the strength to do so.
Lesson. No. 5: The Brook
Haunt: place visited frequently
Coot and hern: water birds
Sally: to rush; to issue forth suddenly
Bicker: to move quickly with a participating noise
Ridge: a high edge along a mountain
Sharps and trebles: the loud and low sound of music
Eddying bays: bays full of whirlpools
Fret: to wear away
Fallow: unploughed land
Foreland: tiny cape
Chatter: to pass with a noise
Wind about: to move in a curved way
Grayling: a trout having a broad fin
Gravel: small stones, often used to make the surface of paths & roads,
Steal: to move quietly
Hazel: a small tree that produces nuts, woods or buses
Gloom(verb): to grow dark
Glance: to produce small bright flashes of light
Netted(adj): looking like meshes
Brambly: full of thorns
Shingly bars: pebbles & sand hindering the flow
Cresses: small plants with thin stems & very small leaves
Summary Of The Brook
This poem “The Brook” is written by Alfred Lord Tennyson. In the poem, the Brook narrates a tale about a journey. The brook speaks about its emergence from a mountain and the resort of water birds. It sparkles and shines among the fern. Then the brook flows down the hill into a valley with a turbulent flow. Then it flows past hills, ridges, villages, a town & under many bridges.
Then the brook flows through the fields and meanders through the plains. As the brook flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it pours its water into the overflowing river.
Thinking About the poem
Q1) Who is “I” referred to as in the poem?
Ans: “I” is referred to the brook itself.
Q2) Trace the journey of the brook?
Ans: The brook starts its journey on the hilltops frequented by water birds. Then the brook rushes down the hill into the valleys and plains. It passes by a town, many grasslands, many villages, and half a hundred bridges. As it flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it joins the brimming river.
Q3) Explain the following lines:
“For men may come and men may go
But I go on forever.”
Ans: In these lines, the brook says that men come to this world and leave it very shortly as they are mortals. But the journey of the brook is unending and everlasting.
Q) Can the journey of the brook be compared with human life?
Ans: Yes, the very journey of the brook can be compared with the life span of a man. Like brook, a human being also passes through different stages of life before his death. And the flow of the brook can be compared with this world that doesn‘t stop while mortals are born & mortals die
Lesson No. 6: Mercy
strain’d == forced
droppeth == drops; descends
mightiest in the mightiest == mercy is more powerful than the most powerful kings become == to suit, to enhance the appearance of someone
crown == symbolizes the supreme power of the king sceptre == the royal
enthroned (adj.) == seated (in the hearts of kings)
attribute (n) == quality temporal not lasting enthrone == stain a throne seasons breeds sway == over powering
awe == dread, terror
Summary of Mercy
The poem “Mercy” has been extracted from the play The Merchant of Venice written by William Shakespeare. In this poem, the poet talks about mercy. He says that mercy descends like the drops of gentle rain. It blesses the person who gives and the one who receives it. Mercy is stronger than the strongest. Mercy is better for a king than his own crown. The majesty of a king is temporal but mercy is more encompassing and more fruitful. Mercy is an attribute to God himself. Mercy is sometimes enthroned in the heart of kings. The king‘s power corresponds with that of God‘s when mercy bears the fruits of justice.
Thinking about the poem
Q.1) Where does the quality of mercy come from? Who are blessed by it?
Ans) The quality of mercy is enthroned by God in the hearts of the people. It blesses both the one who gives and the one who receives it.
Q.2) How is mercy better than the crown of the king?
Ans) Mercy is better than the crown of the king because the crown represents the earthly and temporal powers but mercy is a divine quality and an attribute to God himself.
Q.3) What does sceptre stand for? How does it affect the kings?
Ans) Sceptre is a royal wand. It represents royal authority. Sceptre signifies the king’s awe and majesty both of which are subject to decay.
Q.4) When does earthly power look like God”s?
Ans) When the earthly power makes the tree of mercy bear the fruits of justice, it looks like Godly. When the person having earthly power tempers his justice with the mercy, his earthly power looks more like God‘s power.
Q.5) How is mercy alone the “sceptered sway”?
Ans) Mercy is the sceptered sway because it is the quality of God Who is all-encompassing and the most powerful.
Q.6) What happens when mercy seasons justice?
Ans) When mercy seasons justice, the earthly powers look like Godly or divine.
a) Find out the similes and/or metaphors in the poem.
Ans. Some of them found in the poem are; gentle rain, sceptre, doth earthly power. b) Find out poetical words in the poem and also write their names;
Ans. Strain‘d == means- forced
Droppeth == means- drops, descends
‘Tis == means- this
Blesseth == means- blesses or bless
Lesson No. 7: Wrinkles
Raade: a Hindu festival celebrated in Jammu
Tawi: a river of Jammu
make bold: become courageous
uproot : to pull out or remove comeliness attractiveness
Navaratra: a festival celebrating the birth of Lord Shiva tinsel shining: decorative metallic stripes or threads
Summary of Wrinkles
The poem “Wrinkles” is a Dogri poem written by Arvind and translated by Shivnath. This poem is an extremely emotional account of a son on the subject of his mother. He says that he has been counting the wrinkles on the face of his mother. His mother got her first wrinkle when her father married her and she was uprooted from her home and planted in the courtyard of others. She got her another when she was in the family way. She got her third wrinkle when her son took away the comeliness of her face through lactation. She gets her Fourth wrinkle when her son marries off leaving his mother alone. The narrator longs to see the girl under those wrinkles which once she was when she celebrated Raade festival and went to river Tawi to immerse the seedlings and bathe during the Navratras. He wants to see his mother as a young girl who used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles. The narrator wishes his mother to become that girl once again for a day so that he would bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles from across the river Taw =
Thinking about the poem:
Q1) How many wrinkles does the poet see on the mother”s face?
Ans) The poet finds four wrinkles on his mother’s face.
Q2) What does the first wrinkle represent?
Ans) The first wrinkle on her face represents a sense of loss, mental strain when she was uprooted from her house and planted in the courtyard of others.
Q3) What do the second and the third wrinkles represent?
Ans) She got her second wrinkle when she nourished her child in her womb and she got her third wrinkle when she was being consumed during the process of lactation.
Q4) What is the poet seeking under the wrinkles of the mother?
Ans) The poet wants to see the young girl under the wrinkles which she was used to be in her young age.
Q5) What are the activities the poet”s mother used to do when she was a girl?
Ans) When she was a young girl, the poet’s mother used to celebrate Raade festival and bathe and immerse raade seedlings in the river. She also used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.
Q6) How does the poem end?
Ans) At the end of the poem, the poet wants his mother to become a young girl once again for a day. He would then bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles for her from across the river Tawi.
Write the meaning of the following phrases or expression as used in the poem:
Ans. 1. From the backyard = to separate someone from his/her birthplace or quietly
2. On your blood: to feed on the digested food, to make the host of someone.
3. Nourished me: to grow or develop own self
4. Took me away: to take someone away from the close one or separate someone from a dear one.
5. Taking courage: being courageous
6. Under the skin: beneath or below age, or feel or see something
7. From across the river: to a long distance, with hard work.
Lesson No. 8: Meeting Poet
Disconcerted : Confused (Unsettle; non plus; unnerve)
Wig: a covering of artificial hair which a bald wears
Wasp: a stinging insect (here) bitterness in the speech of poets
Air: manner and appearance
Speckled: covered with speckles (marks)
Thinking about the poem
Q1) Why is the poet confused when she meets poets?
Ans: The poet is confused due to the odd outward appearance of the poets.She is confused because of the colour of their socks, the suspicion of a wig, bitterness in their speech and their unpleasant manner.
Q2) What is the best way to know poets?
Ans: A poet expresses himself through his poems. We can know about the poets through their subjective poems which express their nature and ideas).
Q3) What does the poet compare the poets with?
Ans: The poet compares the poets with “cool speckled shells in which one hears a sad but distant sea”.
Q4) Explain the phrase-“a wasp in the voice”.
Ans: The phrase “Wasp in the voice ” means bitterness in speech.
Lesson No. 9: Stars Speak to Man
Summary of Stars Speak to Man
The poem Stars Speak to Man is written by Abdul Ahad Azad in Kashmiri and rendered into English by Prof. G.R Malik. In the poem Stars Speak to Man, they tell him that he was born with the light of reason but he chose to be fire. Due to his callousness, he became a reason for disgrace for the whole of mankind. The stars tell him that nature had fashioned him to become the fountain of love and affection but he took to buying and selling of religion and his faith. Nature had bestowed all its treasures upon him to share them equally but his materialistic pursuits led him astray. Not only this, man created divisions on the basis of religion and faith. Humanity has fallen into lament due to man‘s misdeeds. What man calls awakening is basically an intoxicating sleep. Man‘s own deeds have eluded him and he complains against fate. It is nothing but a fanciful dream and man needs to come out from it. In the end, the stars tell the man that he breaks the heart of those who are his kin. He should not ravage his own home by acting irresponsibly.
Think about the text:
1. What do the stars say to man in the first two lines of the poem?
Ans: In the first two lines of the poem the stars tell the man that he was the light of reason but he chose to be fire. And the man brought disgrace for his race due to his callousness.
2. Nature had fashioned you to apportion love and affection But you chose to buying and selling of religion and faith instead.
Explain these lines:
Ans: In these lines, stars tell the man that nature had fashioned him to become a fountain of love and affection. But he stooped so low that he fell to selling and buying of religion and faith.
3. Why is man described as a serpent?
Ans. Man amasses wealth and sits like a serpent on the treasures God has bestowed him, Unused remains a treasure upon which serpents find their shelter. A man who amasses wealth and makes no good use of it is like a serpent sitting on the ground with a treasure underneath. He uses these treasures for himself only while he was supposed to share them with his fellow-beings.
4. “That which you call awakening is a stupefying hangover”. Why?
Ans: All human beings are equal. Divisions on the basis of religion and faith are boastfully considered awakening by man. But it is nothing but an intoxicating sleep.
5. Do you think the poem is a wake-up call? Explain.
Ans: Yes, the poem is a wake-up call. The poet wants to awaken those who have created divisions in the name of religion and faith. The poet wants men to recognize their status and regain their loss.
Q1. Fill in the blanks to make a meaningful summary of the poem.
Ans. The poem is addressed to Man. The poet tells Man that he was the light of reason but he put humanity to disgrace. Nature had provided him with treasures of bounties to share them equally, but he sat like a serpent on them. His heart is restlesslyvibrating and his vision clouded by fantasies. In his own garden, he cut the roots while watering twigs and leaves. He has ransacked and ravaged his own home.
Q2. Use the following phrases in your own sentences.
(i). Choose to be: He chooses to be a teacher.
(ii). Take to: He was taken to the hospital for treatment.
(iii). Throw open: The warden throw opens the door for all students to come in.
(iv). Pose to be: He poses to be a genius.
(v). Fall into: I told him not to fall into conversation with them.
(vi). Tear apart: The professor tore apart the paper.
Lesson No. 10: Summer and Winter
Summary of Summer and Winter
The poem Summer and Winter is written by P.B Shelley. In this poem, Summer symbolizes life and happiness, and winter symbolizes death and lifelessness. The poet draws images from the summer season to heighten the effects of life & vigor.
In the section that follows, the poet draws images from the winter which symbolize death and lifelessness. The poet, in a very subtle manner, brings about a contrast between the two natural forces: life & death; symbolized by summer & winter.
Thinking about the poem
Q1) What do the opening lines of the poem describe?
Ans: The opening lines of the poem describe the bright & cheerful afternoon towards the end of the sunny month of June.
Q2) What is the effect of the shining sun on the objects of nature?
Ans: In the summer the sun shines in the clear & cloudless sky making all things rejoice.
Q3) How is winter described in the poem?
Ans: The effect of winter is harsh. The birds die in the forests. The fishes lie stiffened in the translucent ice and people gather around the fire and yet feeling cold.
Q4) Explain the following lines:
All things rejoiced beneath the sun; the weeds,
The river, and the corn-fields, and reeds;
The willow leaves that glanced in the light breeze
Ans: In these lines, the poet says that in the summer the sun shines brightly in the sky. All things the weeds, the river, the corn-fields, and the reeds are full of life and happiness.
Q5) How does the poem end?
Ans: At the end of the poem, the poet describes a family that assembles around the fire but still feel cold. And the poet is sorry for a homeless beggar.
Q1. Write down some visual images from the poem:
Ans. Some visual images from the poem are:
Floating Mountains, Stainless Sky, Wrinkled Clod, Hard as Brick
Q2. Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.
Ans. Rhyming Words:
Weeds …………… Reeds
Breeze …………… Trees
Die ………………. Lie
Cold …………….. Old
Crowds ………….. Clouds
Q3. Write down five adjectives from the poem.
Ans. Five adjectives from the poem are:
1. The Silver Clouds: In summer we see silver clouds floating in the sky.
2. The Stainless Sky: The stainless sky looks attractive in summer.
3. The Lager Tress: The larger trees are found in the forests of Kashmir.
4. The Translucent Ice: In winter the translucent ice floats on the surface of the water.
5. The Homeless Beggar: The homeless beggars are always seen begging in the streets of cities.
The term global warming refers to the general increase in the average temperature of the earth caused by the presence of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, causing changes in climate patterns throughout the globe.
SUMMARY OF GLOBAL WARMING
Global Warming is one of the major threats to the human race. It refers to the rise of about 0.80C. Its main reason is the increase in the greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Global Warming will increase sea water levels and cause extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts, and heavy rainfall.
Global Warming will melt all the glaciers in the Himalayan region and change the livelihood of millions of people of the subcontinent.
Even place like Kashmir will have an impact of this warming. Glaciers in Jammu and Kashmir are receding at an alarming rate. This has resulted in water scarcity and increased the threat of floods. Global warming has brought in high-velocity storms in the valley which have caused devastation to crops and fruits. The rapid melting of Kolhai glacier by 18% has evoked concern among environmentalist. This is mainly due to increase in temperature, caused by high levels of the population from various sources. The observation made by TERI has shown increased discharge trends due to increase in glacier melt runoff.
Global Warming has brought great changes in climate. The average temperatures have increased. The research carried out by the University of Kashmir has shown that the average increase in temperature in the valley by the end of the 21st century would be between 2 and 3 centigrade. Erratic snowfall, hotter summers, climate variability and change in precipitation levels will affect livelihoods. So, we need to come up with a strategy for the sustainable development of water resources in the region. Our children will curse as if we don’t do it now.
Working with the Text
Q.1 Why has the Earth’s average surface temperature increased?
Ans: One of the major reasons cited for the increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature is the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestration and burning of fossil fuels. The increase in the carbon footprint by the developed and the developing countries is one of the major causes of global warming.
Q. 2 Why is the Himalayan region called the Water Tower of Asia?
Ans: The Himalayan region is called the Water Tower of Asia because it has a glacial coverage of 33000 square kilometers and it provides around 8.6 million cubic meters of water per annum.
Q. 3 What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?
Ans: The main sources of drinking water and irrigation in the Kashmir Valley are glaciers.
Q. 4 Why is water the most precious natural resource?
Ans: All life forms in general and the human life in particular are not possible without water. Water sustains life besides presenting itself as one of the major energy resources in the formation of electricity.
Q. 5 How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?
Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in Kashmir are receding at an alarming rate. We have lost 18% of the Kolhai glacier, and about 16% of the glaciers in Suru basin. Besides this Kashmir is witnessing reduction in snowfall, occurance of high velocity wind storms, and drastic changes in prespitation and seasonal changes.
Q. 6 How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?
Ans: Global warming is catastrophic because it is going to render earth barren. Global warming is going to bring droughts, heatwaves and heavy downpour which will have disastrous consequences on the agricultural yields and consequently lead to species extinction. According to Noam Chomsky, after nuclear bomb environmental degradation is the second largest threat faced by man.
Q.7 What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?
Ans: Ans. Global warming is the certain cause of the reduction in snowfall in Kashmir because global warming changes the precipitation patterns and thus leads to weather and eventually climate change.Thus, the main cause behind the decrease in snowfall in Kashmir is global warming.
Q. 8 What has been the impact of global warming on J&K so far?
Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in J&K are receding at an alarming rate as compared to other glacial regions in the world. J&K has lost about 18% of the Kolhai glacier and about 16% of glaciers in Sure basin alone in the last forty years.
Q. 9 What role do scientists play in J&K to deal with the global warming?
Ans: In Jammu and Kashmir, The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) has selected the Kolhai glacier as one of the index glaciers for long term monitoring. The scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI will recommend measures to bring down the glacier‘s recession rate.
Q.10 What do we as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?
Ans: Besides making people aware about the disastrous consequences of global warming, we should try our best to minimize our carbon footprint that can be done by late minimizing air pollution, encouraging afforestation etc.
Q. 1. Why has the earth’s average temperature increased?
Ans. Emission of various greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4 (Carbon dioxide and methane) by several human activities have led to the increase in the Earth’s average temperature as these gases trap the heat released by the earth and do not let it escape into space.
Q. 2. Why is the Himalayan region called the ‘Water lower Asia?
Ans. The Himalayan region has a glacial coverage of 33,000 sq km and it provides around 8.6 million cubic meters of water annually. Therefore, it is aptly called the water tower of Asia.
Q. 3. What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?
Ans. Flood plain lakes, high altitude Himalayan lakes, perennial rivers of Indus system, wet-lands of different dimensions, ponds, snow-fed streams, springs, and reservoirs are the main sources of water in the Kashmir valley.
Q. 4. Why is water the most precious natural resource?
Ans. Water is the most precious natural resource because it saves our lives in many ways. It is used for drinking, maintaining health and hygiene, it helps in the economy, development, livelihood, generation of electricity and in agriculture.
Q. 5. How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?
Ans. Kashmir has been adversely affected by global warming. In spite of being located at a pretty high altitude, the effects of global warming are quite vivid in the state. There has been a loss of 16% of glaciers in the Suru Basin, 18% of the Kollai Glacier has melted, demarcation between seasons is lost, early spring is not experienced in the state, precipitation patterns have changed, heavy rains and high-velocity storms visit the place, flowers have changed their blooming period, water is becoming scarce, there is a reduction in snowfall, icicles are nowhere to be seen in the winter months. Migratory birds have changed their cycle. This and many more are the repercussions of global warming in the Kashmir valley.
Q. 6. How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?
Ans. Global warming is the largest threat to humanity because it brings about changes in the climate and any change in climate shall influence every single organism living on the earth. Due to global warming, the largest glaciers are melting away which will cause the rise in the sea level and the consequent submerging of the coastal areas. The weather will change from moderate to hot. This will lead to droughts and lesser production in agriculture. The entire seasonal patterns will change which will result in the extinction of valuable plant and animal species that are essential for the survival of mankind.
Q. 7. What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?
Ans. Global warming is the certain cause of the reduction in snowfall in Kashmir because global warming changes the precipitation patterns and thus leads to weather and eventually climate change.
Q. 8. What role do the scientists play in J&K to deal with the problem of global warming?
Ans. Scientists do extensive field study and keep a steady vigil on the environment to deal with the grave issue of global warming. Scientists have considered the Kollai glaciers as one of the index glaciers in the Lidder valley. Scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute J&K) will recommend measures to bring down the recession, rate of the glacier. Also, the studies conducted by the Kashmir University have unveiled the fact that if the pollution release in the valley continues to be at the same pace, by the end of the 21st century, the temperature of the valley will rise by 2 to 3 degree Celsius.
Q. 9. What do we as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?
Ans. Each individual needs to realize the graveness of the issue and do his part however little it may be. We got to be aware of our environment and its problems and then spread awareness among others as well. We should try to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases as much as we can. We got to realize the fact that our indifferent attitude shall cause us to pay the piper.
The -ing form of a verb that functions like a noun is called gerund. Gerund is, therefore, also called verbal Noun.
Uses of gerund:
a. The subject of a verb (or subject of the sentence)
i. Swimming helps to build strong muscles. ii. Reading develops wisdom.
i. My favorite hobby is cooking
ii. Our aim was only passing.
iii. His nightmare was flying
(Notice: the gerund answers ‘what’ and not ‘doing what’)
d. As the object of a preposition.
i. He is fond of cooking
ii. Let’s discuss about making excuses
iii. She is unbeatable in arguing.