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Summary and Explanation of The Ghat of The Only World  by Amitav Ghosh Class 11th (edurev) 1

Summary and Explanation of The Ghat of The Only World  by Amitav Ghosh Class 11th (edurev)

Summary and Explanation of The Ghat of The Only World by Amitav Ghosh Class 11th (edurev)

There are two characters in this chapter. Both are Amitava Ghosh and Aga Shahid Ali. Amitava Ghosh is the author of the essay and he wrote the essay about Aga Shahid Ali, his friend. Agha Shahid Ali, a young and dynamic person, suffers from an incurable disease of a malignant brain tumour and knows that death will anytime knock his door. Being aware that he is dying very soon, Again Shahid asks the author to write something about him when he dies. At first Amitav Ghosh can’t think of the words he can answer, but at last, he promises him that he will do his best to write about him. From that very day on, the author begins to recollect all the memories of his beloved friend’s in order to fulfill his promise. When Shahid Ali dies at the age of 52, Amitabh Gosh writes this wonderful essay about him which he names “The Ghat of The Only World.”

The Ghat of the One World is originally the name of a famous poem written in the collection of his poems Rooms Are Never Finished by Aga Shahid Ali. The poet recalls all his loved ones who died and were alienated from another world in this poem. The poem is thus written in response to the realization by the poet that his death is approaching. He feels that his loved ones call him from the other side of the Ghat.

Tag: The Ghat of The Only World

Ghat is a Kashmiri word, also used in Urdu. It means the spot on a bank of the river from where the boats leave to another side. The ghat of the only world means that after a person finishes his journey in this world he feels at the point of the world. It is therefore used as a metaphor for death. It means the point from where a man departs to another world, which is called hereafter in common parlance. Agha Shahid used to say that he would meet his mother in the hereafter if there was hereafter. He dreamed that he had finished his journey of life and stood at the door of another world “The Ghat of the Only World”.
Now let’s explain the text of the essay.

Amitav writes that on 25 April 2001, he had a routine conversation with Shahid. During the conversation, Aga Shahid Ali first time expressed before him about his approaching death. Although he had been under treatment for fourteen months, Shahid was still on his feet. Aga Shahid told him in the quizzical voice that he wants him to write about him when he dies. To quote the actual words, “When it happens I hope you’ll write something about him “. On hearing these words of Shahid, he was shocked. At first, he is unable to say anything but after a few moments, he managed to say to him that he would be alright and he had to be strong.

Shahid was living some eight blocks away from his Study. Earlier he had been living in Manhattan. But after tests revealed that he had a malignant brain tumour, he moved to Brooklyn to be close to his youngest sister Sameera. The author says when he reassured him that he would be fine, Shahid began to laugh. He realized that he was dead serious. He understood that Shahid was firmly entrusting him a specific charge which he should not ignore. However, he was unable to search the words in which one promises friends that he will write to him after he dies. Finally, he told him, “Shahid, I will. I’ll do the best I can”. That said, the author picked up his pen and noted everything about the conversation. He continued this process for the next few months. It is this record that made him able to fulfill his promise that he had made with Shahid that day.

The author writes that he knew about Shahid’s work much time before he actually met him. Shahid’s famous collection, “The Country Without a Post Office” published in 1997 had a strong impact on him. The author also mentions that Shahid was a great poet and unique in many ways. The author adds that in 1998, he mentioned a line from The Country Without a Post Office in an article that touched briefly on Kashmir. That time he only knew that Shahid was from Srinagar and had studied in Delhi. He too had studied at Delhi University that time but had never met.

The author further said that they had many common friends and one of them put him in connection to Shahid. After that, they had several conversations and even they met each other number of times. When they come to know each other they found that they had many things in common. Both had a big list of common friends in India, America and elsewhere. Both loved the music of Roshanara Baigum and Kishore Kumar. Both also had an equal passion rogan josh and other foods. Both disliked cricket and both were fond of Bollywood films. Shahid was fanatic of meals and festivity. He loved gatherings. It gave him a real joy. He often invited people for lunch mostly for friendly conversation. Even his fatal disease did not impede him from doing and enjoying things.

He was remarkably bold. Even his life was consumed by his dangerous disease, Shahid was always a focus of carnival and limitless source of talk, laughter, food, and poetry. One day a crew arrived with a television screen. Shahid poured out, ‘I’m so shameless; I just love the camera’. Shahid turned simple things into the surprising ones. One day when Shahid was taken for surgery. He had already been through some unsuccessful operations. When the time reached to leave the hospital, a blue-uniformed hospital guard arrived with a wheelchair to carry Shahid. Shahid waved him away and walked on his own. But after a few steps, his feet buckled. The hospital escort returned. Shahid smiled at him and asked him his address. The hospital escort said that he was from Spain. Shahid clapped hands and cried in the loudest voice, “I always wanted to learn Spanish, just to read Lorca”. Garcia Lorca as you know was a famous poet and dramatist of Spain.

Shahid was remarkably talented in the kitchen. He would days over the preparation of dinner parties. He would invite people to the parties. In one of such parties he gave in Arizona, he met James Merrill. James Merrill drastically changed the pattern of his poetry. After he met James Merrill he began to write the poetry with strict metrical patterns and verse forms. Shahid has a wonderful passion for the food of his region. He loved the different variants of Kashmir particularly Kashmiri food in the Pandit style. The author writes that one day he asked Shahid why he gave so much importance it. Shahid that it was explained because often dreamed about the Pandits. He frequently thought how the Pandits has vanished from Kashmir and their food became extinct. This was the thing that repeatedly haunted him.

Shahid was also a great repartee. Repartee means the person who is quick and amusing at answers and remarks in a conversation. Once at Barcelona airport, Shahid was stopped by a woman security guard for security checkup. She asked Shahid what he did he do. Shahid replied that he was a poet. The woman also asked him what he was doing in Spain. Shahid retorted that he was doing poetry. The woman got very angry. In anger, she enquired Shahid if he was carrying anything that could be dangerous to the passengers. At this Shahid uniquely clapped his hand to his chest add shout: ‘Only my heart.”

Shahid was also a brilliant teacher. Amitav writes that he had heard a great deal about the brilliance of his teaching. He also saw him teaching at Baruch College in 2000 and this was to be his last class. On that day he discovered how much his students loved him. The students had printed a magazine and dedicated the issue to him. When a student from India arrived late, Shahid greeted her and utter in a loud voice, “Ah my little subcontinental has arrived! ” It the feeling of patriotism always stirred him whenever he would see or behold another South Asian. He remembered the time at Penn State with absolute pleasure. He once said to a vibrant group of students that he grew as a reader, he grew as a poet and he grew as a lover. Shahid used to say that his time at Penn State was the happiest time of his life. Subsequently, he went to Arizona to take a degree in creative writing. After that, he performed a series of jobs in colleges and universities. He taught at Hamilton College, the University of Massachusetts and finally at the University of Utah where he was appointed as professor in 1999. When he had his first blackout in February 2000, at that time he was on leave from Utah University.

Shahid was originally the residence of Kashmir. From 1975 onwards, when he moved to Pennsylvania, he lived mainly in America. His brother and two sisters also there but his parents continued to live in Srinagar. Shahid would spend the summer season with his parents at Srinagar every year. Shahid was a first-hand witness to the mounting violence that enmeshed the valley from the 1980s onwards. Shahid was inclusive and ecumenical in his outlook. Ecumenical means the person who treats the people of different parallel and one who unites the people of different religions and sects. In his childhood, he made a Hindu temple in his room in Srinagar and his parents also supported him. One day when the author told Shahid that he was the closest to national poet of Kashmir. Shahid retorted: ‘ “A national poet. But not a nationalist poet; please not that”. Shahid was profoundly linked with Kashmir. In “The Country Without a Post Office” he returns to Kashmir to discover its fallen minaret:
I will die, in autumn, in Kashmir,
And the shadowed routine of each vein
Will almost be news, the blood censored,
For the Saffron Sun and the Times of Rain

Tag: The Ghat of The Only World

The author says that one day he had one more noted telephone conversation with Shahid. Shahid had gone to the hospital for a scan to see if the chemotherapy he was going through had any positive effect. The author had called him several times but there was no response. Then the author called him the next morning, this time he answered. He points out and said that doctors had stopped all his medicines and they gave him less a year. Then the author told him what he would do. Shahid calmly replied that he would return to Kashmir to die. He added that he didn’t want to leave a mess for his siblings. He would return to Kashmir where he would get a lot of support and his father was also there. However, later due to some logistical and other reasons, he changed his idea of returning to Kashmir. He was content to be laid to rest in Northampton near to one of his beloveds Emily Dickinson.

In the final paragraph, the author writes that the last time he saw Shahid was on 27 October at his brother’s house. They had a routine conversation with each other. There was no trace of worry or anguish on Shahid’s face. He had made his peace with the approaching end. He was calm and contended surrounded by his family and friends. The author also says that since Shahid told him, I love to think that I’ll meet my mother in the afterlife if there is an afterlife. ” Finally, he died peacefully in his sleep, at 2.0 a.m on 8 December.

Conclusion

The author concludes that in Shahid’s absence, he is extremely amazed because their brief friendship has resulted in so vast a avoid. The author also says that he remembers him every time whenever he walks into his living room especially on the night when he read them his adieu to the world: “I Dream I Am at the Ghat of the Only World… “


Popular Idioms And Phrases In English

Common Idioms in English

“Idioms are beautiful but illegitimate children of a language”

Idioms are the fixed expressions peculiar to a language. These contain groups of words with fixed order and a different meaning from the meaning of the words they are comprised of. These are the patterns woven into the texture of a language. The idioms do not have literal meaning but their meaning is figurative. They beautify writing and adorn expression.They are called the ornaments of the language. English language through centuries of evolution has assimilated idioms and phrases from almost every language of the world. With the passage of time, however, new meanings and significance have been acquired by idioms and phrases. While learning idioms, students should use them in their speech as well as in their writing. Given below is a list of popular idioms and phrases which are in common and current usage, illustrated through simple, forceful sentences which shall serve as models for students when they choose to make parallel sentences in order to assimilate them in the system of their linguistic knowledge.

Idioms in Human Language

There is a set of idioms and sentences in each language that is specific to this particular language. If these phrases are properly used, they enable language speakers to express their ideas more effectively than one can do with prose. They put the stuff in a nutshell. As with proverbs, the origins of idioms can be difficult to trace. They may have their origin in the social, political and cultural ethos. They may come from the history of the country in which language is spoken, flora and fauna, geographic features, religion and community social practices, events, personalities, famous utterances, literacy, myths and legends, and folklore. Sometimes foreign languages contribute to the language in which they come into contact with their own idiomatic expressions. These foreign languages are eventually adopted and become part of the host language. The idioms are not just the ornaments of a language. They add a touch of cultured elegance to the language. For example, no less than 25,000 language entries were anticipated in the standard Russian phraseological dictionary under preparation. For this reason, idioms become essential expressions, giving “a significant individual and national colourization” to every language( Fernando, 1983: 3).

The Role of Idioms in English

What happens in nearly all languages is also true for English, which draws elements from numerous sources freely. This explains the abundance of the English vocabulary and its great power to express subtle differences of meaning. The language is rich in language expressions that are peculiar to certain words, phrases, or expressions. These expressions have become part of the language habits of native English speakers through constant use over a period of time, and now remain an important element of the language.

The Study of Idioms

The study of languages is an enriching experience not only from the linguistic point of view but from the point of view of human interests. Idioms have to be mainly treated as reflectors for a wide range of human activity as the term of revelations of the human heart. For idioms, historical and psychological indices are actually exciting. “They become truly significant when they are regarded as a means of investigating the tradition and character of a people. Anatole France wrote once, “is the universe in alphabetical order,” and idiomatic usage is that part of a dictionary which reveals the hopes, desires and ambitions of countless unknown men and women down the ages, “in which their fears, eccentricities and advice are immortalised.” These strong expressions perpetuated throughout the centuries in their language provide us with invaluable insights into the history of the human being. Each language has to be seen as a microcosm of the whole way of life of a nation, “the spirit and life” of a language and of a nation.

POPULAR IDIOMS IN ENGLISH

1. Apple of one’s eye = One’s dearest one: Haider being my only child in my family, is an apple of our eye.

Idioms

An apple of one’s eye

2. Apple of discord= cause of quarrel: He became an apple of discord between them.
3. All and sandy= Everyone without any difference: The cultural show was open for all and sundry.
4. At daggers drawn= to be enemy or on bad terms: The two families are at daggers drawn over the issue of some land.

Common Idioms

5. At an arm’s length= To keep someone away or at a distance: Always keep the bad people at an arm’s length.
6. At one’s beck and call= at one’s command: The US keeps many countries at her beck and call.
7. At the outset= in the beginning: The successful people met with many challenges at the very outset.
8. All agog= happy and excited: We are all agog that our team won the match.
9. An Axe to grind =Selfish purpose: I think you have an axe to grind in this matter.
10. At a stone’s throw= Very near: Her house is located at a stone’s throw from mine.
11. To add fuel to fire= to excite or encourage further: He added fuel to fire instead of bringing a solution to the problem.
12. On the air= wireless broadcasting: The news bulletin will be on the air at 8 p.m.
13. At one’s fingers tip= to be expert or talented in With all the important knowledge at my fingers tip, I am confident of success.
14. To bear the brunt of= To bear the shock: The areas near the border have to bear the brunt of the enemy.
15. A burning question= an important issue: The burning question before the government is how to establish peace.

16. A feather in one’s cap= an achievement to be proud of: Her selection in MBBS has added on more feather in her cap.
17. To foot the bill= to pay the bill: Let us go to the hotel and foot the bill.
18. From hand to mouth= a miserable and hard existence: The teachers live from hand to mouth in India.
19. To go to the wall= to be ruined: In the struggle for existence,the weak always go to the wall.
20. To bring to the book= To punish, to scold: The man was brought to book for his misbehaviour with a girl.
21. At a low ebb= in the state of decline: The popularity of the party is at ebb these days.
22. To bury the hatchet= end enmity, be friends: They soon buried the hatchet and came to good terms.

23. To burn midnight oil= to study very hard: Success in exams smiles at those who burn the midnight oil.
24. A bed of roses= full of happiness and ease: Life is not a bed of roses but a hard struggle.

Common Idioms in English

25. To build castles in the air=to only dream things: You should not build castles in the air instead you should do something practical.
26. To beat about the bush= not to touch the point: Please do not beat about the bush, say clearly what you have to say.
27. To cut a sorry figure= To create a poor impression: The leader cut a sorry figure in his first speech.
28. To curtain lecture= A lecture given by a wife to her husband in bed: An irregular husband has often to listen to a curtain lecture.
29. To carry the day=to win: Our team played well and carried the day.
30. To curry favour = to win favour: He is trying to curry favour with his boss by praising him.

31. A cat and dog life= a life with frequent quarrels: A cat and dog life spoils the happiness of a home.
32. To chew the cud= reflect, recall: It not useless to chew the cud of past events.
33.A turncoat= one who changes sides in political affiliations: The modern politicians are turncoats, they are not trusted.
34. To cool one’s heel= to wait for somebody patiently: You should have to cool your heels before you can see him.

Idioms

Idioms in English

35. To call spade a spade= to speak in plain terms: He is not coward, he calls a spade a spade.
36. To clip one’s wings= to make a person weak: The government is clipping the wings of minorities for political gains.
37. To come off with flying colours= to succeed with honour: My sister came off with flying colours in the exam.

Common Idioms in English

Popular Idioms in English

38. To cry over spilt milk=to feel sorry for some loss that can not be repaired: It is of no use crying over the spilt milk.
39. A close-fisted man= a miser: He can not help you, he is a close-fisted man.
40. Dance to one’s tune= to carry out orders: The modern girls refuse to dance to their husband’s tune.
41. Damocle’s sword= an impending story: The fear of third World War hangs like the Damocle’s sword over our heads.
42. To eat the humble pie= to suffer humiliation: Those who quarrel have to eat the humble pie at last.
43. To eat one’s word= to back out: A true friend never eats his word.
44. A fool’s paradise= a state of joy based on false hopes: She is living in fool’s paradise if does thinks to get high marks without hard work.
45. To flog a dead horse= to waste time and energy: To ask a miser for help is like to flog a dead horse.
46. To fight shy of= to try to avoid: The brave never fight shy of difficulties.
47. To fan the flames= to increase anger or excitement: Her silly remarks fanned the flames of his anger.

Idioms

48. To the finger nail= Completely: He is a rascal to the fingernail.
49. To follow suit: to follow the example of: Some workers left him, some followed suit.
50. Fit as a fiddle= in good condition: He is ninety but still, he is fit as a fiddle.

NOTE: More idioms will be added soon. If you know some commonly used beautiful idioms, you can also share with us. Sharing is caring!

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The Tale of Custard the Dragon Summary

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English

The Tale of Custard the Dragon Explanation

The Tale of Custard the Dragon is a humorous poem written by Ogden Nash. It is written in ballad form. It narrates a story about Custard the Dragon. The Dragon is teased for being a coward but later he proves brave as he saves the lives of those who used to look down upon him. The poem gives us an impression that the ones who talk much about their bravery may turn out to be cowards. On the other hand, the ones who are teased for their cowardice might actually turn out to be the bravest among all. Despite displaying their timidity, the pets continue to brag about their so-called bravery. Custard, being humble and kind-hearted, abstains from teasing them and humours them in a good spirit. Thus, the poem makes the point that what our eyes see may be deceptive that the reality may be something else.

The Tale of Custard The Dragon

The Tale of Custard The Dragon

Main Attractions of The Poem

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➡ Belinda lived in a little white house with a little black Kitten and a little grey mouse, a little yellow dog and a little red wagon and above all a cowardly dragon. The name of the little black kitten was Ink, and the name of the little grey mouse was Blink. What’s more, the little yellow dog was called Mustard and the dragon was coward whom Belinda called Custard.

➡ Custard the dragon had enormous sharp teeth, spikes over him and scales underneath. His mouth was like a chimney, his nose was like a fireplace and he had blades on his toes.

➡ Belinda was as valiant as a barrel brimming with bears. Ink and Blink chased lions down the stairs. Mustard was as brave as a tiger in anger. However, Custard sobbed for a nice safe cage.

➡ Belinda tickled him unmercifully. Ink, Blink and Mustard impolitely called him Percival. They all sat giggling in the little red wagon at the fainthearted dragon.

➡ Belinda laughed till she shook the house, Blink said’ “Week!”, which is laughing for a mouse, Ink and Mustard rudely asked his age. At the point, Custard continuously sobbed for a decent safe cage.

➡ All of a sudden, they heard a frightful sound. Mustard snarled, and they all glanced around. “Meowch!” cried Ink, and “Ooh!” cried Belinda, for there was a pirate moving in violently.

➡ The pirate had a gun in his left hand and also one in his right hand. Moreover, he held in his teeth a cutlass brilliant; his facial hair was dark, one leg was wood. Plainly the pirate wanted no great.

➡ Belinda withered and cried for help, Mustard fled with a scared cry, Ink streamed down to the bottom of the household, and little mouse Blink deliberately mouseholed.

➡ However, Custard, the dragon gathered his courage and bounced up roaring like a motor, waving his tail like irons in a prison. With a rattle and a bang and a clattering squirm, he went at the pirate like a robin at a worm.

➡ The pirate frightened. He gaped at Belinda’s dragon and then swallowed some grog from his pocket flask and discharged two bullets from his guns, yet they didn’t hit. The custard was outrageous. He ate him every bit.

➡ Belinda embraced him, Mustard licked him. Nobody grieved for his pirate injured individual. Ink and Blink gyrate in happiness around the dragon that ate the pirate.
➡ Belinda still lives in her little white house, with her little black kitten and her little grey mouse and also, her little yellow dog and her little red wagon and above all her cowardly dragon which continues sobbing for a decently protected cage.

The Tale of Custard The Dragon Summary

This is a humorous poem in which Custards the dragon saves the lives when a pirate threatens Belinda and her pet animals.
Belinda lived in a little white house with her pet animals which included a little black cat, a little grey mouse, a little yellow dog, and a little pet dragon. This animal family had also a little red wagon. While the cat, the mouse, and the dog were amusing animals, the dragon was extremely weakling and coward. The dragon would always sob for a pleasant safe enclosure. Custard, as Belinda would call his dragon seemed to be, notwithstanding, a savage-looking creature. He had huge sharp teeth, spikes on its back scales underneath. His mouth resembled a chimney, his nose like that of a stack, and his toes like daggers.

The animals would always boost their bravery. Belinda was as valiant as a barrel loaded with bears. The little cat and the mouse would chase the lions down the stairs. Mustard, the dog was as brave as the tiger in wrath.
Belinda tickled the dragon savagely saying that it was a Percival. At this, every other animal laughed to their souls’ fill. All of sudden an awful solid was heard, and a pirate was seen holding two guns in two hands and a knife in his mouth. It was the certain test to the strength of the so-called valiant creatures. The dog yelped and fled away. The cat meowed and ran to security. The mouse ran deliberately to its opening. The poor dragon was left alone to confront the anger of the pirate.

The dragon gathered the courage, roared like an engine, clashed his tale and clattered. The pirate felt horrified, took an alcohol drink and fired the dragon twice. The dragon was outraged and he gobbled the pirate every bit. The other animals watched the scene from a distance. They now came running and embraced the dragon. They did not give up the stake of bravery and provided many pretences of their running from the spot. The dragon was now expected to give air to himself. But to the surprise of all, he again cried for the nice fine cage. The animals kept living together ever since this episode.

The dragon assembled the valour, thundered like a motor, clashed his tail and clacked. The privateer felt astonished, took a liquor drink and fired the dragon twice. The dragon was outraged and he ate the pirate every piece. Other animals watched the scene from a separation. They currently came running and embraced the dragon. They didn’t surrender the stake of bravery and gave numerous falsifications of their running from the spot. The dragon was presently anticipated to offer air to himself. In any case, to the shock of all, he again sobbed for the fine safe cage. The animals continued living respectively ever since this scene.

The Tale of Custard The Dragon Thinking About The Text

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1. Who are the characters in this poem? List them with their pet names.
Answer: There are six characters in the poem. These characters are Belinda, a little black kitten, a little grey mouse, a little yellow dog, a dragon and a pirate.
Belinda and the pirate do not have any pet names. The pet names of the animals are as follow:
Character Pet Name
i. Black kitten———– Ink
ii. Grey mouse————Blink
iii. Yellow dog————-Mustard
iv. Dragon——————- Custard



2. Why did Custard cry for a nice safe cage? Why is the dragon called “cowardly dragon”?
Answer: Custard cried for a nice safe cage because he was seemingly a coward.
Custard is called ‘cowardly dragon’ because he is the only one in the house who is seemingly fainthearted. Belinda is compared to a barrel full of bears, Ink and Blink can chase lions and Mustard is as brave as a tiger in rage. Custard, true to his name, seemed soft and wobbly at heart.

3. Why is the dragon called cowardly dragon?
Answer: The dragon is very powerful and ferocious and could beat even the hardest core enemy, still it prays for a nice safe cage for its safety. That is why he is called a cowardly dragon.

4.“ Belinda tickled him, she tickled him unmerciful…” Why?
Answer: Unlike other dragons, Custard was a frightened little soul. Belinda, well aware of this fact, tickled him mercilessly because she was sure he would never hurt her. Belinda may have also been extremely fond of her pet, so she may have tickled him out of affection.

5. Do you find The Tale of Custard the Dragon to be a serious or a funny poem? Give reasons to support your answer.
Answer: At the very outset, ‘The Tale of Custard the Dragon’ may seem like a funny poem written in a ballad form. On closer reading, we find that it is a profound poem which gives us an insight into human The poem gives us an impression that the ones who boast about their bravery may turn out to be cowards. On the other hand, the ones who are teased for their cowardice might actually be the bravest among all. Despite displaying their timidity, the pets continue to brag about their so-called bravery. Custard, being humble and kind-hearted, abstains from teasing them and humours them in a good spirit. The poet put across his message in a humorous manner and has used various poetic devices like similes, repetition, onomatopoeia and refrain to add to the humour in the poem.

The Tale of Custard the Dragon: Literary Devices

Q.No.1 What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?
Answer: The rhyme scheme of the first three stanzas are as follows:
Stanza 1: AABB
Stanza 2: CCD
Stanza 3: EEFF

Q.No.2 Pick out the similes used in the poem?
Answer: The similes used in the poem are:
i) Clashed his tail like iron in a dungeon.
ii) Sharp as mustard.
iii) Mouth like a fireplace.
iv) As brave as a barrel full of bears.
v) As brave as a tiger in a rage.
vi) Snorting like an engine.
Vii) He went at the pirate like a robin at a worm.

Q.No.3 What images does the poet use in the poem?
Answer: Some images used in the poem are:
i) Had big sharp teeth.
ii) Mouth like a fireplace.
iii) As brave as a barrel full of bears.
iv) As brave as a tiger in a rage.
v) Clashed his tail like irons in a dungeon.
vi) He went at the pirate like a robin at a worm.

Q.No.4 Which line / Stanza is used as a refrain in the poem?
Answer: Refrain refers to a recurring line or a stanza or even a word sometimes with a slight change. In ‘ The Tale of Custard The Dragon’ the first and ninth stanzas are repeated at the end of the poem.

Q.No.5 Discuss other poetic devices used in the poem?
Answer: Besides similes, the poet has also made use of other poetic devices such as repetition, alliteration and onomatopoeia.

Repetition
In the entire first stanza, the word ‘little’ is repeated to emphasize the fact that everyone living in the house including the house itself was ‘little’.

Alliteration
Another poetic device used is alliteration, where words that begin with letters belonging to the same sound group are used in quick succession to create a repetition of similar sounds in the sentence:
Belinda was as brave as a barrel full of bears
Custard cried for a nice safe cage.
With a clatter and a clank
Gaped at Belinda’s dragon and gulped some grog.

Onomatopoeia
The poet has also used Onomatopoeia, in which the sound of a word is very close to the sound it is meant to depict:
‘Clatter’, ‘clank’, ‘jangling’, ‘growled’.

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The Necklace Short Story 2

The Necklace Short Story

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English

Summary Of The Necklace

ABOUT THE STORY: Matilda is not satisfied with her life because she has been living a poor life. She craves for a lavish life. She has big dreams but no means to fulfil those dreams. She wants to marry a rich man. But she gets married to a petty clerk. One day Matilda is invited to a grand party. She has neither a fashionable dress but no costly jewellery. She borrows a necklace from one of her friends and loses it somewhere. She tries hard to find the lost necklace but does not find it. Now, she borrows a large amount of money to replace the lost necklace. Knowing the horrible life of necessity she along with her husband works hard to pay off the frightful debt which valued forty thousand francs. Finally, after ten years of a continuous hard word they are able to restore all. All the debts are finally paid, and Matilda is out for a jaunt on the Champs Elysees. There she sees her friend Mme Forestier, rich and beautiful as ever. Now that all the debts are paid off, Mathilde decides to tell her the truth about the necklace and her ten years of poverty, and what she does. After hearing her excruciating story Mme Forestier, stunned, reveals to Mathilde that the necklace she lost was just a fake, made of paste, worth no more than five hundred francs.

The Necklace

The Necklace

Textbook Questions of The Necklace

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The course of the Loisels’ life changed due to the necklace. Comment.
Answer.
There was a tremendous change in the lifestyle of the Loisels’ due to the necklace. Matilda lost the necklace which she had borrowed from Mme. Forestier. So she had to replace it. She bought a chaplet of diamonds but had to borrow eighteen thousand francs for the purpose. With the result, she and her husband became extremely poor. They had to send their maid away. They changed their lodging and rented some rooms in an attic. Madame Loisel performed all cooking, washing, cleaning work to earn money. Mr Loisel also worked evenings and nights. They suffered so badly for ten years.


What was the cause of Matilda’s ruin? How could she have avoided it?
Answer
The cause of Matilda’s ruin was the loss of necklace that she had borrowed from Madame Forestier. But I think the real cause was her unmeetable expectations of dreaming the lavish and attractive life which made her borrow the necklace from her friend. She lost the necklace at the ball which became the cause of her ruin.
She could have avoided the ruin if she could not have borrowed the chaplet. Moreover later, if she could have revealed the truth to Mme. Forestier, she would not have become a victim of the physical wretch and replaced the money easily or Mme. Forestier would not have minded the loss. But all this didn’t happen due to her snobbish nature.

What would have happened to Matilda if she had confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace?
Answer
If Matilda had confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace, she could have easily avoided her ruin and misery. She would not have become a victim of physical wretch and could have paid the money for false necklace easily. Anyway, whatever happened with her also bestowed her a great lesson, that is, for unbeatable expectations disappointment is inevitable.

If you are caught in such a situation, how will you deal with it?
Answer
If I am caught in such a mesh I will not act blindly but in a logistic way. I will try all the possibilities if’s and out’s of the situation.

Draw a character sketch of Matilda.

Matilda is a central character in the story ‘The Necklace’.She is an extremely beautiful and charming woman. She is to her bad luck born into a poor family. She is overambitious and extravagant. She wants to be rich and famous. Her expectations are very high but she has no means to catch her expectations. She wants to marry a rich man but she gets married to a petty clerk. She loves to have expensive frocks, jewels, and silver dishes to live a lavish life. She always remains sad because she does not get all these things.
Matilda is short-tempered and pretentious. But she is a tactful woman. She convinces her poor husband to buy her part dress simply by rejecting the invitation to the grand party. She is snobbish. She borrows a diamond necklace from her rich friend to wear while attending the party. She becomes a star attraction at the party. Everybody admires her and she is a great success. That is her supreme hour of victory. However, this moment of extreme joy proves very brief for her because she loses the diamond necklace.

WRITING WORK

What are the things that are important to make you happy in life?
Answer
It is a fact that happiness comes from the tranquillity of mind and it lies in contentment. So happiness is actually the state of mind. It depends upon the liking of a person and the presence of the culture that makes one decide for himself what kind of life he chooses. It is the fulfilment of basic needs like food, clothing, and shelter that can lead to happiness. Life should be lived well and happily even if there are miseries. They must be tackled and faced courageously and bravely. The attainment of the state of mind depends upon different things for different people. These are only weak people who run away from hardships and it is also true/fact that it is not always sunshine for everyone. One has to be ready for sorrows and sufferings to face as these are the part and parcel of life. Some of the most important things that can help us to live our lives happily are the truth, honesty, etc. The important thing is to have a pure heart that throbs with sympathy for others in troubles. Honest dealings always pay in the long run. Hard work and working with discipline give us a lot of relief and happiness. But some people get happiness from money while as some get it from having more and more land. My idea of a happy life is a permanent state of happiness which can be attained by limiting one’s own desires, rather than trying to fulfil or satisfy them. The happiest man is he whose desires are limited and is content with whatever he has and such a person wins true happiness by honesty.

Write a short paragraph on “We Should Be Content With What Life Gives Us”. You may write for or against it.
Answer
Contentment (satisfaction) of mind is very important if one wishes to live peacefully and happily. The contentment i.e; the state of mind gives us joy and we keep ourselves away from selfishness and greed to have more and more. Contentment is the surest way to happiness which does not depend upon the material things we have, but it depends upon our capacity to limit our desires. It is well-known fact that unnecessary ambitions lead to the frustration of a person. In this world, everyone is running madly after wealth like money, land, etc., and the result is untold mental tension. There is no peace of mind. The more we have, the more we want. We should have a strong faith in Almighty Allah before Whose will we have to surrender. If this surrender is true, contentment naturally enters the mind. It is because of this contentment of mind that we feel happy and relaxed. It gives us eternal happiness. It teaches us to do our work and discharge our responsibilities in a good manner. So, we must be content with whatever life gives us. If we want to lead a happy life, we should have to limit our desires and stop running after the worldly things because only contented life is a happy life in a real sense.

Detailed Summary Of The Necklace

The Necklace is an interesting short story written by Guy De Maupassant. The takes place in France much time before. There are two major characters in the story Matilda Loisal and her husband who works as a clerk for the Minister of Education. Matilda is not satisfied with her life because she has high dreams but no means to fulfil the dreams. She thinks that her appearance does not match with her reality. She thinks that she deserves a luxurious life because she is so elegant but to her bad luck they are not rich. She yearns to be rich. Matilda has a rich friend Jeane Forestier who has a big house and a lot of jewellery. Matilda envies to be like her.

One day Matilda’s husband receives an invitation to a grand party. He thinks that his wife will be very happy with knowing about this invitation to attend such a fancy party. But when she hears about the ball she is upset. She thinks that she does not have a suitable dress to wear on such an elegant occasion. She complains her husband that she has no party dress and therefore she can not attend the party in the poor look. Her husband agrees to give her the four hundred francs which he has saved to buy a new rifle for hunting. She gives her the money so that she can get herself a gown.

The day of the ball approaches, Matilda is upset once again. When her husband asks her why she frets, she expresses that she has no jewellery to put on with her dress. She wants to match with the rich people in the party. He suggests her that she can borrow something from her close friend Jeanne Forestier if she wants. Matilda thinks it a good idea and goes to her friend’s house where she picks out a sparkling diamond necklace to borrow. Jeanne gives her the necklace without any stain of worry.

Finally, Matilda and her husband attend the grand party and have a wonderful time there. Matilda becomes the centre of attraction in the party. Everyone praises her elegance. She loves the party and dances incredibly all night.

They finally head home in the morning hours. When they reach their home Matilda is shocked to find the borrowed necklace is missing. They wonder if the necklace fell off in the carriage which they took home but unfortunately neither of them has noticed the number of the carriage. The poor husband searches the streets but returns empty-handed. After waiting for a while, Mathilde writes to her friend that she has broken the necklace and has sent it to repair.
Meanwhile, they find another diamond necklace which corresponds to the missing necklace, but it costs 36,000 francs. Fortunately, her husband inherits 18,000 francs from her father but they have to borrow the rest of the money. Finally, they arrange enough money to buy the replacement necklace. Mathilde gives it to her friend Jeanne who takes it without even having a look at it.

Now Matilda and her husband know that their life is not going to be easy. They have to work hard to meet out borrowed money. In the next ten years, they work hard day and night which changes the life of Matilda completely. They shift to a smaller apartment where Matilda has to cook and clean for herself. She also does part-time works on the side. Her husband also works many jobs to earn sufficient money. Finally, after ten years of a hard life, they are able to pay back all the money but Matilda has aged now to a great deal. Her elegant look has also gone.

One day she encounters Jeanne Forestier on a street. She decides to disclose the truth about the necklace which ruined her life. When Jeanne sees Matilda’s rough appearance she is shocked. She asks Matilda what has happened to her. Matilda explains that it is because of her because she lost the diamond necklace which she had borrowed from her. She had to borrow a huge amount of money for replacing the diamond necklace. On hearing this, Jeanne is shocked. She reveals Matilda that the necklace she borrowed was a fake, made up of paste, worth no more than five hundred francs. Jeanne

The fact that the necklace of Mrs Jeanne was made of paste shows that the appearance of wealth depends on illusion even for the rich. Also, that the necklace was a fake also makes Loisels ‘ sacrifice worthless— they bought into the myth that appearances correspond to reality, which leads them to lose even the meagre ease and status they once enjoyed. The treatment of Maupassant ‘s disjunction between appearance and reality, therefore, seems more than just trying to warn people against greed and entitlement.


Out Of Bussiness Questions Answers 3

Out Of Bussiness Questions Answers

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English

Q1. What was Rama Rao’s original income?

Ans. Rama Rao had a decent income as the Malgudi agent of a gramophone company with its factory somewhere in North India.

Q2.How did Rama Rao support his family when he earned?

Ans. Rama Rao had a decent income from his business as an independent agent of a gramophone company with its factory somewhere in North India. This enabled him to support his family comprising himself, his wife and two children, providing them with a comfortable lifestyle. He bought a bungalow in the Extension, sent his children to a fashionable school and even thought of buying a baby car for himself.

Q3.When did the Gramophone Company collapse?

Ans. In the wake of a series of circumstances in the world of trade and commerce, the gramophone company collapsed when a bank in Lahore crashed on account of the unusual death of a financier based in Mumbai.


Q4.How was the death of the Bombay financier caused?

Ans. The Bombay financier was driving downhill when his car flew off sideways and plunged three hundred feet below the road. His unusual death was interpreted as suicide by him as his wife had eloped with his cashier.

Q5.What were the measures adopted By Rama Rao’s wife to deal with the financial crisis?

Ans. When the little money in the bank began to melt away, Rama Rao’s wife took some austerity measures. She dismissed the services of the cook and the servant and withdrew the children from a fashionable nursery school and sent them to a free primary school. They abandoned their bungalow and moved to a very small house behind the market.

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Out of Bussiness Questions Answers

Out of Bussiness

Q6.What did Rama Rao do to find employment?

Ans. In an attempt to get employment Rama Rao sent out a dozen applications a day and moved from place to place wearing his feet out. The memorable thought that he once owned a lucrative business influenced the manner of Rama Rao’s manner of seeking employment. He chose to be business-like in stating his request for a job. He sent his card and asked in a very formal way whether he could do something for him. He mentioned that his business was not his own fault. He added that he would be very grateful if the man could offer him in his office something to do.

Q7. What was the assurance given to Rama Rao when he visited offices looking for employment?

Ans. When Rama Rao visited offices looking for employment, he would hear the same story. He would be told that it was an only pity and that the man approached was very sorry that there was presently nothing for him to do. Yet he would be given an assurance that if there was an opportunity, he would certainly be remembered.

Q8.What did Rama Rao feel like when he returned home in the evening after a futile attempt to get employment?

Ans. When Rama Rao returned home in the evening after a futile attempt to get employment, his heart sank when he turned into the street behind the market. He would think that his wife would surely be standing at the door with the children behind her, wistfully looking down the road. There was so much of trembling, hesitating hope in their faces. They looked like they hoped that he would return with some magic fulfilment.

Q9.Why did Rama Rao spend sleepless nights lying in bed?

Ans. Rama Rao spent sleepless nights thinking about the miserable condition of his wife and children in striking contrast to what they had before. When Rama Rao would return in the evening filled with despair and pain as he was unable to find a job to support his family, he could not but think of the past of his wife and children. He would remember that there was a time when his wife would sparkle with flowers and a bright dress. She had the privileges of friendly neighbours, a women’s club and everything to keep her happy. Presently she hardly had the heart or the need to change in the evenings as she would be cooped up in the kitchen all the time. The children in his heyday would caper about in the compound of the house in the Extension along with a dozen other children. They had no dearth of friends in the fashionable nursery school. But presently they had no friends and no choice but to play in the courtyard of the house. Their shirts were not showing tears and frays while formerly they had the luxury of being dressed in new clothes every three months.

Q10.What was the only source of income of the family after all the cash was spent?

Ans. After all the cash was spent, the only source of income of the family was the small rent they had been getting from their house in the Extension.

Q11.What did Rama Rao and his family members shudder to think?

Ans. Rama Rao and his family members shuddered to think of what would happen to them if their tenant suddenly left.

Q12.Why was Rama Rao’s head free from all family cares for the next few days?

Ans. Rama Rao became fascinated by the prospect of earning some extra money after he had come across a journal, The Captain, in the jubilee reading room. All the four pages of the journal were devoted to crossword puzzles. The journal offered every week the first prize of four thousand rupees. He devoted his entire attention to the puzzles trying to think of the correct answers.

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Q13.What did Rama Rao do for the puzzles week after week?

Ans. A week after week Rama Rao invested a little money and sent down his solutions. A week after week saw him waiting for the results with a throbbing heart.

Q14.What did Rama Rao do on the day a solution was due?

Ans. On the day a solution was due, he would hang around the newsagent’s shop and flatter him to get his favour to look into the latest issue of the journal Captain without paying for it. It was due to a feeling of impatience that he could not wait for the magazine to come on the table of the jubilee reading room.

Q15.Why would the newspaper agent grumble? How would Rama Rao pacify him?

Ans. The newspaper agent would grumble at the way Rama Rao would try to look into the pages of the journal for the solution without paying for it.
When the newspaper agent would grumble at the way he would try to look into the journal, Rama Rao would pacify him pretending to be optimistic of winning the money of the reward. He would assure the agent that when he would get the prize, he would give him three years’ subscription in advance.

Q16.What did Rama Rao feel like when he opened the page of the journal announcing the prize winners?

Ans. Rama Rao opened the page of the magazine captain with a feeling of nervousness to discover to his utter disappointment that the winners hailed from as far-flung places as Baluchistan, Dacca or Ceylon, coming up with the right set of words. It took him three hours to get over the shock of his failure.

Q17.What was the violent alternating between hope and despair? What was the outcome of it?

Ans. Rama Rao alternated between hope when he would prepare himself for cracking a crossword puzzle and despair when he failed to win it.
As a result of this tremendous alteration between hope and despair, his nerves would be wrecked and he would lose his poise. He did not talk to anyone at home and his head was always bent in thought. He also quarrelled with his wife when she refused to give him a rupee a week for the puzzles.

Q18.How did Rama Rao manage to have his way with his wife?

Ans. Being a woman of a milder nature, Rama Rao’s wife failed to continue to quarrel with her husband for too long and finally gave in to his demand for a rupee every week. She had to let him have his way, though it meant a slight sacrifice in the family expenses.
Q19.What excited Rama Rao’s vision of a future tenfold?

Ans. One day the journal Captain announced a special offer of eight thousand rupees and it excited Rama Rao’s vision of future tenfold.

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Out of Bussiness Summary 4

Out of Bussiness Summary

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 English

Out Of Bussiness | Summary

The protagonist of this story, Rama Rao, inherited money and invested it in a gramophone company to become a Malgudi agent. His business went well for five years, and he earned a lot of money to live a decent and comfortable life with his wife and children. However, things are not turning as well as we always expect. Suddenly, a stock market crash led his company to the point of extinction. This news appeared to him like a blue bolt. Several circumstances in the world of banking, commerce, trade, politics and the unexpected death of a Bombay financial institution have led to his financial disaster. Some doubted that the financial person’s death was a suicide case because his wife and his cashier are unlawful and immoral.

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Rama Rao did not initially feel the disaster ‘s impact. His savings were reduced over the course of several months. His condition gradually became compassionate and pathetic. But the calm and composed of his wife was very cool. She was not only sensitive and friendly. She tried to alleviate her husband’s burden by releasing the cook and servant, taking her children from a prestigious and luxurious school into ordinary primary school and moving on to the common house from a comfortable bungalow. Rama Rao was a hard worker, he hadn’t gone to yawning and gaping for his time. His best effort was to get a job from one plant to another, but he was disappointed everywhere. At night his wife and children were looking forward to good news for him. Rama Rao came back with a dull face as usual. Their only hope was the money they received from their bungalow ‘s rent.

Rama Rao found one day a four-page newspaper called ” The Captain.” The four pages were dedicated to puzzles of the crossword. Every week a prize of 4,000 rupees was offered. He thought that by solving those crosswords, he could earn money now. Since then, in the hope of the first prize, he had sent the answers. In anguish, he used to wait for the sender’s name. But his hopes were broken every time. His frustration and disappointment were shown on his face. ” The face is the index of one’s hearts.” He became scary and fought his wife on a slim and insignificant ground. His wife by being cool and composed attempted to appease her husband by remaining silent.

Anyway, 8000 rupees were declared a special prize one day. One more opportunity, one more hope. Rama Rao was trying again to try his luck. He insisted that his wife give him Rs5 by registered post to send his reply. He decided to send four different entries, as he couldn’t be sure of four variations in one part. He hoped for hope and dreamed that a castle with prize money would be built on the air. But fortune goddess had yet to smile and her hopes were crumbled this time as well. ” Hope is the bread of a poor man,” he didn’t win the prize. He, therefore, decided there was no justification for conducting such a measurable life and decided to commit suicide. He walked to the railways and waited for the train there. But God seemed to rescue him this time. He was waiting, waiting, but the train was still coming. He was finally tired of lying there, got up and walked to the station. He came there to know that a freight train has derailed and that all planned trains are three hours late.

He chose to return home. Then he decided. His wife was anxious and eager for the unreasonable delay of Rama Rao. But she shone and sighed at his sight with relief. Then he sat down to eat after a relaxation. His wife told him that in the evening the tenants came and asked him to sell his bungalow in the weather. They’d offer a good deal. He thought it was a very good idea and expressed his thoughts. His wife wanted to know whether he’d invest his money again in a crossword. Rama Rao felt depressed and said no calmly. He was going to go to Madras to look at profitable work there, to get them out of their misery. If they get four and a half for their home, he would have to keep five hundred and give away the rest to his wife.

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Out of Bussiness Summary

Out of Bussiness

Out of Business | Critical Comments

In Out of Business written by R.K.Narayan, we have themes of control, battle, defeat, despair, depression, identity, expectation and solidarity. Taken from his wonderful collection of Malgudi Days, the story is narrated in the third person by an unknown narrator and from the very beginning of the story, the reader understands that N.K. Narayan attempts to investigate the theme of control. Rama depends on the others doing admirably and on the banks and the Gramophone Company. He carries on with his life problematically regardless of whether it probably won’t have been his intention. He depends on both the banks and the Gramophone Company in order to succeed and when the banks collapse, so does the Gramophone Company.

Rama Roa’s drawback is that he doesn’t have a job now and he should get down-size. His aspirations that he may have to enhance his life materialistically have faded. If anything, life is a battle for Rama and his family. This is recognizable as Rama sends out a number of applications without any luck. The way that Rama sends out such huge numbers of the job applications is likewise important since it proposes that Rama isn’t prepared to acknowledge defeat. His best capacity keeps on going. This trait could be outstanding to numerous readers and critics. However, after every refusal got from potential employers, it may be imperative to remember that Rama gets unsettled.

Narayan may also be exploring the theme of desperation. Rama spends a lot of his time doing crosswords puzzles hoping that he will win some money. He becomes so preoccupied with the crossword puzzles that he spends his time at the newsagents’ checking to see if he has won. This may be important as it suggests that due to his circumstances Rama has become desperate. He is putting all his faith in the hope that he might win a prize from the crossword puzzles. It is as though the only hope that Rama feels he has, is winning on the crossword puzzles.

Narayan could also be investigating the theme of desperation and edginess. Rama has been spending a lot of his time doing crossword puzzles in the desire for picking up huge cash. He is so preoccupied that he invests his energy and time checking the newsagents to see whether he has won. This might be vital on the grounds that Rama has turned out to be frantic due to the conditions. He puts all his confidence and faith with the expectation that from crossword puzzles he could win a prize. It is just as Rama ‘s just expectation is to win the crossword puzzle.

Rama Roa ‘s preoccupation with the crossword puzzle most importantly affects the family life. Rama ‘s distraction is disastrous to the extent that family cash is spent on crossword puzzles. It seems as if Rama blindly drives himself into an alternative unreal world. Rama and his family’s conditions are awful but still, he continuously burns through cash on the crossword puzzles that he doesn’t have. Once again, the reader understands the desperation of Rama.

There is no uncertainty that Rama ‘s continual disappointments in crossword puzzles lead him to despondency. Rama is so discouraged that he considers suicide. No other choice is obvious to him. He burned through cash he could not afford in spending on crossword puzzles. It seems Rama considers his life a failure. Rama ‘s spirits can’t be lifted even by the reasons of his family. Rama also possibly has lost his identity since he lost his job. He no longer sure of who he is, what is his identity which can help the depression that he feels.

For Rama, ” all-out extinction” is the most vital thing. The things do not go as made planned for Rama. A three-hour delay was caused by a train’s derailment. This might be critical because Rama gets another lease of life as of now. It resembles that he has an epiphany or a moment of realisation. It’s an incorrect way to live to see that he carried on with his life( doing crossword puzzles). He starts to understand that there is something different worth living for and that something is his family.

The closure of the story is equally fascinating as Rama and his family feel joined together. The is a sense of unity in the family. Rama never again wants to spend cash he doesn’t have on crossword puzzles. With the money, he will get from the sale of his home Rama Roa rather expects to work in Madras. Presently he understands that his family is the most important thing in his life where recently he had lost his core interest. The closeout of Rama ‘s house has brought a new feeling of hope in his life. It is also evident that Rama is for the first time at one with himself for a long time.

It seems as though he reviews his priorities and his obligations. There was something missing when Rama burned through cash on the crossword puzzles. That cash he ought not to spend fundamentally. At the end of the story, the reader cannot help but rather feel that the life of Rama and his family is moving forward. In spite of the fact that Rama has purchased the crossword puzzles for favourable luck, it is nevertheless the closeout of his home that allowed him to get him back on his feet.

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Bholi: Questions Answers and Summary 5

Bholi: Questions Answers and Summary

Bholi Summary

Bholi by Khawaja Ahmad Abbas
Bholi is an extremely touchy story with a sensational ending. The character ‘ Bholi’ symbolize not only simplicity but innocence as well. At the end of the story, she symbolizes boldness. From her extremely early age, Bholi is dismissed at home. Her real name is Sulekha. She is the girl of Ramlal. He is the numburdar of the village. She stammered and had pockmarks all over on her body. Her parents are greatly stressed over her marriage since they think that her pockmarks make her appalling. They figure no one will marry her. They send her to school since they feel there is a minimal possibility of her getting hitched. At school, she turns into the teacher’s masterpiece. She also winds up bold. At the point when her parents want to marry her to a lame, old and avaricious person who demands them a dowry, she declines to marry that old man in an intense way that the people even call her shameless. In any case, she makes plans to serve her parents in their old age. She additionally takes steps to teach in the same school where she got taught.

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Summary of Bholi

Bholi

The Story of Bholi

This story is about a simple young girl named Bholi. Bholi is an Urdu word which means simpleton. Her real name was Sulekha. However, destiny cheated her and when she was ten months old, she tumbled off the bed harming some part of her brain. Subsequently, she could speak only after she was five years of age, however, she stammered badly. Later on, when she was two years old, she had an assault of smallpox that attacked her with clear spots on the entire body. The other kids frequently ridiculed her and imitated her. In this manner, she talked practically nothing.

Ramlal had seven kids in all – three children and four little girls. Bholi was the youngest. All other were healthy and strong with the exception of Bholi. Bholi was seven years of age when a primary school opened in their village. The tehsildar came to play out the opening service of the school. He revealed to Ramlal that as a revenue official and as a representative of the village, he ought to send his little girl to the school and set an example before the villagers. When he counselled his wife about the issue, his wife did not concur with him. However, she chooses to send Bholi to the school.

The following day, Bholi was given a bath, and another dress to wear. Her mother mated her hair and after that, she was sent to the school. At the point when her dad left her in the school, she set in a corner in the class. At the point when her teacher asked her name, she stammered and the kids began laughing. At this Bholi begun sobbing. But the teacher’s voice was delicate and mitigating. It empowered her to a considerable measure. Lastly, she could speak to her full name. That moment, the teacher disclosed to her if she would come day by day to class, she would talk without a stammer and one day she would turn into the most educated young lady in the town. Then nobody will set out to snicker at her. At that point, they will hear her out deliberately.

A long time passed and the village presently transformed into a residential town. One night Ramlal consulted his wife about the proposal made by Bishamber, a food merchant in the neighbouring town. His wife promptly consents to it. Bholi was also listening to this conversational. The day of her marriage came. At the point when the bridegroom was going to festoon her, some woman pulled her veil down demonstrating her face to him. The groom had a speedy look at her face and saw pockmarks all over on her face. At this, he demanded that Ramlal give him five thousand rupees as share with the end goal to wed that ugly young lady. After a few contentions, Ramlal gave over the cash to Bishambar. But, Bholi requested his father to take cash back from him as she would not like to wed that old faltering and covetous man. Everyone was shocked in light of the fact that Bholi was not stammering by any stretch of the imagination. The husband returned with his baraat. Ramlal couldn’t lift he make a beeline for disgrace and anguish. He asked Bholi as who will wed her now. In any case, Bholi said to him that she would serve his parents in their maturity and teach in a similar school where she had learned to such an extent.

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Questions and Answers of Bholi

1. For what unusual reasons is Bholi sent to school?
Answer
Bholi is sent to school because there is little chance of her getting married, with her ugly face and lack of sense. She has also pockmarks all over the body.

2. How does Bholi find her teacher different from other people?
Answer
Bholi finds her teacher different from other people at home as the teacher was very kind and loving with her. The teacher also talked with her in a soothing voice. This touched her heart.

3. Why do Bholi’s parents accept Bishamber’s marriage proposal?
Answer
Bholi’s parents accept Bishamber’s marriage proposal because they believe if they don’t accept it, she would not be married for the rest of her life because she had pockmarks all over the body which made her ugly.

4. The ending of the story is very dramatic. Do you think her decision not to marry Bishamber makes her an outcast rebellious or is it an assertion of her being an individual and a woman of substance?
Answer
Bholi firstly agreed to an unequal match because she thought herself fortunate to get a well-to-do bridegroom who owned a big shop, had a big house of his own and had several thousand bank balance. Moreover, he was not demanding any dowry. Bholi also overheard her mother saying that he did not know about her pockmarks and her lack of sense. If the proposal was not accepted she might remain unmarried all her life. However, She later rejected the marriage because the bridegroom demanded five thousand rupees as dowry. On witnessing her father pleading and humiliated she decided not to marry him.
This shows us that she has self-respect and knows what is right or wrong and is able to take a wise decision. Thus she was a woman of substance.

4. Bholi’s real name is Sulekha. We are told this right at the beginning. But only in the last but one paragraph of the story is Bholi called Sulekha again. Why do you think she is called Sulekha at that point in the story?
Answer
The word Bholi is an Urdu word which means a “simpleton”.Throughout the story, she had been a simpleton hardly expressing her opinion. On the contrary, the word Sulekha means the person with a beautiful sense of letters. In this story, this word has a larger meaning of being a literate, intelligent and mature individual. After her education, Bholi has really changed to Sulekha and her assertion during the marriage is her announcement to the world that she is no more a Bholi but Sulekha.

Additional questions of Bholi

1. Why is Bholi’s father worried about her?
Answer
Bholi’s father is worried about her because she looks not only ugly but also less intelligent. He does not know how he can find a suitable groom for her.

2. Does Bholi enjoy her first day at school?
Answer
Yes, Bholi enjoys her first day at school as she was happy to find so many girls almost of her own age present there. She yearns that one of these girls might become her intimate friend.

3. Bholi had many apprehensions about going to school. What made her feel that she was going to a better place than her home?
Answer
Bholi had many apprehensions about going to school. She thought about how their old cow, Lakshmi, had been taken out of the house and sold. When she got a clean dress, bathed and oil was rubbed into her dry hair, only that time she felt that she was going to a better place than her home.

4. How did Bholi’s teacher play an important role in changing the course of her life?
Answer
Bholi’s teacher played a constructive role in changing the course of her life. She was polite and friendly which touched her heart. She motivated her every time and was affectionate towards her. The teacher transformed her into a confident person who could read, write and speak clearly.

Character Sketch Of Bholi:

Bholi is the fourth daughter of Numberdar Ramlal. Her actual name is Sulekha. At the age of ten months, she falls off the cot a damage some part of her brain. This renders her backward for the rest of her life. At the age of two, Bholi faces smallpox which disfigures her body with deep pockmarks. Her mental retardedness and stammer make the people call the girl as ‘ Bholi’ which means simpleton. At the age of Seven Bholi is sent to a primary school. This is not an honour to Bholi, but the indifference of the parents, for girl education in the village is taken as an ill omen.
At school, Bholi struggles with her voice and found other girls laughing at her stammer. The great teacher at a school, however, pats Bholi saying she will one day speak fluently and will surprise others. She gives her many books to read. She boasts her morale.
Years pass and Bholi completes her schooling.

Questions answers of Bholi

Character Sketch of Bholi

The parents now settle her marriage with an elderly lame person, Bishamber Nath. The dumb –cow, as Bholi is called, is at receiving end.
At the marriage ceremony, While extending garland towards the bride’s neck, Bishamber discovered the pockmarks and drew his hand back. He takes Ramlal aback by demanding five thousand rupees in dowry. Ramlal, having no money, falls to his feet but Bishamber does change his decision. Thus the poor father arranges the money somehow.
Bishamber is now all set to put garland around the bride’s neck, but to the surprise of all, Bholi Cries out saying that she will not marry the greedy old man. Bholi has now discovered his eloquence and intelligence. Sulekha is now back to the scene. She speaks and others listen to her. Bholi declares that she will not marry, but will serve her parents in their old age. She adds that she will teach the girls of the village in the village high school. Her first-day teacher is listening to this and is all in tears with joy.

Character sketch of Bishamber Nath:

Bishamber Nath was an aged man. He was nearly about fifty years old when he proposed to marry Bholi. He had limped in his legs. His first wife had died, and his children were also grown up.
When Bishamber Nath expressed his wish to marry Bholi, Ramlal and his wife felt happy to find a groom for their simpleton daughter. They were least bothered about Bholi’s interests.
Ramlal would talk very high of Bishamber Nath. He, along with his wife started talking very high of his riches and estates.
At the marriage party, Bishamber kept much pomp and show. His intentions were, however, brought to the fore when he discovered pockmarks on Bholi’s face. He took Ramlal aback by denying to marry Bholi but with the dowry of five thousand rupees. In this way, his greed for money was unveiled. Ramlal, being a poor man had no ready cash. He fell on his knees, but this was of no avail. The public humiliation of Ramlal fell very heavy on Bholi. Ramlal, however, managed to get the money from somewhere. This made Bishamber approach Bholi with garland but Bholi turned the table at the right time. She rejected Bishamber to his utter disgrace.

More Notes of Bholi

Bholi is a very sensitive story with a dramatic ending penned down by Khawaja Ahmad Abbas. The character ‘ Bholi’ not just symbolise simplicity and but innocence too. In the end, she symbolises courage and strength.

From her very childhood, Bholi is neglected at home. Her real name is Sulekha. She is the daughter of Ramlal. He is the numburdar of the village. She stammered and had pockmarks all over her body. Her parents are much worried about her marriage because they think she her pockmarks all over her face make her ugly. They think nobody will marry her. They send her to school because they feel there is little chance of her getting married. At school, she becomes the teacher’s masterpiece. She also becomes courageous.

When her parents want to marry her to a lame, old man and greedy fellow. She refuses to marry that old man in a bold manner to the extent that the people even called her shameless. But she resolves to serve her parents in their old age. She also resolves to teach in the same school where she got educated.

Summary of Bholi

The story is all about a simple girl from a village. The people called her Bholi. Bholi means simpleton. Sulekha was her real name. But fate disappointed her, and when she was ten months old, she fell off the baby’s cot and damaged her brain. She could therefore only speak after she was five years old, but she stammered badly. Later, when she was two years old, she had a smallpox attack which left her with blank spots throughout her body. The other kids often enjoyed her and imitated her. She, therefore, spoke very little.

In all, Ramlal had seven children-three sons and four girls. The youngest was Bholi. All others, except Bholi, were healthy and strong. Bholi was 7 years old when her village opened a primary school. The tehsildar inaugurated the school’s opening ceremony. He told Ramlal that he should send his daughter to school as being an income official and government representative in the village he should set an example to the villagers. When he asked his wife about the matter, his wife was not in agreement with him. However, she still decided to send Bholi to school.

Bholi had a bath and a new dress to wear the next day. Her mother pampered her hair and was sent to school. When her dad left her in school, she settled in the classroom corner. When her teacher asked her name, she stole and the kids began to laugh. Bholi began to weep at this. But the voice of the teacher was soft and relaxing. It encouraged her a lot and she could finally give her full name. Then the teacher told her that if she went to school daily, she would speak without a stemmer and she would become the most educated girl in the village one day. There will be nobody dare to laugh at her. Then they will listen carefully to her.

Years have passed and the village has now become a small town. One night Ramlal consulted his wife about Bishamber ‘s proposal, a grocer in the neighbouring village. His wife agrees readily. Bholi listened to this conversation, too. Her marriage day came. When the bridegroom was about to kiss her, some lady pulled her veil down and showed her face to him. The bridegroom looked rapidly at her face and noticed pox marks on her face. He asked Ramlal to give him five thousand rupees to marry the ugly girl.

Ramlal handed the money over to Bishambar after some arguments. But Bholi asked his father to take money back from him because she didn’t want to marry this old cowardly and greedy man. Everyone was surprised that Bholi wasn’t stoned at all. The bridegroom and his baraat returned. Because of shame and grief, Ramlal could not lift his head. He asked Bholi who’s going to marry her. But Bholi told him that in her old age she would serve her parents and teach in the same school where she had learned so much.


Bholi: Questions Answers and Summary

This story is about a simple young girl named Bholi. Bholi is an Urdu word which means simpleton. Her real name was Sulekha. However, destiny cheated her and when she was ten months old, she tumbled off the bed harming some part of her brain. Subsequently, she could speak only after she was five years of age, however, she stammered badly. Later on, when she was two years old, she had an assault of smallpox that attacked her with clear spots on the entire body. The other kids frequently ridiculed her and imitated her. In this manner, she talked about practically nothing.
Ramlal had seven kids in all – three children and four little girls. Bholi was the youngest. All others were healthy and strong with the exception of Bholi.

Bholi: Questions Answers and Summary 6

Bholi was seven years of age when a primary school opened in their village. The tehsildar came to play out the opening service of the school. He revealed to Ramlal that as a revenue official and as a representative of the village, he ought to send his little girl to the school and set an example before the villagers. When he counselled his wife about the issue, his wife did not concur with him. However, she chooses to send Bholi to the school.
The following day, Bholi was given a bath, and another dress to wear. Her mother mated her hair and after that, she was sent to the school. At the point when her dad left her in the school, she set in a corner in the class. At the point when her teacher asked her name, she stammered and the kids began laughing. At this Bholi begun sobbing. But the teacher’s voice was delicate and mitigating. It empowered her to a considerable measure. Lastly, she could speak to her full name. At that point, the teacher disclosed to her that on the off chance that she would come day by day to class, she would talk without a stammer and one day she would turn into the most educated young lady in the town. Then nobody will set out to snicker at her. At that point, they will hear her out deliberately.
A long time passed and the village presently transformed into a residential town. One night Ramlal consulted his wife about the proposal made by Bishamber, a food merchant in the neighbouring town. His wife promptly consents to it. Bholi was also listening to this conversational. The day of her marriage came. At the point when the bridegroom was going to festoon her, some woman pulled her veil down demonstrating her face to him. The groom had a speedy look at her face and saw pockmarks all over on her face. At this, he demanded that Ramlal give him five thousand rupees as share with the end goal to wed that ugly young lady. After a few contentions, Ramlal gave over the cash to Bishambar. But, Bholi requested his father to take cash back from him as she would not like to wed that old faltering and covetous man. Everyone was shocked in light of the fact that Bholi was not stammering by any stretch of the imagination. The husband returned with his baraat. Ramlal couldn’t lift he make a beeline for disgrace and anguish. He asked Bholi as who will wed her now. In any case, Bholi said to him that she would serve his parents in their maturity and teach in a similar school where she had learned to such an extent.

Questions and Answers of Bholi

  1. For what unusual reasons is Bholi sent to school?
    Answer
    Bholi is sent to school because there is little chance of her getting married, with her ugly face and lack of sense. She has also pockmarks all over the body.
  2. How does Bholi find her teacher different from other people?
    Answer
    Bholi finds her teacher different from other people at home as the teacher was very kind and loving with her. The teacher also talked with her in a soothing voice. This touched her heart.
  3. Why do Bholi’s parents accept Bishamber’s marriage proposal?
    Answer
    Bholi’s parents accept Bishamber’s marriage proposal because they believe if they don’t accept it, she would not be married for the rest of her life because she had pockmarks all over the body which made her ugly.
  4. The ending of the story is very dramatic. Do you think her decision not to marry Bishamber makes her an outcast rebellious or is it an assertion of her being an individual and a woman of substance?
    Answer
    Bholi firstly agreed to an unequal match because she thought herself fortunate to get a well-to-do bridegroom who owned a big shop, had a big house of his own and had several thousand bank balance. Moreover, he was not demanding any dowry. Bholi also overheard her mother saying that he did not know about her pockmarks and her lack of sense. If the proposal was not accepted she might remain unmarried all her life. However, She later rejected the marriage because the bridegroom demanded five thousand rupees as dowry. On witnessing her father pleading and humiliated she decided not to marry him.
    This shows us that she has self-respect and knows what is right or wrong and is able to take a wise decision. Thus she was a woman of substance.
  5. Bholi’s real name is Sulekha. We are told this right at the beginning. But only in the last but one paragraph of the story is Bholi called Sulekha again. Why do you think she is called Sulekha at that point in the story?
    Answer
    The word Bholi is an Urdu word which means a “simpleton”.Throughout the story, she had been a simpleton hardly expressing her opinion. On the contrary, the word Sulekha means the person with a beautiful sense of letters. In this story, this word has a larger meaning of being a literate, intelligent and mature individual. After her education, Bholi has really changed to Sulekha and her assertion during the marriage is her announcement to the world that she is no more a Bholi but Sulekha.

Additional questions of Bholi

  1. Why is Bholi’s father worried about her?
    Answer
    Bholi’s father is worried about her because she looks not only ugly but also less intelligent. He does not know how he can find a suitable groom for her.
  2. Does Bholi enjoy her first day at school?
    Answer
    Yes, Bholi enjoys her first day at school as she was happy to find so many girls almost of her own age present there. She yearns that one of these girls might become her intimate friend.
  3. Bholi had many apprehensions about going to school. What made her feel that she was going to a better place than her home?
    Answer
    Bholi had many apprehensions about going to school. She thought about how their old cow, Lakshmi, had been taken out of the house and sold. When she got a clean dress, bathed and oil was rubbed into her dry hair, only that time she felt that she was going to a better place than her home.
  4. How did Bholi’s teacher play an important role in changing the course of her life?
    Answer
    Bholi’s teacher played a constructive role in changing the course of her life. She was polite and friendly which touched her heart. She motivated her every time and was affectionate towards her. The teacher transformed her into a confident person who could read, write and speak clearly.

Character Sketch Of Bholi:

Bholi is the fourth daughter of Numberdar Ramlal. Her actual name is Sulekha. At the age of ten months, she falls off the cot a damage some part of her brain. This renders her backward for the rest of her life. At the age of two, Bholi faces smallpox which disfigures her body with deep pockmarks. Her mental retardedness and stammer make the people call the girl as ‘ Bholi’ which means simpleton. At the age of Seven Bholi is sent to a primary school. This is not an honour to Bholi, but the indifference of the parents, for girl education in the village is taken as an ill omen.
At school, Bholi struggles with her voice and found other girls laughing at her stammer. The great teacher at a school, however, pats Bholi saying she will one day speak fluently and will surprise others. She gives her many books to read. She boasts her morale.
Years pass and Bholi completes her schooling. The parents now settle her marriage with an elderly lame person, Bishamber Nath. The dumb –cow, as Bholi is called, is at receiving end.
At the marriage ceremony, While extending garland towards the bride’s neck, Bishamber discovered the pockmarks and drew his hand back. He takes Ramlal aback by demanding five thousand rupees in dowry. Ramlal, having no money, falls to his feet but Bishamber does change his decision. Thus the poor father arranges the money somehow.
Bishamber is now all set to put garland around the bride’s neck, but to the surprise of all, Bholi Cries out saying that she will not marry the greedy old man. Bholi has now discovered his eloquence and intelligence. Sulekha is now back to the scene. She speaks and others listen to her. Bholi declares that she will not marry, but will serve her parents in their old age. She adds that she will teach the girls of the village in the village high school. Her first-day teacher is listening to this and is all in tears with joy.

Character sketch of Bishamber Nath:

Bishamber Nath was an aged man. He was nearly about fifty years old when he proposed to marry Bholi. He had limped in his legs. His first wife had died, and his children were also grown up.
When Bishamber Nath expressed his wish to marry Bholi, Ramlal and his wife felt happy to find a groom for their simpleton daughter. They were least bothered about Bholi’s interests.
Ramlal would talk very high of Bishamber Nath. He, along with his wife started talking very high of his riches and estates.
At the marriage party, Bishamber kept much pump and show. His intentions were, however, brought to the fore when he discovered pockmarks on Bholi’s face. He took Ramlal aback by denying to marry Bholi but with the dowry of five thousand rupees. In this way, his greed for money was unveiled. Ramlal, being a poor man had no ready cash. He fell on his knees, but this was of no avail. The public humiliation of Ramlal fell very heavy on Bholi. Ramlal, however, managed to get the money from somewhere. This made Bishamber approach Bholi with garland but Bholi turned the table at the right time. She rejected Bishamber to his utter disgrace.


Dusk Questios and Answers 7

Dusk Questios and Answers

Summary of Dusk by Saki

Norman Gortsby considered dusk to some degree uniquely in contrast to other people. To him, dusk was a period when defeatists throughout everyday life, embarrassed to confront the world amid the daytime, turn out from disguise. These washouts at dusk seem foggy and most likely won’t be perceived by snoops.

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Sitting on a seat in Hyde Park on a March evening, Norman Gortsby was taking a gander at frustrated individuals stroll all over with worn out dresses and stooped shoulders. Close him sat an elderly person with a feeble insolent air. Instantly, the elderly person left and his place was taken by a young fellow.


The young fellow was apparently in a dreadful sulk, and Gortsby asked him what was the reason behind his irritable temper. The young fellow said that his ordinary hotel had been destroyed to make the place for a film. Consequently, he had to remain at a new lodging. As he didn’t care for the soap given by the hotel, he circumvented the city looking for a store to purchase soap.

He purchased the soap and regrettably, he discovered that he had forgotten the name and the location of his new hotel. Luckily, he had prior kept in touch with his people the location of the hotel and he was holding up to get notification from them. He could get the location of the hotel from them yet his letter would contact them just the following day. Since he exited the hotel with just the cash to get some soap and a drink, he was compelled to put in the night in the outside, as he had no partners in London.

Gortsby realised that the young fellow had recounted his strange story to make him advance him some cash. At the point when Gortsby asked him about the soap he had purchased, the young fellow couldn’t show him the soap and said that he may have lost it. The young fellow needed to leave without getting any cash from Gortsby. Taken off alone once more, Gortsby pondered the young fellow’s wail story. He believed that the buy of soap was the vital detail to make the young fellow’s story conceivable.

After some time, when Gortsby was going to leave, he found a recently purchased bundle of soap on the ground. He contemplated that it may have fallen out of the young fellow’s pocket as he sat down on the seat.

He rushed to locate the young fellow. When he found the young fellow he was sorry for questioning him and gave him the soap and in addition a little amount of cash. Gortsby likewise gave him his card and his location with the goal that the young fellow could return the cash later.
While Gortsby was returning home, he passed the seat he had been sitting. He saw the elderly man who had earlier sat with him searching for something. At the point when Gortsby asked the old person what he was searching for, he disclosed to Gortsby that he had lost a cake of soap and he was hunting down it.

Dusk

Dusk

Dusk | Character Sketch of Gortsby

Gortsby is judgemental and disturbing. He feels confused in his life and he doesn’t viably make up for it. He is baffled and doubtful. He has much to learn about human nature and reality. He is a critical observer of humanity. He views life as a fight. He is cunning from various perspectives and he was a poor choice for the trickster. He is a better than average group of onlookers. He is too over quick in settling on a choice about people, especially in the midst of a troublesome condition.

He isn’t at all a man of diversion. He is just the individual who being sat after in the midst of the dusk time settles on a choice about others. By his direct, we come to understand that he considers himself a rationalist or a judge. He is confident, self- reliant and can take good care of himself. He exhibits his feedback and his set attitude resulting in listening hard fortunes stories. At certain occasions, his overconfidence discredited his correct answers. He is insightful, urbane and experienced. He is somewhat reactionary in his viewpoints.

Dusk| Themes of the Story

“Dusk” is another of Saki’s darkly unexpected stories. The protagonist, Gortsby, spends the duration of the story watching individuals running about at dusk. He considers the greater part of the general population whom he looks as being vanquished and trusts that dusk speaks to the time of annihilation for people. The story includes third individual restricted perspective, so the greater part of the portrayal of Gortsby happens through Saki’s recording Gortsby’s considerations. The character has a pessimistic perspective of the human state and has encountered some sort of thrashing of his own- – Saki never subtle elements what that disappointment is on Gortsby’s part; he just writes that it’s anything but a money-related disappointment.

The principal bystander whom Gortsby watches is a more established man who appears to be blue and hesitant to go home. The hero conceives that he probably gets no regard at home or that he goes home to a place that he can scarcely bear to keep. Soon after Gortsby’s perception starts, ‍‍‍‍‍ the elderly person gets up and leaves.

The second “unfortunate casualty” of Gortsby’s pessimism is a young fellow who is preferable dressed over the first and who makes a show of being extremely disturbed. Gortsby starts a discussion, and the young fellow reveals to him that he has forgotten the name of the hotel at which he should remain and that he has no money with him. He left his hotel space to get a bar of soap and a drink and now can’t discover his way back to his hotel. Gortsby is suspicious about the young fellow’s respectability and notices that he has a decent story yet that he neglected to create evidence of his scrape – a bar of soap. The young fellow understands that his con has fizzled and escapes the scene.
Gortsby plans to kick back and boast over his astute judgment of human instinct when he detects a wrapped bar of soap close to the recreation centre seat. He feels that he has misconceived the young fellow, runs after him, apologizes for distrusting him, and gives him money. Gortsby strolls back to his seat, somewhat chagrined. Minutes after the fact, the main elderly person comes back to the seat and discloses to Gortsby that he is searching for his bar of soap.

Saki unexpectedly leaves the reader with the exercise that one should not be excessively positive about his or her perspective of the human character.
In the story Dusk by Saki, the cake of soap has the principle influence as the young fellow informed that he forgot his address to lodging and after that lost the bar of soap, so Gortsby provided him with the cake of soap he found under the table. Yet, after the young fellow returned he saw the elderly person looking something. On asking he informed that he lost a cake of soap. Gortsby currently comes to realize that he was tricked by the young fellow.

DUSK | THINKING ABOUT THE TEXT QUESTIONS:

1. What was the atmosphere at Hyde Park?
Ans: The whole atmosphere at Hyde Park was full of sadness (dusky). It was an early March evening at around 6:30 and there was not completely dark due to moonlight and street lamps. Though there was an emptiness over road and sidewalk, even some people were moving here and there while others were sitting on the benches and chairs in the Park. Their faces were hardly visible in the twilight. According to Gortsby, it was the time of dejected and disappointed people who would come to such a place to enjoy their solitariness.

2. Do the atmosphere and the mood at the Park justify the title of the story?

Ans: Yes, the atmosphere and the mood of the park justify the title of the story. Gortsby, the protagonist of the story, defines dusk as “the hour of the defeated.” He has appropriately portrayed the atmosphere of the story by using words like March evening, dusk, wide emptiness, half-light, gloom etc. The mood has been harmonised by comparing it to the hour of dejected. Thus, dusk is not only on the physical level but on the mental and spiritual levels as well. Fallen fortunes, dead hopes, bowed shoulders and unhappy eyes of the dejected and disappointed people present in the park. They are those who have reached the dusk (last stage) of their life. That is why these unfortunate people come to the Park in the bat-fashion which means like bats who come out only at dusk and not during the day time.

3. Draw a profile of the person who first sat near Gortsby on the bench?

Ans: It was an elderly gentleman who first sat near Gortsby on the bench. The man seemed to have lost interest in life. He looked dejected and disappointed but refused to admit this fact. He was not wearing entirely shabby clothes but one could not call them fine too. Even his physical appearance did not seem deceptive. It seemed that no one cared him; perhaps he was in the dusk of his life.

4. What, according to Gortsby, was the weak point of the young man‟s story?

Ans: The young man was thought to be a stranger in the town who had left his hotel to buy a cake of soap. It was the man who had forgotten the name of his hotel and the street where it was in. It was said that he had only a shilling in his pocket which he spent on buying the soap and having some drink for himself. According to Gortsby, the weak point of young man’s story was that he could produce the cake of soap when he was asked to show it and it was the only thing in the whole story which could make anyone believe his story but the young man pretended that he had lost it somewhere. Gortsby thought that the young man believed to be very intelligent but his inability to produce the cake of soap showed his weak point.

5. While walking back to his seat in the Park, What did Gortsby see?

Ans: While walking back to his seat in the Park, Gortsby saw an elderly gentleman who seemed to be searching for something. He was pocking and peering under the bench and on all its sides. It was recognized the same old man who had been sitting by his side on the bench that March evening.

6. How did Norman Gortsby feel when he realized he had been fooled?

Ans: We have not been told in the story anywhere how Gortsby felt when he realized that he had been fooled. We can‟t say that he had been fooled but it is the weak point in the young man‟s story which made Gortsby fool himself. We can say it could be a lesson to him as well as we people not to be too clever in judging by circumstances.

7. What did Gortsby imaging about the people who visited the Hyde Park?

Ans: Dusk for Gortsby was the hour of the defeated. About the people who visited Hyde Park, Gortsby imagined that they had been defeated in their life. They were dejected and disappointed men and women who fought and lost. Their fortunes had fallen and their hopes were dead. They came to the Park in their shabby clothes with bowed shoulders and unhappy eyes at the hour of dusk in a bat like fashion in order to remain unnoticed and unrecognized.

8. What is irony? Bring out some elements of irony in the story?

Ans: Irony is a figure of speech which consists of a statement that appears to be praise but in real condemnation. In other words, it can be a statement which is against the expectation. It is a literary technique which has been used by Saki in his story „Dusk‟. At first, when the young man remarks with a curse “You would‟t be in a good temper if you were in the fix I am in.” Which results immediately Gortsby‟s reaction who seems in a fix instead of the young man. Secondly, when the same young man speaks impressively. “I suppose you think I have spun you rather an impossible yarn”, but later the same false story becomes possible by the circumstances which are an irony. One more irony in the story is that Gortsby convinced himself that it is a lesson to him not to be too clever in judging by circumstances and ultimately falls prey to his own statement.

9. What is “juxtaposition”? Has Saki been able to juxtapose humour and pathos in “Dusk”?

Ans: Juxtaposition means a combination or putting things together to show contrast or comparison. In literature, it occurs whenever two or more events or characters are combined so that one could be able to compare or contrast them in a better way. In the story, “Dusk” Saki has juxtaposed humour and pathos in a very subtle manner. We see pathos in the description of people who have fallen fortunes and whose hopes are dead. There is pathos in the description of the elderly gentleman to whose piping no one dances. The left of the same elderly gentleman who seemed to have lost interest in his life and coming in of the young man with a cheerful face and fairly dressed is an example of juxtaposition.

Dusk | WRITING WORK: 2.

Do you approve the behaviour and approach of Gortsby in the story? Explain.
Ans: Gortsby‟s behaviour and approach in the story are quite natural. He seems to measure or judge things in the context of the circumstances and feels confident and sure of arriving at the solution. He feels to have sympathy for those men and women whose hopes are dead and fortunes have fallen. He also proves himself a good judge of human character and tries to save himself from being cheated. Though it is a weak point of young man‟s story that he cannot prove the cake of soap which makes Gortsby fool himself it is must have been a lesson to him not to be too clever in judging by circumstances. He believes himself to be very intelligent. But “Dusk” for him is the hour of the defeated and dejected people as it is Gortsby and not the young man who is embarrassed/ cheated at the end of the story. We must say that it is none of Gortsby’s fault that he is cheated but he falls only pray to the irony of the event.

Read Also: Critical Analysis of Dusk

Note: For any question regarding this chapter viz Dusk by Saki, please to us.


Palanquin Bearers |  Questions Answers 8

Palanquin Bearers | Questions Answers

Palanquin Bearers Notes

About The Poet: Sarojini Naidu was born on February 13, 1879, in Hyderabad. She belonged to a renowned family. Her father Dr Aghornath Chattopadyaya was a scientist and her mother was a Bengali poet, Mrs Varasundari. Sarojini Devi inherited her incredible qualities both from her mother and her father. She studied at London and Cambridge. She was an outstanding poet and fluent in English. From the early years of her life, she began writing poetry.

Palanquin Bearers

Sarojini Naidu

She was a distinguished patriot, politician, orator, administrator and poet. She became the first woman Chairman of the National Congress of India. She also participated actively in Gandhi’s Satyagraha programmes. She was also named Utter Pradesh ‘s Governor.

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His enthusiasm for poetry was due to his lack of interest in mathematics. She penned down her first enlivened poetry in the algebra book and subsequently enthused by this ” Lady of the Lake, ” a poem composed of 1300 lines in length. Her well-known books are The Bird of Time, The Broken Wing and The Golden Threshold. Because of her great contribution to poetry, which contained English words but an Indian soul, she was given the title of ‘ Nightingale of India. ‘ Her English poetry was published in ” The Dawn Feather ” and ” Flute Sceptred. ”

Palanquin Bearers| Summary

The poem ‘Palanquin Bearers’ can be well understood in the Indian context. In most parts of India, the custom was to bring a bride to the house of her husband in a palanquin by the palanquin bearers. The palanquin bearers thought it was a privilege to bring the royal princess to the home of their groom. The royal family ‘s bridegroom would most of the time go with her bride on horseback.

The palanquin bearers are pleased to bring a royal bride to the house of her husband in the poem. As they walk, they feel that she is as delicate as a flower that swings as they walk in their song. She skims smoothly as the birds glide on the wild river.

The palanquin bearers are pleased to bring a royal bride to the house of their husband in the poem. As they walk, they feel that she is as delicate as a flower that swings as they walk in their song. She skims smoothly as the birds glide on the froth of river.

“She skims like a bird on the form of a stream” is the description given by the bearers to suggest how tender and delicate the bride is.

Palanquin Bearers

Palanquin Bearers

She looks so graceful when she sits in the palanquin and the view is so nice to see. One remembers the sight of a bird sitting in a stream on the ripples. Her laughter shows she’s happy about the new life she’s leading.

The second paragraph tells us that the palanquin bearers are so careful when they carry her as if she were a pearl on a string. She’s very valuable to them. She is compared with a star that sparks and springs like a light beam. She seems to fall like a tear from the bride’s eyes. Her tears show that she is miserable because of her separation from her parents and other relatives. The palanquin bearers carry her softly and smoothly to the extent possible so that she would not feel the journey exhausting. They carry her as if she was an invaluable jewel held by her husband.

This shows that they have gained a certain respect for her and delicately treat her and her emotions. The poet emphasizes the emotional situation of the bride and her mixed emotions continually. Especially the last line of both stanzas. “We bear her along like a pearl on a string.” This represents the real palanquin with the strings as the sticks and the pearl as the string. This also shows that the palanquin carriers try their best to prevent the royal bride from being emotionally hurt.

Palanquin Bearers

Palanquin Bearers

Palanquin Bearers | Questions

Q.No.1 What are the feelings of the palanquin bearers as they carry the princess inside the palanquin?

Answer: The palanquin bearers are delighted as they are carrying a royal bride to her in-laws. As they walk, they feel that she is as delicate like a flower who sways at their song. The palanquin bearers are so careful when they carry her as if she were a pearl on a string. This showcases that they have gained some respect towards her and actually treat her and her emotion delicately.

Q.No. 2 “Lightly, O lightly we bear her along; she sways like a flower in the wind of our song.” What are these opening lines suggestive of? Do you think the palanquin bearers are sensitive to the presence of the bride?

Answer: These lines suggest that the bride inside the palanquin is very delicate and light. She is invaluable and also it is the most sacred and auspicious occasion for her.
The palanquin bearers are very sensitive to the presence of the bride as they handle her like a very precious jewel. They are so careful when they carry her as if she were a pearl on a string.

Q. No.3 What is the rhyme scheme of the poem? Pick out the pairs of rhyming words in the poem.

Answer: The rhyme scheme of the poem is aa, bb, cc
The rhyming words are along – song, stream – dream, sing – string, tide – bride

Palanquin Bearers | Literary Devices

Q.No. 4. In line 4 the poet says, ‘She floats like a laugh from the lips of a dream’ and in line 10 she writes, ‘She falls like a tear from the eyes of a bride.’ Do you think that the poet has deliberately used the device of contrast? Why has she done so?

Answer: The contradiction is when the poet describes the bride as “she floats like a laugh” and then she writes “she falls like a tear”. It is deliberate because the bride is in tears at her separation from her family. But she smiles because she is happy over going to be united with the love of her life and start a fresh and exciting life.

Q.No.5. Simile: A figure of speech used to compare the qualities of two objects or things using
words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’. For example
a. The poet compares the bride to a flower.
b.She hangs like a star in the dew of a song.
The poem is full of similes. Pick out all the similes used by the poet in the poem.

Answer: The poet has used various similes in the poem as given here as under:
1. She sways like a flower in the wind of our song;
2. She skims like a bird on the form of a stream,
3. She floats like a laugh from the lips of a dream.
4. We bear her along like a pearl on a string
5. She hangs like a star in the dew of our song;
6. She springs like a beam on the brow of the tide,
7. She falls like a tear from the eyes of a bride,

Q.No.6 Refrain: poets often use the device of the refrain. The refrain is a line or a part of a line or a group of lines repeated in the course of a poem. Did you notice that some words, lines/parts of lines are repeated in the poem?
Pick out these words or lines that are repeated. What effect does such repetition create in the poem?

Answer: The lines and words that are repeated in the poem are :
i. Lightly, O lightly we bear her alone.
ii. We bear her along like a pearl on a string.
iii) Softly O Softly
iv) Gaily O gaily
The refrain gives us the impression of a constant and balanced movement of the palanquin. It also adds in the rhythm of the poem.
Moreover, it bestows music to the song of palanquin bearers.

Q.No.7 You have studied in the last poem about images. Read the poem and complete the following table by matching lines from the poem with the related images conveyed by them.The line from the poem Image conveyed

Answer:

Skims like a bird = gliding movement of a bird flying over a stream
Sways like a flower = movement of a flower moving from side to side due to breeze
Floats like a laugh = laughter on the lips of a person during a dream
Hangs like a star = Be calm and heads down like a star over
Springs like a beam = sparkle like a ray of light
Falls like a tear = dropping of tears from bride’s eyes at the time of marriage


Summary of My Mother at Sixty Six 9

Summary of My Mother at Sixty Six

About the Author: Kamala Das (1934—) is a leading poet from Kerala who writes both in English and Malayalam. She is known for her poetry in English and short stories in Malayalam. She was awarded the Kerala Sahitya Academy Prize in 1967 and the Asian World Prize for poetry in 1985 apart from innumerable other honours. She draws on her experiences as a woman in her writings.

My Mother at Sixty Six | Summary

This is a heart touching poem by the Indian poet Kamla Das, whose pen name is Madhavikutty. In this wonderful poem, she describes her sentiment of love and filial attachment towards her ageing mother. The poem consists of 20 lines without a full stop which makes it easy to flow and comprehend.

The poet came to visit her mother once. She was on her way back to the airport to go back to Cochin. She looked at her mother sitting in the car next to her. Her mother went to sleep and her old face was smoky like ash. She opened her mouth and looked like a dead body. The poet knew her mother was old. She felt her pain and sympathy. Her mother needed affection, love and care.

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To get out of the sorrowful feeling, the poet shifted his gaze and looked out of the car window. There she saw the passage of young trees. Little children were running into the playground out of their homes. These things were contrary to her mother’s ageing face. They symbolised energy, life and good fortune.

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The Merchant of Venice |Questions, Summary 10

The Merchant of Venice |Questions, Summary

The Merchant of Venice | Summary

The Merchant of Venice is an important lesson in your English textbook. It is a sixteenth-century romantic play written by the famous writer William Shakespeare. The name of the play is The Merchant of Venice. Before noting the textbook question we shall first know the narrative of the play. Here is the story.

Bassanio, a young Venetian, needs a loan of 3000 ducats to charm Portia, a wealthy Venetian heiress. He approaches Antonio, his most beloved friend, a merchant. Antonio has no cash, because all his wealth is invested in his fleet, which is in the sea right now. He goes to a Jewish cash moneylender, Shylock, who hates Antonio because of the anti – semitic behaviour of Antonio towards him.

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Shylock, however, by consenting to make the short – term credit, makes a condition in a snapshot of dark sickness–the advance must be repaid in three months or Shylock extracts a pound of flesh from Antonio. Antonio agrees that his boats return in time. Because of the terms of the will of Portia’s father, all followers must choose among three caskets, one of which contains a portrait of her. If he chooses that he can marry Portia, but if he does not, he should promise never marry or court another lady.

The princes of Morocco and Arragon Don not pass the test and are dismissed. When Bassanio is ready for a trip to Belmont, his friend Lorenzo steals Shylock’s daughter, Jessica. Bassanio picks up her picture’s lead box and Portia agrees to marry him immediately.

In the meantime, two of Antonio’s boats were destroyed and the creditors of Antonio are putting pressure on him to pay back. Word comes to Bassanio about the predicament of Antonio and rushes back to Venice deserting Portia. Portia trails him, Nerissa accompanied by her maid. They are covered up as a male legal advisor and his agent. The date for Shylock’s reimbursement has passed when Bassanio arrives and Shylock demands his pound of flesh.



Despite the fact that Bassanio offers substantially more than the reimbursement amount, Shylock, now maddened by his girl’s loss, is determined to seek revenge for Christians. The duke is refusing to intervene. Portia comes to shield Antonio in her camouflage. Given the judgment expert of the Duke, Portia chooses that Shylock can have the pound of flesh, but does not draw blood because it is considered to be the law to shed the blood of a Christian.

Since it is clear Antonio Would die if he cuts off a pound of flesh from him, Shylock denies his case. In order to plan to kill a Venetian citizen, Portia also orders that he relinquish all his wealth. Half will go to Venice, and half will go to Antonio.

Antonio returns his half to Shylock on the basis that Shylock gives it to his disinherited daughter Jessica. Shylock was also supposed to convert to Christianity. A broken Shylock acknowledges. News arrives that the remaining boats of Antonio have returned safely. Except for Shylock, everyone celebrates a happy ending of the affair.

The merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice |NEXT Solutions

1. Why does Shylock hate Antonio?

Answer: Shylock hates Antonio because he gives money to distressed people and does not charge any interest for the money he lends. Shylock, a hard – hearted man, pays with great severity for the money he lends. Since Antonio is generous, he earns a lot of Shylock’s hatred.

2. Ho does Antonio help Bassanio?

Answer: Bassanio wants to travel to Balmont to offer a rich and lovely girl named Portia. However, he has no money to make himself as rich and important as her other followers. He goes to Antonio for money borrowing. Antonio has no money this time, so he decides to borrow the money from an old jew named Shylock for Bassanio. Shylock lends the money to Antonio on the condition that if he does not repay the money by a certain day, he will forfeit a pound of flesh as a penalty to be cut out of any part of his body that Shylock desires.

3. How does Shylock feel when Antonio asks for some money? Why is he interested to pay the required sum ?

Answer: When Antonio asks Shylock to borrow him some money, he is delighted. He thinks he’ll feed the old grudge if he can catch him on the hip. Shylock reminds Antonio of his insults at the hands of him. Shylock finds an option to vindicate Antonio by paying him the money for any interest. He nevertheless makes him sign a bond that if he does not repay the money by a certain day, he must forfeit a pound of flesh to be cut off from any part of his body.

4. How does Bassanio marry Portia?

Answer: Bassanio loves Portia. However, he feels frightened to propose her. He needs some money to look as rich and important as other followers. He’s going to Antonio to get the money. Antonio has, this time , no cash at hand. He approaches an old jew, Shylock for the money. Shylock gives him the money on a serious condition that he must forfeit his pound of flesh as a penalty if he fails to repay the debt on time. So Antonio arranges the money for his friend at the expense of his life. Bassanio takes the money and reaches Belmont. The borrowed elegance impresses Portia. The girl is in love with him and they are both married.

5. Why is the case brought before the duke of Venice?

Answer: Since the three months mentioned in the bond pass, Antonio fails to reimburse the borrowed money. Shylock files a case against him before the Duke of Venice claiming the penalty of a pound of the flesh of Antonio.

7. Who is disguised as the learned counsellor (Dr Balthasar) ? Why has he come to the court of Venice?

Answer: Portia is disguised as a trained consultant, Dr. Balthasar. He came to the court to plead Antonio’s case, who failed to repay the debt and faces trial.

8. How does the counsellor start the argument, and how was he able to get the judgement in Antonio’s favour?

Answer: The counselor begins his argument in favour of Shylock and says that he is in fact entitled to claim his pound. He calls on Shylock to have mercy on Antonio in the same breath. Shylock is not moved by the appeal of the counselors and his knife continues to sharpen. However, the counselor turns the tide against him when he discovers a new point.He urges Shylock not to shed a single drop of Antonio’s blood by cutting a pound of flesh out of his body. The counselor tells the court that it is the flesh not the blood mentioned in the bond. This wise finding of the counselor enables him to obtain judgment in favour of Antonio.

9. How does Portia get back her ring?

Answer: After Portia won the case for Antonio in the disguise of a lawyer, Bassanio thanks her. He requires her to accept a gift that Portia refuses to accept. When Bassanio insists on her, she tells her to put the rig on her finger. Bassanio feels hesitant, but Antonio recommends that he give it to the lawyer, because he has done a great service. Portia gets her ring back, this way.

10. Describe the theme of the play “the Merchant of the Venice”.

Answer: The play ” Venice’s merchant ” revolves around three themes: love, sacrifice and hate. The beginning of the play describes Antonio’s hatred of an old jew, Shylock, who charges the needy with a very high interest rate on his loan money. Shylock also has a plan to vindicate Antonio’s hatred.
The play also emphasizes the sincere love of Bassanio for Portia. He won’t lose her beloved at any cost. Sacrifice is another theme which is reflected in the play. Antonio is a sacrificial epitome. He lends his money to the needy with interest charges. He risks his life and borrows money from a cruel Jew for his bosom friend, this he does to see his friend winning Portia’s love.

The Merchant of Venice | Character Sketch of Shylock

The jew, Shylock lived in Venice. He was a professional usurer. He had amassed an immense fortune by lending money to christian merchants at high interest rates. As a hard – hearted man, he demanded that the money he lent should be paid so severely that all good men disliked him very much. Antonio also had his hard hearts to reproach him. In the entire city of Venice, Shylock was accused of being selfish.

With Antonio, Shylock had tremendous enmity. He cooked revenge against him, for which he always wanted the chance. This opportunity came when Antonio appealed to him to have three thousand ducats needed. Shylock made Antonio sign a bond that he would have to forfeit a pound of flesh if he failed to repay the money on a certain day. Luck went the way of Shylock. The money was not repaid by Antonio. Shylock brought the case to the duke of Venice, who claimed the penalty

The enemies met in court next. In order to nourish his greed, Shylock sharpened his knife to Antonio’s dismay. He looked forward to seeing Antonio die at his feet, but that couldn’t happen. The counselor turned the table against Shylock by saying that Shylock could cut from Antonio’s breast his pound of flesh, but he must not shed even a single drop of Antonio’s blood. This sabotaged Shylock’s conspiracy, because it was impossible for him to cut the flesh and shed some blood.

Shylock suffered another setback after this, when the young counselor charged him with conspiring against the life of a christian and a Venice citizen. In addition to this, he demanded that Shylock be sentenced to death and that his entire property be seized. The cruel merchant thus met a terrible end.

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