Category Archives: GENERAL LESSONS

SHOOTING AN ELEPHANT BY GEORGE ORWELL- Summary, Explanation, and Questions


Introduction: The British Empire is evidently the dominant historical setting for “Shooting an Elephant.” During the nineteenth century, the empire expanded quickly, spreading its territories to far off places like New Zealand and India. Burma (now Myanmar ) was the place where Orwell was located and the place was gained by the British in 1886. Burma obtained its freedom from Britain in 1948, a moderately short time after “Shooting an Elephant,” an affirmation of Orwell’s observation in the story that “the British Empire is dying.” Here George Orwell narrates an incident he had with an elephant when he was serving as a young police officer in Burma. The elephant had gone mad and killed an Indian coolie.

Orwell’s task was to shoot the elephant and thus prevent more damage. This story gives us the point of View of a white man, a colonial. It sensitively probes the subtle relationship between the colonizer (whites) and the colonized (natives).

Shooting An Elephant Summary

About the Author: George Orwell (1903 – 1950) whose real name was Eric Arthur Blair was a noted British author, Journalist, novelist, a cultural commentator, and a noted essayist. His short life did not prevent him from producing many works Which are now considered masterpieces. His works Animal Farm and 1984 further glorified his fame.

Meanings and Explanations

I had halted …………. home
In this paragraph ‘we see Orwell coming face to face with the elephant, whom he will have to shoot, for the first time. Here he describes the thoughts that came into his mind as he watched the elephant. He says that he had first decided to watch the elephant for a little while and not shoot him if he did not turn savage.

halt: stop
must”: an attack of frenzy
mahout: the man who looks after elephant
savage: wild

But ………. laughed at

In this paragraph, Orwell describes his feelings as he sees the Burmans watching him. He was the only white man in the whole crowd. These were the days when the British used to rule to rule over many parts of the world; Orwell expresses his view that the Westerner who ruled over the East Was actually controlled by those whom he ruled over. He had to act in order to save his Sahib image or the impression the natives had about him as a sahib would be lost. He was thus a mere dummy playing his role.
glanced: looked
immense: huge
garnish: showy
conjurer: magician
rifle: gun
momentarily. : for a moment
irresistibly: without any resistance
futility: uselessness
dominion: here, power
unarmed: Without weapons
native: people originally belonging to the place
absurd: not reasonable
puppet: a doll, (here) one who acts according to another’s instructions
perceived: saw
tyrant: an oppressor
conventionalised: traditional
sahib: master
trail feebly: follow behind slowly

But ……….. better aim
Here we understand that Orwell was against shooting the elephant. But in his mind, he knew that he had to shoot the elephant. Otherwise, the Burmans would attack him or laugh at him. He gives many reasons why he had to kill an elephant. He makes plans on how to shoot the elephant.
preoccupied: lost in thought
squeamish: ” easily made nauseous”. (nausea => vomiting sensation)
beast: animal
charged: attacked
poor shot: not able to shoot properly
toad: big frog.
pursued: to go after; followed
trampled: to be smashed underfoot
alternative: option, choice
cartridges: Charges for gun
magazine: gun from which shots can be fired without reloading

The crowd ……………… I lay
Orwell does not have much experience in shooting elephants. Therefore he aims incorrectly. The reaction of the crowd is also explained here. In these two paragraphs, Orwell also tells us what happens to the elephant when it is hit.
still: silent, without moving
innumerable: countless

glee: great joy
mysterious: not very clear, secret
stirred: moved
altered: Changed
stricken: wounded
shrunken: to reduce in size
immensely: greatly
paralyzed: unable to move
knocking: striking, making him fall
sagged: to sink, to lose strength
senility: the weaknesses of old age
collapse: fall
desperate: hopeless
upright: straight
agony: great pain
jolt: strike
remnant: remains, what is left behind
tower: to rise in air
toppling: falling
Skyward: towards the sky
trumpeted: the cry of the elephant

I got up …………. afternoon
Here Orwell gives you a vivid description of the last few moments of the elephant’s life. He also tells you about what the Burmans did to the elephant.
obvious: very clear
rattling: short, hard sounds
jerk: shake
torture: extreme pain
remote: far away
dreadful: very painful
stripped: to remove covering; here remove flash and skin

Afterward ………….. fool
These were many opinions among the people about the shooting of the elephant. Orwell ends his essay by telling you the truth as to why he shot the elephant.
furious. very angry
legally: according to law
pretext: reason
grasped: understood
solely: only

Comprehension Short Answer Questions

1 What was the author’s first thought as he looked at the elephant?
Ans: As soon as the author saw the elephant he thought that he should not shoot it.
2. Why did Orwell think that he ought not to shoot the elephant?
Ans: Orwell thought that he should not shoot the elephant because it was a working elephant and therefore very precious. Also, the elephant looked very peaceful as he stood eating.
3. Why is it a serious matter to shoot a working elephant?
Ans: A working elephant is equal to a huge and costly piece of machinery. Hence it is a serious matter to shoot a working elephant.
4. How did the elephant look from a distance?

Ans: The elephant looked no more dangerous than a cow from a distance.
5. What did Orwell think about the ”must” of the elephant?
Ans: He thought that the “must” was already passing off. If that was the case then he would merely wander harmlessly until the mahout came back and caught him.
6. What did Orwell plan at first?
Ans: Orwell decided that he would watch the elephant for a little while to make sure that he did not turn savage and then go home.
7. Describe the crowd that gathered around Orwell?
Ans: It was a huge crowd of at least two thousand people. It looked like a sea of yellow faces above colourful clothes. They were happy and excited about shooting the elephant.
8. What did the natives think of Orwell?
Ans: The natives did not like Orwell but with the rifle in his hand he was worth watching.
9. How did Orwell realize that he would have to shoot the elephant after all?
Ans. The people around him expected him to shoot the elephant. In order to fulfill their expectation, he realised that he would have to shoot the elephant after all.
10. Why does Orwell call the White man’s dominion over the East, futile?
Ans. The White man thinks that he is the real master over the natives. But according to Orwell, he is only a puppet who has to work according to the will of the native.
11. What is the actual condition of the White man?
Ans. The White man has to spend his life in trying to impress the natives. Therefore he has to do everything as the native expects him to do.
12. How does Orwell describe every White man’s life in the East?
Ans. According to Orwell, every White man’s life in the East was one long struggle not to be laughed at.
13. State two reasons why Orwell did not want to shoot the elephant?
Ans. Orwell had never wanted to shoot a large animal like an elephant. Besides he had to consider the owner also.
14. What did the Burmans say about the elephant?
Ans. The Burmans said that the elephant took no notice of anyone if he was left alone. But he might attack if anyone went close to him.
15. What were Orwell’s plans about shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell planned to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behavior. If he attacked, Orwell would shoot. If he did not then he would, leave him alone till his mahout came back to take him.
16. Why does Orwell dismiss the idea of walking up to twenty-five yards of the elephant?
Ans. The mud was soft and Orwell was a poor shot with the rifle. If the elephant charged then Orwell would find it difficult to escape.
17. What was the sole thought in Orwell’s mind as he watched the natives?
Ans. The sole thought in Orwell’s mind was that if anything went wrong the two thousand Burmans watching him would pursue him and kill him.
18. What was the only alternative according to Orwell?
Ans. The only other alternative was to shoot the elephant.
19. What did the crowd do when Orwell loaded his rifle?
Ans. The crowd grew very still and let out a deep, low and happy sigh. They were like people in the theatre watching the curtain go up after a long wait.
20. What was the right way of shooting an elephant?
Ans. In shooting an elephant one should shoot to cut an imaginary bar running from ear hole to ear hole. Orwell aimed several inches in front of the elephants ear-hole thinking that the brain was in front. He Was actually Wrong.

21. What did the crowd do when Orwell shot the elephant?
Ans. The crowd let out a devilish roar of glee.

22. What happened to the elephant at the first shot?
Ans. A terrible change came over the elephant. He became stricken and looked very old. He fell to his knees and his mouth slobbered.
23. What happened to the elephant at the second shot?
Ans. At the second shot he did not collapse but stood up slowly with his legs sagging and his head drooping.
24. What happened to the elephant at the third shot?
Ans. At the third shot, the last drop of strength went away from his body. He trumpeted for the first and only time. Then he fell down with a crash
25. What was the condition of the elephant after the three shots?
Ans. The elephant did not die. He was breathing heavily and painfully with his mouth open.
26. Why did the author send for his small rifle?
Ans. The author wanted to put an end to the agony of the elephant.
27. What did the Burmans do to the elephant?

Ans. The Burmans brought dahs and baskets and stripped the elephant’s body almost to the bones by the afternoon.

28. What was the owner’s reaction to the incident?
Ans. The owner was furious but as he was only an Indian, he could do nothing.
29. What does Orwell say about the legal aspect of the shooting?
Ans. Legally Orwell had done the right thing as he had killed a mad elephant whose owner had failed to control it.
30. What did the Europeans say about the shooting?
Ans. Among the Europeans, opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right and the younger men said that it was a shame to kill a working elephant which was more valuable than the coolie it had killed.
31. Why does Orwell Say that he was glad that the coolie had been killed?
Ans. Orwell was glad that the coolie had been killed because it put him legally in the right and gave him a reason for shooting the elephant.

32. What does Orwell say about the killing in the end?
Ans. He wonders if others knew that he had done it to avoid looking like a fool.

Paragraph Questions & Answers

1. What were Orwell’s first thoughts as he saw the elephant?
Ans. As soon as Orwell saw the elephant, he knew that he ought not to shoot the elephant. He knew that it was a serious matter to shoot a working elephant. A working elephant was as valuable as a costly piece of machinery. Moreover, at a distance, the elephant looked very peaceful. Orwell thought that the ”must” was already passing off and therefore he would watch the elephant for a while to see if it turned savage and then go home.

2. What does Orwell say of the crowd that had gathered around him?
Ans. The crowd was immense. At least two thousand people were there and the number was growing. Orwell describes it as ”a sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes.” They were happy that the elephant was going to be shot. Though they did not like Orwell, they watched him as he had a rifle in his hands. Orwell knew that he would have to shoot the elephant because these people expected him to shoot it.

3. Why does Orwell say that the White man’s dominion in the East is futile?
Ans. As Orwell stood in front of the people with the rifle in his hands, he understood the hollowness and futility of the White man’s power in the East. The White man was like a puppet in the hands of these people. To appear to be powerful and to maintain the sahib image, he has to do what the natives expected him to do It was like wearing a mask.

4. Why does Orwell say he does not want to shoot the elephant?

Ans. As Orwell watched the elephant he knew that he did not want to shoot the elephant To kill the elephant would be like murdering it. He was against the killing of large animals. Besides, the elephant’ s owner had to be considered If the elephant was alive it was worth a hundred pounds If it was dead, then the owner would only get five pounds for its tusks.
5. What were the steps Orwell considered before shooting the elephant?
Ans. Orwell knew perfectly well what he ought to do. He decided to walk up to twenty-five yards of the elephant and test his behaviour If the elephant attacked, he would shoot. If not, then Orwell would just Watch him till the mahout Came back. But he soon gave up the idea because the mud was very soft. If the elephant attacked he would not be able to run fast in the mud and he was surer to be killed.

6. Describe the first three shots of Orwell and its impact on the Elephant.
Ans. At the first shot, a terrible change came over the elephant. It did not stir or fall, but every line of its body changed. It looked shrunken and very old as if the bullet had paralysed it. It sagged to its knees and its mouth slobbered At the second shot, it did not fall but stood very slowly to its feet, legs sagging and head drooping. The third shot took away all strength from its body. Its hind legs collapsed and it seemed like a huge rock that was falling. It fell down with a crash It trumpeted for the first and only time.

7. Describe the last minutes of the elephant’s life.
Ans. The elephant was not dead even after the three shots He was breathing loudly with a rattling noise. His mouth was wide open. Orwell continued to shoot him but he did not die. He did not even jerk. Blood poured out from him body Orwell took his small rifle and shot him in the heart and throat. But the elephant looked like he was in a world where no other pain could reach him. It took the elephant half an hour to die.
8. What are the varied opinions regarding the shooting of the elephant?
Ans. There were endless discussions regarding the shooting of the elephant. The owner was very angry. But he was only an Indian and could do nothing. Besides, Orwell had done the light thing legally by shooting the mad elephant that had killed a coolie. The European opinion was divided. The older men said that Orwell was right. But the younger men said that Orwell should not have killed the elephant for killing a coolie because the elephant was more precious than the coolie.

Vocabulary and Usage

(i) Pick out words from the text relating to (a) elephants (b) guns
elephants – trunk, tusk, trumpet, mahout, ”must”, savage.
guns – rifle, cartridge, magazine aim, trigger, bullet

(ii) Make a list of the similes used in the text

a) as much chance as a toad under a steam roller (meaning no chance at all).
b) to tower like a huge rock toppling (to describe the enormous elephant swaying with pain)
c) a happy sigh as of people who see the theatre curtain go up at last. (to describe the feeling at the commencement of a long-awaited event).
(iii) replace the italicised phase with one word.

a) According to law, she is my wife.
A: Legally, she is my wife.
b) He looked towards the sky to see if it would rain.
A: He looked skywards to see if it would rain.
c) When she saw the snake, she was unable to move.
A: When she saw the snake, she was paralyzed
d) They stood without moving until the bear had gone.
A. They stood still until the bear had gone.

Modilie-The Word In News |What Does It Mean?

In India, there is a word in news on social media and the word is ‘Modilie’. What is the meaning of the word? Here is all about the word.

Actually, there is no such word in the English dictionaries. It is a fake word. The word has been used to mock Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi by Congress President Rahul Gandhi. Rahul tweeted it was a new word in the English dictionary and also attached a photoshopped screenshot of a word entry to a replica of the Oxford Dictionary website.

Oxford Dictionary denied Rahul Gandhi’s claim that the word “Modilie” was added to dictionaries and confirmed that the image showing the’ Modilie’ entry is fake and does not exist in any of their Oxford Dictionaries.

It’s a bluff by Rahul Gandhi.

A website ‘Modi Lies – The most accurate list of PM Modi’s many lies’ has also been created to mock PM Modi. Previously, Rahul Gandhi has referred to Finance Minister Arun Jaitley as ‘Jaitlie’.

Now another word ‘Rahulie’ is going round to mock Rahul Gandhi.

Modilie: Rahul Gandhi explains meaning of new English word…….”To lie incessantly and habitually” and ‘to lie without respite’ are the other meanings of the word , which has been formed by a combination of the words Modi and lie, claimed the Congress leader.




The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Lesson No. 1

Additional Question
Q.1) Describe the growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s?
Describe the main factors that led to the rise and growth and development of nationalism in Europe.

Ans) The following factors that led to the growth and development of nationalism in Europe are:

(1) The French Revolution provided the basis for it. Inspired by it, the revolutionaries in other European countries also started the movements and campaigns to develop nationalism among their people. As a result there occurred large scale political transformation in Europe after 1830s.

(2) Some countries were freed from despotic rule like France, some others were freed from foreign rule like Greece and more importantly some were united as nations like Italy and Germany.

(3) The Lecture of Ernst Renan in 1882 on “what is a nation” inspired the people towards nationalism and nation formation. Likewise the ideas of John Locke, Voltaire and Rousseau also proved productive in the growth of nationalism in Europe.

(4) The Napoleonic wars, revolutionary actions of Guissepe Mazini, Count Cavour, Guissepe Garibaldi, Bismarch paved the way for the growth of nationalism in Europe after 1830s.

(5) Romanticists like Johann Gottfried Herder, Lord Byron, Karol Kurpinski, Grimm Brothers emphasized on the role of art, poetry, folktales, music, language etc in the development of nationalism. So, culture also contributed to the growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s. These are the main factors in the growth and development of nationalism in Europe.

Textual questions
Write in brief
Q1) Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini:- Guiseppe Mazzini, an important architect (0ne who design) of the unification of Italy, was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was the prohphet of Italian nationalism He was always concerned about the fate of his country. This is evident from the fact that he used to dress in black garments to project himself as a mourner. He said that God had intended (planed) nations to be the natural units of mankind. In order to liberate his country from foreign rulers, he joined a revolutionary organization called Carbonari, a secret society formed in 1810 mainly by the charcoal burners of Italy to attempt a revolution in his native state of Liguria. However, the attempt failed, and Mazzini was arrested and imprisoned. After his release, While in exile he founded a new organization called “Young Italy”. The organization was named “Young Italy” because Mazzini firmly believed in the potential of youth. . It aimed to liberate his country from foreign rule and bring its unification through the education of young men. He appealed to the youth through his writings and speeches and established branches of “young Italy” in every nook and corner of the country. The young Italy began to attract thousands of young Italians who were prepared to give sacrifice of their lives for the cause of liberation and unification of their country. Though Mazzini and his “young Italy” failed to achieve unification, yet they had filled the minds of the people with such sentiments that other patriots were able to achieve the unification of Italy without much difficulty.
(a) Count Camillo de-Cavour:- Count Cavour, an important liberator of Italy belonged to an aristocratic family of Sardinia. Moved by the defeat of Sardinia at the hands of the Austria, Cavour decided to work for the unification of Italy. In 1848 he urged the king victor Emmuuel II to take the lead in liberating Italy from the Austrian control. When he got elected to the Assembly, he made eloquent (fluent) speeches aimed to improve the state affairs in Sardinia and piedmont. The king was deeply impressed by him and appointed him as the Chief Minister in 1852. After realizing the fact that the kingdom of Sardinia and piedmont was a small power. He thought that to achieve the goal of liberation of Italy, two things were essential first to build up a strong army, second, the assistance of a foreign power to defeat Austria. So, he entered into a diplomatic alliance with France and succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

(b) The Greek war of independence:- Greece had been under the control of the ottoman
Empire since the 15th century. Greeks were subjected to heavy taxation and Turkish law courts did not protect the Greeks against injustice. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe mobilized the Greeks to struggle for independence. So, the Greek war of independence was started in 1821. Nationalists in Greece were supported by the educated elite of Europe. Due to Greek classical heritage, there was a tremendous sympathy for the Greek cause throughout Europe The scholars and artists praized Greece as they considered it as the „cradle of European civilization. Thus in 1829, France, England, Russia etc supported Greek to defeat sultan of Turkey and forced him to sign the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 A.D. Ultimately Greece was recognized as an independent nation in 1832 through the treaty of Constantinople.

(d) Frankfurt Parliament: The 1848 French revolution inspired the middle class Germans to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state to be governed by an elected parliament. In May 1848, 831 elected representatives of German Confederacy came together in the city of Frankfurt. They assembled in the church of St. Paul & drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarch subject to parliament (Constitutional monarchy). This was an attempt of the liberals to unify the German states. However, the Frankfurt assembly failed because Friedrich Wilhelm, the King of Prussia rejected the offer to act as the emperor of Germany. He was joined by the other monarchs to suppress the liberals. The assembly came to an end in May, 1849.

(e) The Role of women in nationalist struggles:- The role of women in the nationalist struggles of Europe is briefly summarized in the following points:-
(i) Women played a very significant role in the nationalist struggles all over the world. In all the European states. France, Germany, Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, women had taken an active part in the nationalist struggle of their countries. women actively participated in the movements of French revolution. Likewise in the unification of Italy and Germany, women played a significant role
(ii) Women actively participated in the nationalist struggles of Europe because they were mobilized by the measures of the liberal nationalists. The liberal nationalists personified “liberty” as a female figure.
(iii) They were equally responsible for demanding constitutionalism with national unification.

(iv) Women had formed their own political associations and taken part in political meetings and demonstration.They led the movements, faced the tortures, spread the ideas of liberal nationalism and participated in the various revolutionary organizations.
(v) While men were busy in outside wars, women handled all family issues. They published several journals and magazines.

Q2) What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? (BOSE)
Ans) In order to create a sense of collective identity among the French people the French revolutionaries adopted the following measures and practices:-
(i) The ideas of “la Patrie” (the father-land) and “le citoyen” (the citizen) were introduced to emphasis the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour was chosen as a national symbol to replace the royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was replaced by the National Assembly whose members were elected by a body of active citizens.
(iv) A centralized administrative system was introduced to make uniform laws for all citizens.
(v) The dialect of French language spoken & used in paris was encouraged as the national language and regional dialects were discouraged.
(vi) A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted and internal customs duties were abolished to promote economic exchange.

Q3) Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Ans) Marianne was the female allegory of French nation. Similarly, Germania was the female allegory of German nation. They stood as personifications of the revolutionary ideals like “liberty” and “the Republic”. The importance of the way in which they were portrayed is given in the following points:-
(i) It was an attempt of the revolutionaries to give a concrete form to the abstract idea of the nation. They believed that it would instill nationalist feelings among the people of these countries.
(ii) Statues of Marianne with red cap, the tricolour and the cockade were erected at public squares to remind the public the symbol of national unity.
(iii) Germania was portrayed in visual representations wearing a crown of oak leaves. As the German oak stands for heroism, so it was aimed to develop heroism among Germans.

Unification of Germany:
Ans.(i) Before the Napoleonic conquests, Germany was divided into more than 300 independent states. Prussia was largest one.
(iii) Napoleon conquered German states and re-organised them into 39 states. Napoleon had given the idea of a united Germany which should embrace all the German speaking people under one national Govt., but the congress of Vienna undid the work of Napoleon and revived the old German states.
(iv) The establishment of Zollverein or the customs union of the German states helped in the growth of idea of political unification of German states.
However, the liberals failed in their attempt because of the repression of the combined forces of Monarchy and landlords. Later on Prussia took over the leadership of the movement for German unification Role of Bismark in German Unfication:
(i) Prince Ottovon Bismark, the chancellor of Prussia, was the architect of German unification. He believed that bursts of sentiments have no place in politics, and followed blood and iron policy. He believed that only Prussia was fit to led the movement for the German unification.

(ii) He knew that domination of Austria, and France must be broken to make unification possible. For this, he recorganised Purssian army and to raise money that was needed for wars.
(iii) Bismark’s object of unifying Germany was accomplished by the following three wars withDenmark, Austria and France which were covered into a brief period of seven years (1864 – 71) and won all the wars . These wars completed the process of German unification. On 18 Jan, 1871, the Prussian king, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.

(i) The Danish War: Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were under the possession of Denmark, but were inhabited by Germany. They were a bone of contention between Germany and Denmark. Bismark induced the Austrian Emperor to join Germany in the war against Denmark. The Astor – German armies easily defeated Denmark and forced her to cede the two duchies to Austria and Prussia Jointly.
(ii) Austro-Prussian War (AD 1866): Now Bismark planned to annex the two Duchies to Prussia. He accused Austria of encouraging discontent against the Prussians in Schleswig. In 1866, Prussia declared war and defeated Austria. The North German confederation was next step by Bismark for unification of Germany.
(iii)France-Prussia war (Ad- 1871): The war between Prussia and France was the final step in the creation of unified German nation. The dispute was over the succession to the Spanish throne. On July 19, 1870, France declare war against Prussia. The states of North confederation supported Prussia and defeated France and surrender Alsace and Lorraine to German.

Q5) What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Ans) Napolean Bonarparte was an enlightened despot. He desired an orderly Govt. and a rational administration. This is evident from the following changes which he introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him.
(i) He abolished all privileges based on birth and put careers open to men of talent.
(ii) He established equality before law and secured the right of the people to hold property. Farmers enjoyed ownership rights on the existing land that was acquired from church and nobility
(iii) He abolished feudal order.
(iv) Nobles, middle classes and peasants became subjects of state, all equally liable to pay taxes..
(v) In the urban areas he removed guild restrictions and internal custom barriers.
(vi) He standardized weights and measures, common currency which, facilitated movement and exchange of goods and hence boosted the trade and commerce.

Q1) Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Ans: The year 1848 is popularly called the year of revolution of the liberals led by the educated middle class. In the year 1848 there were uprisings & upheavals for liberty & nationhood or unification in several parts of Europe. The revolutionary wave started in France & immediately spread to most parts of Europe. In Feb, 1848, the liberals in France along with workers took to streets to demand reforms. It resulted into proclamation of France as a republic & extension of franchise to all the males above 21 years of age. Besides, national workshops were set up to provide food, health care & employment to the people. Although this widespread revolutionary wave was suppressed by the conservatives, but they could not restore the old order. For instance the 1848 revolutionary attempts of the liberals in Germany, Italy etc were suppressed but they convinced the conservatives to go for changes.

The liberals supported the following political, social & economic ideas. i) They emphasized the concept of govt. by consent. ii) They were against autocracy and unjust Privileges and favoured a constitutional & representative govt. through parliament.
iii) They also emphasized freedom for the individual & equality of all before law. iv) In the economic sphere, they emphasized freedom of markets & abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods & capital.

Q2) Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe?
Ans: Culture played an important role to the growth of nationalism in Europe. The contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe can be understood from the following examples.
i) The German Romanticist philosopher Johan Gottfried Herder popularized the true spirit of the nation (volksgeisf) through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances. He insisted on the importance of collecting & recording of different forms of folk culture in the nation building. ii) Poland was divided at the end of 18th century by the great powers namely Russia, Prussia and Austria. Here the nationalist feelings were kept alive & promoted through language & music. e.g. Karol kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas & music. He made folk dances like polonaise & mazurka as the nationalist symbols.
After the Russian occupation, the polish language was forced out of schools & the Russian language was imposed everywhere under the policy of Russification. In response to it , clergy used polish language in church gatherings & all other religious instruction. They promoted polish language as a weapon of national resistance. iii) Due to Greek classical heritage, there was a tremendous sympathy for the Greek cause throughout Europe The scholars and artists praized Greece as they considered it as the cradle of European civilization. During Greek war of independence, achievements and glorious past of Greek was reminded.

Q3) Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Ans: Nationalism that emerged in the 18th century in Europe led to the development of nations over the 19th century . Several nations were formed in the 19th century. However, here we will focus on the development of Germany & Italy as nations.
i) Germany:- The French occupation & congress of Vienna transformed about 200 kingdoms of Germany into a confederation of 39 independent states. German nationalism that emerged during its French occupation was subsequently developed by the inspiration of romanticist ideas. In 1848, liberals tried to unify Germany through Frankfurt assembly but failed because of the opposition & rejection of the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm. In the following decades many Germans turned to Prussia for leadership in the struggle for unification. The CM of Prussia, Otto
Von Bismarck adopted the policy of blood & iron (war diplomacy) with the help of army & bureaucracy. Under this policy Prussia fought 3 wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria & France. This policy resulted into Prussian victory & German unification. On 18 Jan, 1871 William I was proclaimed as the German emperor. This way Germany developed into a nation.
ii) Italy:- Italy was divided into seven states in the middle of the 19th century. Out of these states only one, Sardinia-piedmont was ruled by the Italians themselves. Giuseppe Mazzini who was a liberal revolutionary sought to unify Italy. He formed “Young Italy” but failed to drive Austrians out of Italy in 1848 uprising. After it the responsibility was taken by Sardinia-piedmont. Its CM count Cavour defeated Austria through a diplomatic alliance with france. After it Garibaldi organized “Expedition of the thousand’ to liberate southern Italy from Bourbons. In 1861 victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as the king of united Italy.

Q4) How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Ans: Britain was formed as a nation in a unique way. Unlike France, Italy, Germany etc, it was not formed as a result of a sudden upheaval or revolution, but as a result of a long drawn process.
(i) Before 18th century, primary identities of the people who inhabited British isles were based on their ethnicity such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. The English nation which grew in wealth, importance & power began to extend its influence over other ethnic groups inhabiting the isles. It was during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 that British parliament snatched power from the English Monarch James – II and proved instrumental in establishing a nation state with England at the center. This revolution proved instrumental in forging these ethnic groups.
(ii) The act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the creation of Great Britian. English culture was imposed over Scottish people. This is revealed from the fact that the Catholic clans inhabiting Scottish highlands were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress.
(iii) Ireland suffered a similar fate. It was divided between Catholics & Protestants & here England supported Protestants to establish their dominance over a largely catholic country. Ireland was forcibly made a part of UK through a new act of union in 1801.
(iv) After it, a new British nation began to be formed through the propagation of a dominant English culture. Union Jack (The British flag) , God save our noble king(The national anthem) & English language were actively promoted as a symbols of new Britain.

Q5) Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans? (BOSE)
Ans: The Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe because of the following reasons.
i) The Balkans include present day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro etc. So, it reveals that Balkan was a region of geographical & ethnic variation. This wide diversity of the region led to nationalist tensions.
ii) A large part of Balkans was under Ottoman Empire. The disintegration of the empire & the romantic nationalism made the region highly sensitive. It was so because the Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity & independence.
iii) The Balkan states were jealous of each other as each of them tried to gain more territory at the expense of others.
iv) The Balkan problem became more complicated because of big power rivalry. The European powers such as Russia, Germany, England, Austria and Hungary wanted to took control of the region. This led to a series of Balkan wars which culminated into the outbreak of First World War in 1914.

Lesson No.2 | Nationalism in India

Additional Questions

Q1:Write short note on the Satyagrahas launched by Gandhiji before non-cooperation movement? (BOSE)
Ans : Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation. Gandhiji had faith in satyagraha as non-voilent method of fighting against oppression. He successfully organized satyagraha movements at various places in India . e.g ,
i) Champaran Catyagraha: In 1916,Gandhiji organized champaran satyagraha in Bihar against the oppressive plantation system of indigo planters. His satyagraha forced the Govt. to yield to him and accept to give 25% compensation to the cultivators. ii) Kheda Satyagraha: In 1917,Gandhiji organized a satyagraha to support the peasants of kheda district of Gujrat. Here the peasants were demanding relaxation in the revenue collection because they were affected by crop failure. The Govt. ultimately deffered the payment of revenue to the next year.
iii) Ahmadabad Satyagraha: In 1918, Gandhiji organized a satyagraha movement for the cotton Mill workers of Ahmadabad. Here the workers were demanding increase in the wages. Gandhiji successfully made the Mill owners to declare 35% increase in the wages of workers.

Q2: Write a short note on Khilafat movement? OR Khilafat Agitation:
Ans. During the World War First, Turkey was allied with central powers (Germany and Austria). As the war ended in the defeat of central powers, Turkey was forced to sign humiliating and harsh peace treaty . The Muslims regarded the Sultan of Turkey as their spiritual head. The muslims of India reacted to it and decided to launch a movement against the British in India. In March ,1919, Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay by Hasrat Mohani, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal to defend the Khalifa”s tempered powers and a Khilafat movement was launched by Indian muslims under the leadership of Mohammad Ali and Showkat Ali . Their main demands were:
(i) The Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim holy places.
(ii) He must be left with his pre-war territories so that he could maintain his position as the head of Islamic world.
(iii) Jazirat-ul Arab must not be under non-Muslims control.
Gandhi found an opportunity, supported Khilafat cause in a bid to bring the Muslims into the mainstream of Indian Nationalism. In February 1920 Gandhiji suggested the Khilfat committee to adopt a programme of Non-violent and Non-Cooperation Movement. The Khilafat committee unanimously accepted the suggestion of Non-Cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.
However in 1922, Turkey became a republic under Mustfa Kamal pasha “Atatruk”. The Khalifa was overthrown. The Khilfat movement ended in India

Q3: What idea Gandhiji expressed in Hind Swaraj?
Why Gandhiji believed in Non-Cooperation movement ?
Ans: Hind Swaraj is the book written by Gandhiji in 1909. The book shows his faith in Non cooperation In this book Gandhiji declared that the British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians and had survived only because of this cooperation. Now, if Indians refused to cooperate, British rule will collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.

Q4: Why Civil Disobedience movement was launched? What was the programme of the Movement? Briefly describe the course of civil disobedience movement ? (BOSE)
Ans: The main causes of the civil disobedience movement were:
(i) Simon commission and its failure :- The Tory Govt. in Britain constituted the statutory commission under Sir John Simon in November, 1927. The Simon commission was to review the operation of the constitutional system in India. Non-inclusion of Indians in the commission provoked protests from all the political groups in Indian and resulted in a nation wide boycott participated by both congress and the Muslim league, when the Simon commission arrived India in 1928, it was greeted with slogans like “Go Simon Go Back”.
(ii) The launch of a radical movement for complete independence:- Radical leaders of congress like Jawaharlal Nehru and S. C. Bose wanted mass radical agitation and demanded complete independence. The Nehru demanded for Purna Swaraj, but Simmon commission was not in a mood to meet this demand. The congress leaders got angry.
(iii)The adverse effect of economic depression on peasants:- Due to world wide economic depression, the prices of exportable agricultural cash crops went down steeply by about 50 percent affected the peasants. While the income of the peasantry was going down, the amount of revenue settled previously remained static, as Govt. was in no mood to remit the revenue. This situation helped congress to mobilize the peasantry
(iv) The real nature of the British rule was exposed . Indian nationalists realized that the British rule has exploited India politically ,spiritually, economically and culturally .
Keeping the above cited points into consideration ,nationalists resolved in the Lahore congress of Dec ,1929 to start a mass civil disobedience movement under Gandhiji for the attainment of purna swaraj (complete independence). Gandhiji served an eleven point ultimatum to lord Irwin.
The important demands were :
(i) Salt tax and Salt Monoplay should be abolished.
(ii) Military expenditure should be reduced by 50% to begin with.
(iii) Protection of Indian textiles and shipping.
(iv) The rupee – sterling ratio should be reduced .
(v) Land Revenue should be reduced by half and made a subject of legislative control.
(vi) All political prisoners should be discharged
Lord Irwin was to fulfill the demands by march 1930.As he failed to respond to the demand, Gandhiji started the movement on 12 march,1930 with the historic Dandi March.


The programme of the movement was as follows:
(i) Breaking of salt law by manufacturing of salt and sale of salt.
The choice of breaking of salt law as the central issue was a deliberate attempt of Gandhi, as a highly emotive issue with great publicity value. Salt was a commodity, consumed by all sections of the society.
(ii) Boycott of foreign cloth and liquor.
(iii) Non – payment of revenue in the ryotwari areas, and non-payment of chaukidari taxes in the Zamindari areas.
(iv) Violation of forest laws in the central provinces.


The movement started with the famous Dandi March in which Gandhiji broke the salt law on 6th April 1930.The movement spread rapidly across the country. The people violated the colonial laws e.g ; tribals defied forest laws. People burnt foreign cloth and picketted liquor shops. Peasents refused to pay revenue .
Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan organized Khudai Khitmatgars in NWFP to fight against the
British .

To curb the movement, Govt began to arrest congress leaders. Khan Abdul Gaffer khan ,Gandhiji, Nehru were arrested .By the end of 1930, about 100,000 people were arrested & jailed.
Gandhiji suspended the movement on 5 March,1931. He signed a pact with Irwin (GandhiIrwin pact) and participated in the 2nd round table conference at London. The failure of the conference made Gandhiji to resume the movement on his return to India in 1931. However ,due to the outright repression of the Govt, the movement lost its momentum and was called off in May,1934

Q5: Name the social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Why they participated? What swaraj meant to them?
Ans: The social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement were, i) Rich peasant communities, like patidars of Gujrat and the jats of U.P .
ii) Poor peasants iii) Indian industrial or business class.

i) RICH PEASANT COMMUNITIES : The economic depression and fall in the agricultural prices badly affected the rich peasants who were producing cash crops.Their demand of reduction in the revenue was refused by the Govt. So they joined the movement because of their resentment against the Govt. They considered the movement was against high revenue demand and swaraj meant freedom from high revenues.
ii) POOR PEASANTS : The poor peasants were struggling with their subsistence .They were unable to pay the revenue. So ,they participated in the movement against British.They thought swaraj meant remission of unpaid rent to landlords and reduction of land revenue.
iii) INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS CLASS: The business classes demanded encouragement and protection of their interests from the Govt. They had already organized themselves as they formed Indian Industrial and commercial congress in 1920 and the Federation of Indian chamber of commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.They whole heartedly participated in the movement.
The swaraj to them meant end of colonial restrictions on business and flourishing of trade and industry .

Q6: What role did women play in civil disobedience movement ? What swaraj meant to them ?
Ans: An important feature of the civil disobedience movement was large scale participation of the women.Thousands of women came out of their homes to listen Gandhiji during his salt march.They took part in protest marches ,defied salt law,picketted foreign cloth and liquor shops.In urban areas they came from high caste families and in rural areas ,they came from rich peasant families .They considered their participation in the movement as a sacred duty. The swaraj to them meant increased public role. However, Gandhiji believed that the duty of women was to look after home and hearth.

Q7: What were the limitations of civil disobedience movement ?
Ans: Civil Disobedience Movement and its abstract concept of swaraj failed to mobilize all social groups.The limitations of the movement were :
i) Untouchables or depressed class did not participate in the movement.Congress for long ignored dalits because of the fear of high caste hindues.Although Gandhiji tried to secure temple entry,access to public wells ,roads and schools for them. However, dalit leaders wanted political solution like reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate to end their social disabilities. The difference between congress and dalit leaders led to the limited participation of dalits,in the movement.
i) Muslim league also did not show interest in the civil disobedience movement due to rise in hindu communalism and differences between congress and Muslim League over the question of representation of muslims in future assemblies.
ii) Working class also did not respond to the movement fully.The workers distrusted the congressmen because they were more close to industrialists during the movement.

Q8: What were the factors that promoted sense of collective identity or Nationalism among Indians?
Ans: The sense of collective identity or nationalism means that all the people inhabiting a particular area or territory are part of one nation. The various factors which promoted this sense of collective belonging or identity among Indians were:

i) UNITED STRUGGLE AGAINST BRITISH COLONIALISM :The British colonialism exploited and oppressed almost every section of Indian society.These different sections for sometime struggled separately and at different times. But at one stage,all these sections realized that the source of their problems is one i.e., British colonialism .This developed common feeling of oppression among them and they started to organize united struggles against British to free their country.So,the united struggles helped in fostering sense of collective belonging among Indians.
ii) CULTURAL PROCESSES : A variety of cultural processes were started by Indians to capture the imagination of the people.In the history actions,folklore and songs,popular
prints and symbols played a vital role e.g, The image of Bharat Mata which was first created by Bankim Chandra chattopadhyaya symbolised Indian nation.He also wrote “vande Matram” in 1870’s as a hymn to the motherland.Devotion to Bharat Mata was seen as an evidence of one’s nationalism.

iii) ICONS AND SYMBOLS: Nationalists used icons and symbols to promote sense of collective belonging among the people.e.g During swadeshi movement a tri-colour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed . In 1921,Gandhiji designed a swaraj flag.These flags gave collective identity to the people.

iv) RE-INTERPRETATION OF HISTORY : Responding to the belief and challenge of British that Indians had limited past and were primitive and backward,Indians wrote about their glorious past.They highlighted the Indian advancement in science , mathematics, art, architecture ,philosophy etc.This fostered sense of pride and collective belonging among Indians.

Q9: Why Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement attracted large sections of the society ?
Ans: Gandhiji presented eleven demands to Lord Irwin,viceroy of India before launching Civil Disobedience Movement.These demands were of both general interest and specific interest.The demands were so wide ranging that there was something for every section of Indian society.
The most important of all these demands was abolition of salt tax because it touched every section of Indian society and was most important for all rich and poor .

Q10: How was Civil Disobedience Movement different from Non-Cooperation Movement

Ans: In Non-cooperation movement ,people were asked not to cooperate with the British, whereas in civil disobedience movement ,they had not only to refuse cooperation with British but to break the colonial laws.

Q11: When was Gandhi-Irwin pact signed ?what were the terms of the pact ?

Ans: Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 05 March , 1931 CE between Gandhiji, leader of civil disobedience movement and lord Irwin,viceroy of India.
The terms of the pact were:
i) Lord Irwin agreed to release all political prisoners.
ii) He also accepted the right of Indians to manufacture and consume salt. iii) Gandhiji accepted to suspend the civil disobedience movement and participate in the 2nd round table conference.

Q12: Why and when was Poona pact signed ?
Ans: British govt announced seperate electrote for dalits in August 1932 .Gandhiji reacted strongly against it and began fast unto death against it in poona jail . Gandhiji believed that dalits were a part of hindu community & separate electorate would slow down their integration into society .Deteriorated health of Gandhiji forced the leader of dalits ,Ambedkar to sign a pact with Gandhiji.The pact was signed between the two leaders in September in 1932 C.E
According to the pact ,Depressed classes were given reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils ,but they had to accept join electorate with other hindus.

Q13: How was swadeshi flag different from swaraj flag?
Ans: In 1905,swadeshi flag was designed (red,green,&yellow).It had 8 Lotuses representing 8 provinces of British India and a cresent and moon representing hindus and muslims.
In 1921,Gandhiji designed swaraj flag.It was also a tri-colour ( red, green & white) .It had a spinning wheel at centre representing Gandhian ideal of self help.

Q14) What was the importance of Lahore session of congress held in Dec, 1929 CE?
Ans: In Dec, 1929 CE annual session of congress was held at Lahore under the presidentship of J.L Nehru. The importance of the Lahore Congress is revealed from the following decisions of the session.
i) Congress adopted “Purna Swaraj” or complete independence as its goal.
ii) It was decided in the session that the goal of complete independence will be achieved
by launching a full flegged “Civil Disobedience Movement” against British Colonialism.
iii) 26 Jan. was decided to be celebrated as the Independence Day. The first Independence Day was celebrated on 26 Jan, 1930.

Q.15) What did the slogan of Swaraj mean? How was the slogan of Complete Independence different from it? When and where was the slogan of complete independence adopted? (BOSE)
Ans) The slogan of Swaraj meant different to different sections of the society. Different sections interpreted swaraj in their own ways. E.g For a peasant, it meant reduction of revenue, abolition of oppression of Talukdar‟s for tribals it meant abolition of forest laws, free entry to forests etc.
On the otherhand, Poorna-Swaraj or complete independence was adopted by congress in its Lahore in 1929. It was clearly defined unlike term swaraj. Congress rejected the vague offer of Dominian status and decleared Poorna-Swaraj as its goal. British should grant complete independence to India, let Indians to handle or their own affairs of the country.

Textual Questions (Write in brief)
1. Explain
a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-Colonial movement?

Ans: Nationalism in Europe is usually associated with the formation of Nation states. However, in the Colonies like India, growth of nationalism is intimately linked to anti – Colonial movement. It is rightly said that nationalism in the Colonies developed partly as a result of & partly as a reaction to the policies of the Colonizers. The Colonial rule negatively affected the different sections of the people in the Colonies which developed a common feeling of oppression among them. It provided them a good platform for the exchange of nationalist and liberal ideas. The common sense of oppression and exploitation brought together the people of different castes, classes & communities to fight against the Colonial rule. So, the antiColonial movement resulted in the growth of nationalism in the Colonies.
b) How the First World War helped in the growth of national movement in India? (BOSE)
Ans: The First World War (1914-18) was an event of far-reaching significance. It transformed the Indian national movement into a mass movement, as it added to the mesiries of the different sections of the Indian society. The contribution of First World War in the growth of Indian national movement is highlighted in the following points.
i) The First World War led to huge increase in defence expenditure. The result was huge national debt. It was met by increasing taxes, raising of customs duties, war loans & introduction of income tax. These measures created economic hardships for Indians as the prices doubled between 1913 & 1918. ii) The failure of crops in 1918-19 & 1920-21 in many parts of India led to acute food shortages. . The further shortage of food crops was due to export of food to feed the army fighting abroad It was accompanied by influenza epidemic which claimed 12 to 13 million lives. iii) Between the years of 1914 and 1923 forced recruitment for the army was going on without interruptions, from rural areas of India caused widespread reaction against British.
This all helped in the growth of national movement in India. This is evident from the fact that the national movement spread to new areas, incorporated new social groups & developed new modes of struggle after the war.

c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act? (BOSE)
Ans: The Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act because of the following reasons:
i) Despite the united opposition of the Indian members, the imperial legislative council hurriedly passed this Act.
ii) The Act was totally against the expectations of the Indians as they expected the establishment of a responsible Govt. after the World War – I.
iii) The Act denied “protection of law” to Indians as it empowered the Govt. to arrest a person on mere doubt & detain him for two years without trial.
iv) It strengthened the hands of Colonial Govt. to repress the political activities of Indian nationalist and revolutionaries.
This “Black Act” was strongly reacted by the Indians. Gandhiji in protest called for nation-wide hartal on 6th April, 1919.

(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the non-cooperation movement? (BOSE)
Ans: Non –cooperation movement began in January 1921.However, Gandhiji withdrew it in Feb, 1922 because it took a violent turn. Gandhiji firmly believed in the philosophy of Ahimsa or non-violence. He had at the very beginning declared non-cooperation movement to be a non- violent movement. However, on 3rd Feb, 1922 at Chauri-Chaura in Gorakhpur district of U.P. people burnt alive 22 policemen by burning a local police station. Here Gandhiji withdrew the movement realizing that it took a violent turn. He felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass movement. So, they need to be trained to understand how to carry a non-violent struggle successfully.

Q2) What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha? (BOSE)
Ans: (i) The chief aspect of Gandhi‟s ideology was Satyagraha. Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation experimented & developed by Gandhiji against racist Govt. of South Africa. Confident over its success, Gandhiji adopted it to fight against the British Govt. of India.
(ii) It includes the means like hartals, peaceful demonstrations, boycott, picketting etc.
(iii) Gandhi defined it as truth force or Soul force. It emphasized the power of truth and need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iv) In more practical terms it meant civil-disobedience. Non-violence or ahimsa was the cardinal principal of his message which was non -negotiable under all circumstances
(v) It was based on the premise of superior moral power of the protestors capable of changing the heart of the oppressor through a display of moral strength.
(vi) To win the battle through non-violence the Satyagraha could do it by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. The oppressor had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.

Q3) Write a newspaper report (short note ) on
a) The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre/ Brutality of British in open/ The most brutal incident in the Indian history.
Ans: On 13th April 1919, a large crowd of about 10000 people had assembled in the enclosed Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. Some had come to protest against the repressive measures of the British Govt. & others to attend the annual Baishakhi fair. The people were mostly unaware about the imposition of Marshall Law in the city.
General Dyer, the British military commander plugged off all the possible exits & without any warning ordered his troops to open fire on the peaceful & unarmed protestors. The firing lasted for 10 minutes resulting into death of about 1000 civilians & wounded about 2000. The incident is popular in history as “Jallianwala Bagh Massacre”.
The incident proved a turning point in the Indian national movement. The brutal memories passed on from generation to generation & ultimately freed India from the British imperialism. The event was later described by General Dyer before the Hunter commission as the one meant for “producing a moral effect” among the Indians.

b) Simon Commission:
Racism on peak-Appointment of an All out White commission. OR Why & how did the Indians Protest against Simon Commission.
In Nov, 1927 Tory Govt. in Britain appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The commission was to look into the working of 1919 constitutional reforms in India & suggest changes.
The appointment of the commission sparked off a wave of protest all over India as all the seven members of the commission were Englishmen (whites). The exclusion of Indians in the commission mobilized the Indians to start a new phase of struggle against British rule. Therefore, the congress in its Madras session of Dec, 1927 decided to boycott the commission. So, when the Simon commission arrived in India on 03 Feb, 1928, it was welcomed by Nation-wide hartal, black flags & the slogans of “Go back Simon”. The appointment of the Simon commission broke lull in the national movement which prevailed in it since the withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement.

Q4) Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this Chapter (Nationalism in India) with the image of Germania in chapter 1(The rise of Nationalism in Europe).

Ans: The artists in Europe tried to give a concrete shape to the abstract ideas of nationalism, liberty etc through personification. Same trend was followed by the Indian artists during the Indian National movement. The comparison between Germania & Bharat Mata is highlighted in the following points.

Germania Bharat Mata
i) Germania, the female allegory of German nation was believed to instill nationalist feelings among the German people. i) The devotion of people to Bharat Mata inspired nationalists to unify Indians & achieve freedom.
ii) Germania stood as personifications of the revolutionary ideals like „liberty‟ and „the Republic. ii) The images of Bharat Mata came to be seen as symbols of nationalism.

iii) Germania was portrayed in visual representations wearing a crown of oak leaves. As the German oak stands for heroism, so it was aimed to develop heroism among Germans iii) Bharat Mata had been shown by different artists in different ways. Abanindranath Tagore painted Bharat Mata as a calm, composed, divine & spiritual figure. This was an attempt to present the character of India before the world. But, in another figure she is shown with a Trishul standing besides a lion & an elephant symbolizing the power & authority of India.
iv) As Germania did not reflect any religious basis in making Germania, it did not create any controversy among the people of Germany iv) As the concept of Bharat Mata is linked with Hinduism, it played an indirect role in the spread of communalism in pre-independent India.

Q1) List all the different social groups which joined the non-cooperation movement of 1921.Then choose any three & write about their hopes & struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans: Non cooperation movement began in Jan, 1921 & was withdrawn in Feb, 1922.The different social groups which joined the movement are enlisted as under:
i) Middle-class (students, teachers, lawyers etc) in the towns.
ii) Tribals in the hilly areas.
iii) Plantation workers.
iv) Peasants in the countryside.
In the non-cooperation movement various social groups participated, but each with its own specific aspirations or hopes. Here we will highlight the hopes & struggles of three different social groups.
i) Peasants: In the countryside, the movement incorporated the peasant struggles. The peasants directed their movements against oppressive landlords e.g. In Awadh, peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar & social boycott of oppressive landlords. So, for peasants Swaraj meant freedom from the exploitation of landlords. ii) Tribals: Tribals interpreted the movement in their own way. They hoped that through this movement they could restore their traditional forest rights such as shifting cultivation, hunting & gathering etc. e.g. In Gudem Hills of Andra Pradesh, tribal peasants started a militant guerilla movement against British under Alluri Sitarama Raju.

iii) Plantation Workers: The Gandhian programme & Swaraj was interpreted by plantation workers in their own way. For them swaraj meant freedom to move freely in & out of the confined space of plantations which was denied to them under Inland Emigration Act of 1859. For them non-cooperation programme included defying authorities, leave plantations & move towards home. e.g. for plantation workers of Assam freedom meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.

Q2) Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against Colonialism.
Ans: The civil disobedience movement was started by Gandhiji with his famous salt March on 12 March 1930 CE. He started the March from Sabarmati Ashram along with his 78 trusted followers. They marched on foot about 240 miles for about 24 days & reached Dandhi (a small village on the western coast) on 6 April, 1930.Here, Gandhiji broke the unjust salt law by picking a handful of salt. The salt march was an effective symbol of resistance against Colonialism. This is revealed from the following points.
i) Gandhiji found the salt most powerful thing that could unite the nation as it was a thing consumed by the rich & poor alike. It was one of the essential items of food. ii) The British Govt. of India had monopoly over production of salt & salt tax hit every section of theIndian society. So, to break salt law was seen an act which would give wider base to the anti-colonial movement & shook the British rule. iii) During the course of salt march, thousands of volunteers were attracted towards Gandhiji. Gandhiji urged them to peacefully break the British laws. Thus salt march became an effective instrument of mobilizing people against Colonialism.
(iv) It was an open challenge to British laws as it gathered nationwide support against British & led to the spread of civil disobedience movement.

Q3) Imagine you are a woman participating in the civil disobedience movement. Explain what the xperience meant to your life.
Ans: As a woman, participating in the civil disobedience movement would be great experience for me. I would be highly delighted to become a part of anti-colonial movement. The participation in the movement along with thousands of like minded women for the national cause would raise the status of women in the society. So, participating in the civil disobedience movement provided me a great & cherishing experience in life.

Q4) Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans: Separate electorate system was an important part & feature of the British policy of divide & rule. The political leaders sharply differed over the question of separate electorates because of their respective compulsions & understandings which are described below.
i) The leaders of All India Muslim league, like M.A. Jinnah & Dr. Sir Mohammad Iqbal favoured separate electorate as a safeguard for muslims. They urged that in a Hindu majority country, the interests of the Muslims would suffer without separate electorate.
ii) RSS & Hindu Mahasabha. supported separate electorate, because the situation which forced the muslim leaders to demand for separate electorate was the result of activities of the RSS & Hindu Mahasabha Organisations.
iii) The congress leaders like J.L. Nehru & Gandhiji opposed the system of separate electorates.
They considered it as an obstacle in the way of unity of Indians & the national movement.
Gandhiji even went on fast unto death to convince B.R. Ambedkar for joint electorate. iv) B.R Ambedkar , the leader of the Dalits, supported separate electorate for Dalits. He considered it an important tool for the upliftment of his people & to end the deprivation inflicted on them by the orthodox Brahmans.


Lesson No.3 | The Rise of a Global World

Textual Questions – Write in Brief:

Q1) Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century , choosing one example from Asia & one from the Americas.
Ans: Global exchanges were part of the contacts between the people living in different regions of the world long before the 17th century. The following examples reveal this fact.
i) Example from Asia: The Asian countries like China, India etc exchanged textiles particularly silk and cotton, spices, pottery etc for gold and silver from Europe .Silk routes are the best witness of this fact.
ii) Example from Americas: Many of the common food popular in Asia and Europe came from Americas. These foods include potatoes, Soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes etc. The exchange of these foods became possible only after the discovery of Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 CE.

Q2) Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the Colonisation of the Americas.
Ans: The discovery of Americas by Christropher Columbus in 1492 had a deep impact on the inhabitants of Americas. The European powers such as Spain & Portugal began Colonising Americas for its vast lands , abundant crops & mineral wealth. However, the Colonisation of Americas was not just because of strong fire power of the European powers but because of the biological warfare ( transfer of disease) which played an important role in the Colonisation of Americas. The European powers spread the germs of deadly diseases like Smallpox etc. The Americas had no immunity against these disease because they were isolated from rest of the world. The diseases like Smallpox killed and wiped out whole communities of Americas, paving way for Colonisation. Otherwise Americans could have resisted invaders by weapons, but they had no defence against the germs of the above mentioned diseases.

Q3) Write a note to explain the effects of the following :
(A) The British Govt’s decision to abolish Corn Laws. OR What was the impact of the British Govt’s decision to abolish corn laws?
Ans: The British Govt. abolished Corn Laws under the pressure of industrialists and urban dwellers. They were hit by the high prices of Corn because the Corn Laws had restricted the import of Corn in Britain. The British Goverment‟s decision to abolish Corn laws had the following effects:
i) Import of food grains increased into Britain & imported food was cheaper than what was produced there locally.
ii) The vast areas of land had remained uncultivated which increased unemployment. Peasants flocked in the cities or migrated overseas. iii) Many parts of the world like Russia, America and Australia expanded the land under cultivation to meet the increased demand for food from Britain.

B) The coming of Rinderpest to Africa: OR What was the impact of the coming of Rinderpest to Africa? (BOSE)
Ans: The coming of Rinderpest to Africa in 1890s is a fine example of how imperial powers used diseases like Rinderpest to change livelihoods and economy of colonized societies to fulfill their own interests. The Rinderpest had the following terrifying effects on people”s livelihoods & economy of Africa.
i) The disease killed 90% of the cattle depriving Africans of their source of livelihood.
ii) Colonial Govts’ monopolized the remaining cattle which forced the Africans to work for wages.
iii) It enabled the Colonizer’s to subdue Africans more effectively.

C) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the world war.
What was the impact of the death of men of working – age in Europe because of the world war?
Ans: The First World War was fought between two power groups.The war was of global nature & involved the use of modern weapons. It claimed about 9 million lives & left 20 million wounded in Europe who mostly belonged to working age .So, the death of men of working age in Europe had the following effects.
i) It reduced the men of working-age (able workforce ) in Europe by which industries were affected adversely.
ii) The household incomes reduced considerably as the war left only a few men of working-age (able workforce) members within the family.

D) The Great Depression on the Indian economy:
What was the impact of the Great Depression on the Indian Economy?
Ans: The world wide economic crisis of 1929-1933 CE is generally known as the Great Depression .Owing to the fact that in the early 20th century global economy had become more integrated, the Great Depression had following effects on the Indian economy.
i) The depression greatly affected Indian trade. Indian exports & imports nearly halved between 1928 & 1934 CE.
ii) Peasants were the worst hit by the depression. The agricultural prices fell by 50% & Govt. refused to relax the taxes. The prices of raw jute fell by 60% by which the peasants fell deeper & deeper into debt. iii) The urban dwellers & salaried people with fixed incomes were comparatively less affected.

E) The decision of MNCS to relocate production to Asian Countries:
What was the impact of MNCs to relocate production to Asian Countries?
Ans: Multinational Companies are corporations which operate in several countries simultaneously.
From late 1970s MNC’s began to relocate production to Asian countries because asian countries offered low wage labour in abundance. They had following effects on the Asian countries.
i) It solved the unemployment problem to some extent in Asian countries as Multinational Companies (MNCs) increased job opportunities. ii) It stimulated world trade and capital flow.
iii) It enabled the Asian countries to enjoy the new varieties of things.

Q4) Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
What was the impact of technology on food availability? Explain with the help of examples.
Ans: Technology had a significant impact on food availability .The technological improvements in transport like faster railways, lighter wagons, larger ships, reefers helped in transporting food more cheaply & quickly from far away farms & production centres to different parts of the world. The following examples from history show the impact of technology on food availability.
i) Before the technology of reefers, cattle were shipped alive from America to Europe. It was very costly affair & hence meat was considered as an expensive luxury beyond the reach of European common people. The technology of refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods like meat over long distances. Now it became possible to transport meat instead of live cattle over long distances. This reduced shipping costs & damage & consequently lowered meat prices in Europe. This made meat affordable for the European common people.
i) The Corn Laws which restricted the import of food grains in Britain resulted in the high prices of food stuffs. However, when the Corn Laws were lifted and the technology like steam ships & railways increased the import of food grains from America and Australia. Thus technology played a significant role in the food availability in Britain and also the prices of food grains were lowered considerably.

Q5) What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement? (BOSE)
Ans: The Bretton Woods Agreement was the outcome of United Nations Monetary & Financial Conference held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods (USA) between the industrial countries. It was a framework aimed to preserve economic stability & full employment in the industrial world. It resulted into the formation of International Monetary Fund (IMF) & the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development (World Bank). IMF was to deal with external Surpluses & deficits of the member nations & World Bank was meant to finance postwar reconstruction . Under it the national Currencies followed the fixed exchange rates. Discuss

Q6) Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean . Drawing from the details in this chapter (The Rise of a Global world), write a letter to your family describing your life & feelings.
Dear XYZ
Here, in the Caribbean, the situation is very much different from what I was told in India by the agents .They provided me false information about the work place, modes of travel, nature of work & other living & working conditions. But there is no boarding, lodging, food or medical facility. I have to live at the farm only .The work load is more than my capacity. On making a mistake or incomplete work, I have to undergo penalty or severe punishment. Once I tried to escape, but was caught & punished. My life has become highly miserable. I feel no one would like to work here as an indentured labourer. I would like to return home as soon as my contract expires.

With regards,

Yours ABC

Q7) Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India & Indians, & write a short account of it.
Ans: In the 19th century world economists identified three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange .These flows were interwoven & hence affected lives of the people more deeply. The flows were as follows:
i) Flow of trade: This refers to trade in goods like cloth, wheat etc. among the different countries of the world. This was made possible by the improvement in the means of transport like railways & steam ships.

Example:- In the 19th century, British manufactured goods like textiles flooded Indian markets .By it the Indian weavers were highly affected & most of them quitted their jobs
ii) Flow of Labour: This refers to migration of people from one part of the world to another for seeking jobs. Over the 19th century large number of people migrated from Europe to America.
Example:- Thousands of Indians were taken to Caribbean Islands as indentured labourers by the British to work in plantations and mines. There they were exposed to miserable conditions ii) Flow of Capital: The 19th century also saw the movement of Capital i.e., long term & short term investments over long distances. e.g. Europeans invested in Asia, Africa & Americas to get the huge returns.
Example:- In the 19th century, British industrialists made long term & short term investments in India. They invested in the construction of railways, tea plantations, etc. & made huge profits.

Q8) Explain the causes of Great Depression.
Ans) During the Great depression, there were disastrous declines in production, employment, income and trade. The causes of the Great depression are explained in the following points:
1) The post war world economy was weak. This led to decline in the agricultural prices. To counter this, farmers expanded production to maintain their overall income but this agricultural overproduction made the problem worse. It ruined the people associated with this sector as their produce rotted for lack of buyers.
2) The First World War gave a boost to the US industry. After the war, industries of the US went for mass production of different goods like cars, refrigerators, washing machines etc. Soon there was glut in the market and the US was caught into economic crisis. Now US doubled import duties to protect its economy, but it gave a severe blow to the world trade and led to Great Depression.
3) Around mid 1920s, many European countries had financed their investments through the loan from US. But after the first signs of decline, American capitalists stopped all loans and withdrew most of their loans form the European countries. It affected the world economy, as it led to failure of banks, decline in agricultural prices and collapse of currencies in the world.

Q.9) Explain what is referred to as G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Twins?
Ans) In 1964 seventy- seven less developed countries & developing countries organized themselves as a group, the group of 77 to demand a New International Economic Order (NIEO) before the UN. The NIEO Included the demands like fair prices for the goods of 3rd world countries, better access for their goods in the markets of developed countries etc. This was an attempt of the developing countries to save themselves from neo-colonialism and have a real control over their natural resources. So, they decided to work together to achieve new international economic order.
The G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Twins in the following ways:
a) From late 1950s Bretton Woods Twins i.e. IMF and World Bank shifted their attention towards developing countries. So, the developing countries came under the guidance of international agencies dominated by the former colonial pwers like USA, Britain, France, etc.
b) Due to IMF and World Bank, there was fast growth of the western economies during 1950s and 1960s. But, developing countries could not be benefited by it as their natural resources were again exploited by the industrial nations.

Lesson No.4 | The Age of Industrialisation
Textual Questions
Write in Brief:
Q1) Explain the following: (BOSE)
a) Why the women workers in Britain attacked the spinning Jenny?
Ans: The spinning Jenny devised by James Har greaves speeded up the spinning process. With the help of this machine a worker could spin several threads at the same time. So, this machine reduced the demand of workers for spinning .As women were mostly associated with the spinning .So, the introduction of spinning machine made thousands of women jobless. In response, the women workers who had survived on hand spinning for long attacked the spinning jenny.
b) Why in the Seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants & artisans within the Villages?
Ans: In the 17th & 18th centuries the world trade expanded & the imperialists acquired colonies in different parts of the world. This increased the demand for goods, and the merchants needed to expand production to cater to the increased demand from different parts of the world. The merchants from the towns in Europe began employing peasants & artisans within the villages because of the following reasons:
i) They could not expand production within towns because of the presence of powerful trade guilds who maintained control over production and restricted the entry of new people into the trade. ii) Rulers had granted monopoly to different guilds to produce & trade in specific products.
iii) In the villages peasants & artisans readily agreed to produce goods for the merchants.
c) Why did the port of Surat declined by the end of 18th century?
Ans: A vibrant Sea trade was carried through the port of Surat on the west coast of India involving Indian merchants & bankers. By 1750s, this trade controlled by Indians began to be carried by European companies .They secured monopoly right to trade & shifted their focus on new ports like Bombay & Calcutta. This was an indication of the growth of colonial power. This resulted into the decline of old ports like Surat in the end of the 18th century. This is revealed from the fact that in the last years of 17th century gross value of trade that passed through Surat was Rs. 16 million which declined to Rs. 3 million by 1740s.
d) Why did the East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India?
Ans: After the establishment of political power in India, East India Company began to assert monopoly in trade .It tried to develop a system of management and control to eliminate competition, control costs & ensure regular supplies. One of the steps taken in this direction was the appointment of „gomasthas‟. They were paid servants of East India Company to supervise weavers, collect supplies & examine quality of cloth. This was done to eliminate existing traders & brokers connected with the cloth trade.

Q2) Write true or false against each statement:
a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
Ans: False.
b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
Ans: True.
c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.

Ans: False.
d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Ans: True.

Q3) Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation. (BOSE)
Ans: We usually refer to industrial production with the factory production. But, before factories began to be set up in England & Europe there was large scale industrial production for an international market. This large scale production was not based on factories, but hand-made small production. This large scale industrial production before the appearance of factories is referred to as proto-industrialisation by many historians.


Q1) Why did some industrialists in nineteenth century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Ans: In the 19th century, some industrialists preferred hand labour over machines because of the following reasons.
i) Hand labour was available in plenty. So, industrialists preferred it over machines as hand labourers were working on low wages.
ii) Machines were expensive as they were often breaking down & repairing was a costly affair. So, industrialists preferred hand labour.
iii) In several industries the demand for labour was seasonal because they worked seasonally .e.g. Gas works & breweries, Book-binding & printing had demand during winters. So, here again hand labour was preferred.
iv) Upper classes preferred handmade products as they symbolized refinement & class. e.g. Aristocrats of Victorian Britain preferred hand made products.
v) Machines were unable to produce intricate designs & specific shapes. e.g. In Britain, 500 varieties of hammers were produced .These required human skill i.e. hand labour.

Q2) How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton & silk from Indian weavers?
Ans: After establishing its political power in India, East India Company began to have full control over Indian trade. It established a system of management & control to eliminate competition, control costs & ensure regular supplies of cotton & silk textiles. Under it a number of steps were taken like gomasthas, the paid servants were appointed to supervise weavers, collect supplies & examine the quality of cloth. This was done to eliminate the existing traders & brokers connected with the cloth trade. Besides it, the company prevented weavers from dealing with other buyers by providing advances to them for purchasing raw materials. In this way, the East India Company procured regular supplies of cotton & silk from Indian weavers.

Q3) Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain & the history of cotton .Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Ans : Before the dawn of industrialization , British merchants from the towns began moving to the country-side to supply advance money to the artisans. This was done to cater to the increased demand in the international market. This system developed a close relationship between the towns & the countryside. In it each clothier was controlling hundreds of workers involved with the different stages of production like stapling, carding, spinning, weaving etc. This stage is called proto-industrialization.
The earliest factories in Britain came up by the 1730s & their number increased by late 18th century. The first symbol of new era was cotton & its production boomed in the late 19th century. This is evident from the fact that the Britain was importing only 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industries which increased to 22 million pounds by 1787.Till 1840, cotton was the leading sector in the industrialization. This was so because of the improved technology in this sector like spinning Jenny, power loom, cotton Mill etc. This enabled Britain to establish markets all over its colonies for selling the Manchester made cotton textiles. However, during the world wars, the industries were reorganized in Britain to produce war related goods. This did not prove good for the cotton textiles of Britain because it provided space & scope for the colonies to gear up in the development of cotton textile industries. But still, Britain had enjoyed a good position in world economic history for a long period due to its dominance in cotton trade.
Q4) Why did industrial production in India increase during the first world war? (BOSE)
Ans: The industrial growth in India was very slow before the outbreak of the First World War .The war proved a blessing in disguise for the industrial growth of India which was otherwise discouraged by the British rulers. During the First World War the British industries were reorganized to produce war related goods. This resulted into the decline of imported textiles, steel rails etc. in India. So, the Indian industries got a chance to cater to the demand of domestic market. e.g. By 1919, British Indian Govt. was buying 90% steel from TISCO (Tata Iron & Steel Industries) As the war prolonged , Indian factories were called upon to supply jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents , leather boots etc. So, over the war years industrial production boomed in India. This is evident from the fact that a number of new factories were set up & old ones ran multiple shifts during the war to cater to the demand from domestic & international market.

Lesson No. 05 | Work , Life and Leisure

Additional Questions

Q1) According to Durgacharan Ray’s novel , ‘Debganer Martye Aagaman’ how was the th
‘Calcutta in the 19 century a city of contrasts’?
Ans: In the 19th century Calcutta , there were following contrasting images & experiences.
i) Wealth & Poverty: There were wealthy people like factory owners who lived a luxurious life. But, on the other hand, there were large number of people who ate half bread & lived under open sky.

ii) Splendour & Dirt: These were huge bungalows which reflected the splendor of rich people.But on the other side, there were slums & the atmosphere was polluted with smoke & other wastes released by factories.

iii) Opportunities & disappointments: The city of Calcutta provided opportunities in trade & commerce , education & jobs. But on the other hand, a large number of people roamed the streets because they could not find any employment opportunity.

Q2) How industrialization changed the form or pattern of Urbanization in the modern period.

Ans: Due to industrialization, cities attracted people in large numbers because of increased opportunities of employment. e.g. over the 19th century , London continued to expand & its population increased four times between 1810 & 1880 from 1 million to about 4 million. It hosted clerks, skilled artisans , soldiers , servants , casual labourers etc.

Q3) Explain what led to expansion of Bombay’s population in the 19th century.
Ans: Bombay was taken over by the British from Portuguese in 1661. The British shifted there base in western India from Surat to Bombay in 1684. The expansion of Bombay‟s population was the result of following changes.‟
i) After Bombay was taken over by British, it functioned as a port for the export of raw cotton & opium in large quantities.
ii) In 1919, it was made the capital of Bombay presidency. After this the city expanded quickly because now it became an important administrative centre.The large communities of traders & bankers, artisans etc came to settle in Bombay. iii) The establishment of cotton mills from the mid of 19th century led to fast expansion of Bombay. By 1921, 85 cotton mills in Bombay employed about 146,000 workers . Most of the workers were migrants from neighbouring districts like Ratnagiri.

Q4) What were social changes that took place in the industrial city of London?
Ans: The rise of industries led to change in the pattern of production & consumption. So, it resulted into the following social changes in the industrial city of London.
i) It transformed the function & shape of the family. Prior to industrialization family had been a unit of production & consumption. But now every member could produce & consume indecently in any factory or industry. It changed the structure of family & now nuclear family became the feature of industrial societies. ii) The ties between the members of families turned loose because they had now little or no time to live together, to produce or consume together.

iii) The institution of marriage also turned weak .Now there was not any concrete value of marriage among the working classes. It also affected the women of upper & middle classes & they faced increasingly higher levels of isolation.

Textual Questions – Write in Brief:
Q1) Give two reasons why the population of London expanded from the middle of the 18th century.
Ans) London, the largest city in the world, was a powerful magnet for migrant population .Its population was about 675,000 in 1750 & it multiplied from one million in 1810 to 4 million in 1880 .The two main reasons for this expansion in the population of London were:
i) London was a centre of a wide range of activities. According to historian Gareth Stedman Jones, 19th century London was a city of clerks & shopkeepers, small masters & skilled artisans,Semi skilled and sweated outworkers, soliders & servants etc. So, it provided job opportunities to a large number of people. ii) It was a city with five major types of industries .These include clothing & footwear, wood & furniture, metals & engineering, printing & stationary etc. The industries employed large numbers of workers.

Q2) What were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London between 19th & 20th century ? Explain the factors which led to this change?
Ans) In the late 18th century & early 19th centuries, factories employed large number of women. However, 1861 census recorded that in about 2 ½ lakh domestic servants in London vast majority was of women. Women also got engaged in the activities like tailoring, washing , match box making etc. The world war first again created the demand for women workers in the war time industries & offices. So, thousands of women withdrew from domestic service & began working in war time industries & offices e.g. in ammunition factories.
The first change was the result of technological developments in the factories which decreased the demand for women workers .The second change was the outcome of First World War. A huge manpower was required for the war .So, women replaced men in the factories.

Q3) How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following ?
Illustrate with historical examples.
A) A private landlord?
Ans: The existence of a large urban population benefit a private landlord. The people who migrate into the city don‟t have homes to live in. Therefore, Private landlord will built tenements or chawls on his land.He will put them on rent & make huge profits from his land. e.g. The increased pressure on Bombay’s housing was responded by the private landlords. They built chawls (multi-storeyed structures) on their lands and put them on high rents. Many chawls in Bombay were owned by private landlords. They earned huge money out of it. It appeared to them a quick way of earning money from anxious workers.

B) A police Superintendent in charge of law & order?
Ans: A large urban population would increase the responsibility & accountability of a police superintendent in charge of law & order .The large number of migrants would increase the pressure on law & order situation. Sometimes they may also go for protest or demonstrations to fulfill their demands from Govt. or industrialists .e.g. The growth of population in London led to growth of crime. In 1870, there were about 20,000 criminals .The police became highly concerned about the law & order problem in London. So, automatically it increased the pressure & responsibility of police superintendent.

C) A leader of a political party?
Ans: A large Urban population would mostly benefit a leader of a political party. He can develop a good following for himself & his party by addressing to the demands & grievances of urban population. He can organize the movements of workers to gain popularity & support for his party. e.g. Chartist movement in England was a direct result of large Urban population in London.

Q4) Give explanations for the following:
a) Why well-off Londoners supported the need to build housing for the poor in the 19th century? (BOSE)
Ans: The well off Londoners first demanded that slums be cleared away. But later on they supported the need to built housing for the poor in the 19th century because of the following reasons.
i) The vast mass of one room houses occupied by the poor were seen as a serious threat to public health. They were overcrowded, badly ventilated & lacked Sanitation. ii) The well off Londoners were worried about fire hazards created by poor housing.
iii) There was a widespread fear of social disorder. So, worker’s mass housing schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.
iv) Slums decreased average life expectancy of labourers to 29 years compared to 55 years among higher classes.
b) Why a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants? (BOSE)
Ans) There is no denying the fact that most of the film makers , actors, singers , writers in Bombay film industry were migrants.They mostly came in Bombay from Lahore,Calcutta & Madras.They had themselves experienced the hardships in their lives as migrants. They encountered with real pressures of life. Therefore, to reflect what they faced, a number of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants. e.g. CID of 1956, Guest House of 1959.Besides, the migrant labourers & factory workers who lived a miserable life in Bombay were made the themes for films.

c) What led to the major expansion of Bombay’s population in the mid-19th century?

Ans: Bombay, the prime city of India expanded after it was taken by the British from the
Portuguese. However, in the mid-19th century, there was major expansion of Bombay’s population largely because of the establishment of textile mills. The first cotton textile mill was set up in 1854 & by 1921, there were 85 cotton mills in Bombay with about 146,000 workers. So, cotton mills of Bombay proved a great attraction for the migrants that led to its major expansion.


Q1) What form of entertainments came up in 19th century England to provide leisure activities for the people? (BOSE)
Ans: The industrial England provided opportunities for mass work & created the problem of mass leisure. Efforts were made by the Govt. & other agencies to cater to the demand of mass leisure. The following forms of entertainment came up in 19th century England to provide leisure activities for the people.
i) For wealthy Britishers there was an annual “London Season”. In it several cultural events such as the opera, the theatre, and classical music performances were organized for an elite group of 300-400 families. ii) For working classes, pubs were set up where they exchanged news and had a drink etc.
iii) Libraries, art galleries & museums were established as new types of large scale entertainment for the common people .They were to serve another purpose also that is to provide people with a sense of history and pride in the achievements of the British. iv) Music halls became popular among lower classes.
v) Cinema became great mass entertainment for mixed audiences.

Q2) Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the underground railway. Why was the development of the underground railway criticized?
Ans: The population of London expanded rapidly from one million in 1810 to about 4 million in 1880 due to industrialization & new job opportunities it provided to the people. This led to some social changes like flourishing of crime, congested & overcrowded localities, creation of slums etc. In response to these changes, a variety of steps were taken to de-congest localities, reduce pollution & clean up London. As a result the people began to be shifted in the outskirts of London. This led to the development of Suburbs & extension of the city beyond the range where people could walk to work. It made new forms of mass transport absolutely necessary so that people could be persuaded to leave the city & live in garden Suburbs. This problem was solved by underground railway as it carried large masses of people to & from the city. The first section of the underground railway was opened on 10 January 1863 in London.
The underground railway was a new experience for the people .They were afraid to travel Underground because the atmosphere was filled with sulphur, coal dust & foul fumes. There was problem of suffocation as well. So the people felt that the „iron monsters‟ added to the mess & unhealthiness of the city. Besides, the making of Underground railway led to massive destruction. This is evident from the fact that to make about 2 miles of railway, 900 houses had to be destroyed. It also led to displacement of London poor on a large scale. For all these reasons the development of Underground railway was criticized by the people.

Q3) Explain what is meant by the Haussmanisation of Paris. To what extent would you support or oppose this form of development? Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper, to either support or oppose this, giving reasons for your view.
Ans: Haussmanisation of Paris refers to the re-building of Paris by Baron Haussman. He was appointed by Louis Napoleon III as the chief architect of the new Paris. For 17 years, Haussmann rebuilt Paris .He designed broad avenues or boulevards , open spaces , new streets , straight sidewalks & transplanted full grown trees in the city of Paris. The poor were evicted from the centre of Paris to reduce the possibility of political rebellion & to beautify the city. Besides, policemen were employed & bus shelters & tap water introduced in the city.
Haussmanisation of Paris can neither be fully supported nor fully opposed as there were both positive & negative effects by it. The name of Baron Haussmann for some time come to stand for forcible reconstruction of cities. It led to the displacement of about 350,000 people from the centre of Paris. It rendered thousands of people homeless. Some claimed that Haussmann had killed the city & its life.
However, the Haussmanisation of Paris proved good in the long run. The outcry against Haussman‟s Paris soon got converted into civic pride as the new capital became the toast of all Europe .It became main centre of many architectural , social & intellectual developments that were very influential in the 20th centur

Letter to the Editor
To the editor, AB
The Haussmanisation of Paris is an important achievement of the French nation. Baron Haussmann with the consent of Louis Napolean , the emperor of France has taken a very bold step to modernize Paris. The broad avenues, open spaces, new streets , straight sidewalks etc gave a modern global look to the city of Paris. It prepared citizens of Paris for a better standard of life as night patrols, bus shelters tap water etc have been introduced. Due to this development; the city became the hub of many architectural, social and intellectual developments. Tourism industry of France has started to flourish due to well planned modern & clean city of Paris. In short, the rebuilding of Paris by Baron Haussmann will increase the reputation of France in the world.
Q4) To what extent does Govt. regulation & new laws solve problem of pollution? Discuss one example each of the success & failure of legislation to change the quality of
a) Public life (b) Private life
Ans: The Govt. regulation & new laws solve the problem of pollution to a considerable extent. However, for better results these laws need to be properly enforced by the concerned agencies. In this direction, the public awareness programmes can also help to a large extent .The success & failure of legislation depends on the seriousness of the Govt. & its agencies. The examples of the success & failure of legislation to change the quality of public & private life are given as under:

Examples of success of legislation to change the quality of:
a)Public life: In the project of land reclamation in Bombay, William Hornby (Governor of Bombay) approved the building of the Great sea wall to prevent the flooding of the lowlying areas of Bombay. It increased the commercial & housing space in Bombay & hence improved the quality of public life.
b) Private life: Between the two world wars (1919-1939) the British Govt. constructed about 1 million houses with the help of local authorities. This decision solved the housing problems for millions of workers .So, it provided comfort to them in their private life.

Examples of failure of legislation to change the quality of:
a) Public life: The Rent Act of 1918 was passed by the colonial Govt. in Bombay presidency to keep the rents reasonable .But it proved a failure because landlords withdrew houses from the market leading to severe housing crisis.
b) Private life: The British Govt‟s decision to lay underground railways created havoc in the private lives of people. Their houses were demolished & they faced hardships due to smoke etc.

Activity based questions
Q1) Can you think of appropriate examples from Indian history for each of these categories : a religious centre, a market town, a regional capital , a metropolis? Find out about the history of any one of them.
Ans: i) Religious centre—— Ajmer
ii) Market Town———– Murshidabad iii) Regional capital ——– Dhar (M.P)
iv) Metropolis———- Pataliputra (Patna)
Dhar is a district in present M.P. It was known as Dhar Nagri in ancient times. It had been a regional capital in Ancient & Medieval India. The famous parmar King, Bhoj made it his capital.

Q2) Imagine that you are a newspaper reporter writing a piece on the changes you see in London in 1811. What problems you likely to write about? Who would have gained from the changes?
Ans: As a newspaper reporter, I would be writing a piece on the following problems in London in 1811.
i) Criminal activities. ii) Problems of housing faced by migrants iii) Child labour.
iv) Congestion & pollution.
According to me, the industrialists & Capitalists living in London would have gained from the changes taking place in London.

Q3) In many cities of India today, there are moves to clear away slums where poor people live .Discuss whether or not it is the responsibility of the government to make arrangements for houses for these people.
Ans: It is good move to clear away slums where poor people live because they are prone to diseases & they often indulge in criminal activities. But at the same time, it is the responsibility of the Govt. to make proper arrangements for houses for these people.

Q4) Imagine you are investigating the conditions in which the London poor lived. Write a note discussing all the dangers to public health which were created by these conditions.
Ans: The poor people living in London are exposed to health problems .This is due to poor housing conditions in which they live. They live in one room houses which is favourable for spreading infectious diseases among the roommates .Besides, due to lack of gardens & open spaces there is high pollution which creates health problems among them.

Q5) What are the common features & contradictory features of city life in Bombay & Calcutta?
Ans: Bombay & Calcutta are crowded cities. There mostly western style Indians live. Both have industrial units , offices & mills. Contradictory features:
In Calcutta, young men enjoy themselves by roaming in groups & by knocking at people”s doors. Whereas, in Bombay people are more busy in themselves. They remain more busy with their own work rather than disturbing others.

Lesson No. 6 | Print Culture and Modern World
Additional Questions

Q1: Discuss in brief the development of print culture in china?
Ans: The development of print culture in china is very interesting. In the beginning, china had a system of woodblock printing in which paper was rubbed against the inked surface of woodblocks. In the 16th century print culture flourished because of the increase in the number of candidates participating in the civil service examination. In the 17th century, print culture diversified due to the bloom of urban culture. There were now fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographies and romantic plays available. People began to read them in the leisure time. In the 19th century there was gradual shift from hand printing to mechanical printing. This happened because the western powers established western printing presses in their outposts in china. e.g.: shanghai became the hub of the new print culture in china.
Q2) How did print culture develop in Europe? Explain.
Ans: Initially hand-written books were produced in Europe. In 1295, Marcopolo brought the technology of woodblock printing from China to Italy from where it spread to other parts of Europe. With the increased demand for books, booksellers began to employ scribes to work for them. By the early 15th century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe for printing books, playing cards, & religious pictures. However, there was a great need for more quicker & cheaper reproduction of books etc. This resulted into the invention of printing press by Johann Gutenberg at Strasberg, (Germany) in the 1430s. The production of books boomed between 1450 & 1550 as printing presses were set up in most of the European countries .This is evident from the fact that about 20 million copies of printed books were in the European markets by the 2nd half of 15th century.The figure went up to 200 million in the 16th century.

Q3) How print introduced a new world of debate & discussion?
Ans: Before the age of print, the circulation of ideas was very limited. However, the print culture created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas. On the other hand print transformed the hearing public into reading public. This introduced a new world of debate & discussion. Everybody could now print & circulate their ideas to persuade the people to think differently & take action against evils & wrong things prevalent in the society. e.g. Martin Luther convinced the people through his “Ninety five thesis” to revolt against the catholic church. Likewise the French thinkers like Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire etc. created the conditions for French Revolution as their ideas reached to wide public through print.

Q4) How did printing press create a new reading public?
Ans: Print transformed the lives of the people by changing their relationship to information & knowledge .Printing reduced the cost of books & made books available even to the common people .Now people had easy access to books & it created a new culture of reading. Before print culture, reading was restricted to the elites & common people lived in a world of oral culture. But now, books could reach to wider sections of people by which reading public emerged in the society.

Q5) How did the publishers persuade the common people to welcome the printed books in Europe? (BOSE)
Ans: The transition of people from hearing public to reading public was not a simple affair. When the publishers produced books in large numbers, they had to persuade the common people to welcome the printed book. But, here a problem arised, that of illiteracy which was high in most European countries at that time. So, the publishers began publishing popular ballads & folk tales with beautiful illustrations of pictures. This was done keeping in view the wider reach of the printed books.

Q6) What do you know about reading mania?
Ans: Reading mania means extremely strong desire or enthusiasm of the people towards reading .During the 17th & 18th century the literacy rates went up in Europe ranging from 60% to 80% in some parts of Europe by the end of 18th century. This great increase in the literacy rates created reading mania in Europe. Owing to the great demand printers produced books in ever-increasing numbers. They introduced new form of popular literature like almanacs, ballads, folktales, romances, substantial histories etc to attract new readers.

Q7) What were the innovations in the printing technology during the 19th century & 20th century in Europe ?
Ans: There were several innovations in the printing technology during the 19th and 20th century. Some of them were:
i. The power driven cylindrical press was perfected by Richard M. Hoe of New York. It was first used in 1847. It was capable of producing 8000 sheets per hour. So, it was particularly used for printing newspapers.
ii. The offset press was developed by Robert Barclay of England in 1875. It was capable of printing upto 6 colours at a time.
iii. Electrically operated presses came up in the beginning of the 20th century. They accelerated the printing operations.
iv. In the 20th century, the quality of plates improved, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced.
v. Dust cover or the book jacket is also a 20th century innovation.

Q8) Describe how books were produced in India before the age of print.
Ans: In India, there was rich tradition of handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Persian & other Vernacular languages. They were written on handmade papers or on palm leaves at times with beautiful illustrations. They were then either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure their preservation & to give them a shape of a book. These manuscripts were expensive, fragile & difficult to handle.

Q9) Describe the growth of press in the 19th century India.
Ans: The history of printing press in India goes back to 1556. In this year Portuguese missionaries introduced printing press in India at Goa. By 1674 , it produced 50 books in konkan & Kanara languages for the spread of Christianity .
The British East India Company set up a printing press in India in 1684. In 1780 , James Augustus Hickey started a weekly named “Bengal Gazette”.But, it could not produce any results as it was stopped in the same year for not promoting the economic interests of the company & criticizing the govt. The real growth of the Indian press was seen in the 19th century .Raja Rammohan started two papers, Sambad Kamudi in Bengali & Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian in early 1820s. Likewise, Dadabhai Naoroji started Rast Guftar.These papers were devoted to social reformation.
In the 2nd half of 19th century, many English newspapers were started in India. The times of India, The pioneer were the papers which supported British Govt”s polices in India. However, Amrit Babar Patrika, The Hindu, strongly criticized the polices of British Govt.

Q10) What was the role of print in the religious reforms in India?
Ans: Refer to Q No. 3 part C (write in brief)

Q11) What was the objective of caricatures & cartoons in the late 19th century in India?
Ans: Caricatures & cartoons began to be published in journals & newspapers towards the late 19th century .They ridiculed educated Indians, fascination with western tastes & clothes. They also expressed the fear of social change in India .Some of them criticized imperial rule in India.

Q12) What was the impact of print culture on Indian women? Ans: Refer to Q.No. 3 part a (write in brief)

Q13) Describe some of the women writers in the 19th century India.
Ans: i) Kailashbashini Debi:- Kailashbashini Debi was a Bengali writer. She highlighted the problems of women in her books. The problems highlighted by her included confinement of women at home, ignorance, forced domestic labour & unjust treatment within the family.
ii) Rashsundari Debi:- She was also a Bengali women writer .she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876.It was the first full length autobiography published in Bengali language.
iii) Tarabai Shinde:- Tarabai Shinde was from Maharashtra .She wrote „Stripurushtulna‟ in which she compared women & men. In it she highlighted the discrimination & injustice on women.
iv) Pandita Ramabai:- She was also a women writer from Maharashtra .She was highly critical of the mesirable conditions faced by the upper caste hindu women. She
opened a widow’s home at Poona to provide shelter to the widows who were harassed by their husband’s relatives.

Q14) Write a note on the press(print ) & censorship in India?
Ans: The growth of Indian press started in the 19th century .At first, Govt. was not concerned with censorship. However, when the press started to become nationalist by criticizing the wrong policies of the colonial Govt, censorship was imposed on it. At first the company Govt. warned the editors for publishing anything against the Govt. By 1820s, the Calcutta Supreme Court passed regulations to control press. In 1835, under the pressure of editors, William Bentick restored earlier freedom to press through the regulation made by Thomas Macaulay. However after the revolt of 1857, colonial Govt. decided to curb the native press. As a result vernacular press Act was passed by Lytton in 1878.It put severe censorship rules on the vernacular press. The Govt. being empowered by the Act, kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers. Whenever, any report was seen as seditious by the Govt, the editor was warned & for the 2nd time, the newspaper was seized & printing machinery confiscated.
However, despite repressive measures, Indian press played an important role in arousing the nationalist sentiments among Indians & mobilizing the public opinion in favour of freedom e.g., when Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Tilak wrote in his Kesari with great Sympathy. The led to his imprisonment in 1908. But , it inturn provoked widespread protests all over India against the colonial Govt.

Q.15) Name some newspapers which were started in the 19th century and which are coming out even today. (BOSE)
Ans) Some of newspapers which were started in the 19th century and which are coming out even today are mentioned below:
(1) The times of India (1838)
(2) Bombay Herald
(3) Indian Express
(4) The Hindu (1878)
(5) Punjab Kesari
(6) Jung (Pakistan)

Textual Questions
Write in brief:
Q1) Give reasons for the following:
A. How woodblock print came to Europe after 1295?
Ans: Woodblock printing was invented in china in 594CE. The European world was not known to it till the end of 13th century. It was only after 1295CE that woodblock print came to Europe from china via silk route. In 1295CE, Marco polo, a great European explorer returned to Italy after many years of exploration in china and brought the technology of woodblock printing with him. This technology soon spread from Italy to other parts of Europe.

B. Why was Martin Luther in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it? (BOSE)
Ans: Martin Luther, the champion of protestant reformation was in favour of print. He spoke out in praise of it, because it helped him to popularize and spread his ideas against the wrong practices of Roman Catholic Church. He challenged wrong practices of the Catholic Church through the publication of his protestant ideas. In 1517, he wrote „Ninety Five Theses” criticizing many practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. His writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and were read widely. He also translated the New Testament and 5,000 copies of it were sold within a few weeks. It led to the division of the church and beginning of the protestant reformation. However, this all became possible with the technology of print. Deeply grateful to print, Luther said,” printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.”

C. Why the Roman Catholic Church began keeping an index of prohibited books from the mid 16th century?
Ans: The Roman Catholic Church began keeping an index of prohibited books from the mid 16th century (1558) because print and popular religious literature stimulated distinctive individual interpretations of faith. e.g. Menocchio, a miller in Italy formulated a view of God and creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church. Besides, the new interpretation of Bible reached to people and they started questioning the authority of church through their writings.

D. Why Gandhi said the fight for swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of the press and the freedom of association?
Ans: According to Gandhiji, liberty of speech, press and freedom of association was the most powerful vehicle of expressing and cultivating public opinion. The British govt. in India was seeking to crush these particularly after the First World War. Gandhi felt that denial of these rights was not compatible with the idea of swaraj or self rule. So, he said that the fight for swaraj is a fight for liberty of speech, liberty of press and freedom of association.
Q2) Write short notes on A) Gutenberg press OR what you know about the Gutenberg press? (BOSE)
Ans: The first printing press was developed by Johann Gutenberg in the 1430s at Strasburg, Germany. He had good experience of wine and olive presses and had acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making small ornaments. He adapted this experience to produce printing press. The olive press provided him the model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. e.g. 26 letters of Roman alphabet. Gutenberg press came to be known as moveable Roman printing machine devised as a way of moving the metal types around to compose different words of the text. By 1448 CE, he perfected the system. The first book printed by him was “Gutenberg Bible”. It took three years to produce 180 copies of it.
B. Erasmus’s idea of the printed book. (BOSE)
Ans: Erasmus was a Latin scholar and a catholic reformer. He criticized the excesses of Catholicism but remained away from Martin Luther, because he wanted reforms within church and not by open revolt against church. He expressed deep anxiety about printing of books. He was deeply concerned about the great number of books being published during his time. He believed that some books provide some worthwhile knowledge, but the great numbers of them are hurtful to scholarship. Printers fill the world with not only unimportant but stupid, ignorant, disgraceful, irreligious and seditious books. Such books even devalue the valuable books.
C. Vernacular press Act.(BOSE)
Ans: Vernacular press Act was passed in March 1878 to control publications in vernacular languages like Bengali, Hindi etc. It imposed severe restrictions on the freedom of Indian press. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press.
Now the Govt. started regularly tracking the vernacular newspapers. If there was a report against British rule, the newspaper was warned and for the second mistake, there was provision to seize the press and confiscate the printing machinery.
Q3) A. What did the spread of print culture in 19th century India mean to women?
What was the impact of printing culture on women in 19th century India? (BOSE)
Ans: The spread of printing culture in 19th century India benefitted Indian women. It facilitated their education and emancipation. In the 19th century many schools were set up for women to improve their condition. The number of women readers increased to a great extent as their lives and feelings began to be written in clear and intense ways. Now liberal husbands and fathers began educating their women. Besides, a number of women‟s schools were setup in the towns and cities. The educated women now pleaded strongly in favour of women education and end of injustice done to them. A few women writers like Kailashbashini Debi in Bengal, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai in Maharashtra came ahead and wrote on the miserable lives of women. They also discussed the issues like women‟s education, widowhood, widow remarriage etc. Rashsundari Devi wrote a full length autobiography,‟ AMAR JIBAN‟ which was published in 1876. This all became possible because of the spread of print culture. So, it emancipated women.
B. What did the spread of print culture in 19th century India mean to the poor?
What was the impact of print culture in the 19th century India on the poor?
Ans: The poor people were benefitted by the spread of print culture in the 19th century. The availability of books at low prices and establishment of public libraries increased readership among the poor. It expanded their access to knowledge and facilitated them to protest against injustices done to them. e.g. Jyotiroa phule, the Marathi pioneer of „low caste‟ protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his book, “ GULAMGIRI” in 1871. Encouraged and inspired by the social reformers they wrote books.
e.g. kashibaba, a Kanpur mill worker, wrote and published “chhote aur Bade ka sawal” in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation.
C. What did the spread of print culture in 19th century India mean to reformers? OR
What was the impact of print culture in the 19th century India on reformers?
Ans: The spread of print culture in the 19th century India greatly helped the reformers. They utilized it as the most potent means of spreading their reformist ideas and highlight the evil practices, unethical issues and injustice prevailing in the Indian society. Print culture in the form of newspapers, journals and books not only spread the new ideas but prepared the people for change. The reformers began publishing newspapers , books etc in vernacular languages to spread their opinions against widow burning( sati system), child marriage, idolatory, brahmanical priesthood etc. and also to support women education , widow remarriage, women‟s rights etc. e.g. Raja Ram Mohan Roy”s sambad kaumudi and Mirat –ul-Akbar. Likewise, the ulama used cheap lithographic presses and published Persian and Urdu translations of Holy Scriptures to save the Muslim conversion to Christianity. The deoband seminary published thousands of fatwas to explain meanings of Islamic doctrines to Muslims. So, the 19th century print culture provided reformers a space to overhaul the society.

Q1) Why did some people in 18th century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
Explain the common conviction about the power of print in the 18th century Europe.
Ans: In the 18th century a strong desire and enthusiasm developed for reading in European countries (reading mania). The cheap and diversified books helped the individuals to read, which developed rational thinking, scientific outlook, liberalism and democratic ideas among them. The writings of thinkers like Thomas Paine, voltaire. J.J.Rousseau etc were widely printed and read and hence their ideas found their way into popular literature, almanacs, ballads , folk journals, newspapers, tales etc. The wide spread and easy access of people to the knowledge, developed common belief among them that the print culture would bring enlightment and end despotism.
e.g. Louise-sebasteen, an 18th century French novelist declared, “the printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep the despotism away.”
Q2) Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one
example from Europe and one from India. (BOSE)
Ans: The easier access and wider circulation of printed books created fear among some people. They were mostly those who held some power or authority. They gave different reasons in support of their fear. The religious authorities feared that the uncontrolled circulation and reading of printed books might spread rebellious and irreligious thoughts. By it the authority of valuable literature would be destroyed. Monarchs and other rulers feared that print can lead to the growth of hostile sentiments against them and they may lose their power. They were also considered harmful for scholarship.
Example for Europe:
Erasmus expressed deep anxiety about the easily available printed books. He considered them harmful to scholarship as he said that most of them carry ignorant, disgraceful, irreligious and seditious information. So, they devalue the valuable books.
Example from India:
The orthodox Brahmans expressed fear against easily available printed books on Hinduism. They considered it as a serious challenge to their age-old monopoly over the Hindu religious scriptures.

Q3) What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in 19th century India?
Ans: Refer to the answer of Q. no.3 (part b) of write in brief.

Q4) Explain how print culture assisted the growth of nationalism in India? (BOSE)
Ans: Print culture started in India in 1780 with the publication of first newspaper “Bengal Gazette” by James Augustus Hickey. However, the real beginning of the print culture started in the early 19th century. The growth of print culture over the 19th century helped in developing a culture of dialogue among the people. The leaders like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Tilak, S.C.Bose and Gandhiji played a great role in spreading the reformist and nationalist ideas through print culture. Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in all parts of India and assisted the growth of nationalism to a great extent. This is revealed from the following points:
i. Through press, oppressive methods and exploitative nature of the colonial rule was exposed to the masses of India. It facilitated in shaping of the united protest against the colonial rule. ii. Nationalist feelings and revolutionary ideas were spread by the dailies like the Amrit Bazaar patrika, the Hindu, the kesari, the Indian mirror etc. Through these newspapers nationalist leaders tried to mobilize public opinion against the British rule. They assisted the growth of nationalism in India. iii. Print culture also helped in eradicating the social evils, which reduced the gap between people on the basis of caste etc. and hence assisted in the growth of nationalism.
In conclusion, print culture helped in the spread of knowledge and information about the national and international developments. So, It became a powerful vehicle of political education and growth of nationalism and led to the independence of India in 1947.
Q5: Why do some historians think that print culture created the basis for the French revolution? OR
What role was played by the print culture in bringing the French revolution?
Ans: Print culture played a significant role in bringing French revolution. It popularized the revolutionary ideas of the enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire, Rousseau. etc. Their writings were read widely and it developed new outlook among the people based on questioning, critical thinking and rationality. So, it created a new culture of dialogue and debate among the people which created the basis for the French revolution. The revolutionary thinkers argued for the rule of reason and not custom and demanded for end of superstition and despotism and application of reason and reality. They attacked the sacred authority of church and despotic power of the state. The people re- evaluated all values, norms and institutions and became ready for change, which resulted into the French revolution.

Activities based text question
Q1: Imagine that you are Macro polo. Write a letter from china to describe the world of print you have seen there. Ans:
Dear ABC,
This time around I experienced a great technology of print in china. The world of print is very advanced here. Woodblock printing is a common experience. From CE 594 onwards, books are printed here by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks. The printed papers are further duplicated with remarkable accuracy by the skilled craftsman. Here is tradition of making “accordion books”.
Under the sponsorship of imperial state, textbooks are printed for the civil service examination. So, the world of print in china provided me a memorable experience.

Q2: Why do some historians think that print culture created the basis for the French
revolution? OR


Lesson No. 01 | Power Sharing

Textual questions

(Q.1) What are the different methods of power sharing in modern democracies ? Give an example of each.
Ans) The different methods of power sharing in modern democracies are as under :-
I) Power Sharing among different organs of government :- The powers of the government
are divided and distributed between the three organs of government, ie legislature, executive and judiciary according to a constitutional scheme as under :-
Rule Making power (Legislation) Rule implementing Power (Execution) Rule Judging power (Adjudication)
This distribution is called HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER. The power distribution is such that each organ limits the power of other two organs. Hence none of the organs can exercise unlimited powers. The result is balance of power among various institutions. This arrangement is called system of checks and balances.
Example :- In India,
i) The laws passed by legislature are subjected to Judicial review (The power of supreme court to Judge the constitutional Validity of a law) as well as the veto of president (veto is a special power to suspend a decision).
ii) The council of Ministers is answerable to parliament (legislature).
iii) The Supreme Court (Judiciary) has to consider constitution and laws passed by parliament while delivering Judgments.
II} Power sharing among Governments at different levels :- In a vast and diverse country like India and U.S.A, power is shared between a general government and the governments at regional level. In such a system, the constitution clearly defines the powers of governments at different levels.
Example:- In Belgium, the constitution after 1993, divided the powers between the central Government and the state Governments of the two regions of French and Dutch communities. This was done to ensure the accommodation of every community in the political setup of the country.
III} Sharing of power among different social groups :- In many countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration. This method is used to provide opportunities to those sections of society who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.
Example:- In India, there is a constitutional scheme of reservation for scheduled castes, scheduled Tribes and women in government as well as administration.

IV} Power sharing with political parties, pressure groups and NGO’s:- The political parties share power in a formal way by forming alliances before elections and coalition after elections. This ensures the accommodation of diverse ideological groups within the political system of a country.
Likewise, pressure groups and NGO‟s share power in an informal way by influencing decision making through democratic participation.
Example:- Unions of Industrialists, Traders, Workers, Farmers etc. along with Environment Movements,. Women empowerment movements have made their voice to be heard through litigation, resentments, mass communication, debates, conferences etc.

(Q.2) State one Prudential reason and one moral reason for power sharing with an example from the Indian context.
Ans) The two different reasons for power sharing are as under :-
Prudential reason :- Power sharing reduces the possibility of conflict between social groups. It ensures the stability of political order by accommodating the demands and needs of diverse groups in the society.
Example:- India has adopted a federal structure of governance in which power is shared in between the union and the states. This has ensured the fulfillment of the regional aspirations of people who are diverse with respect to their needs, necessities and demands. The accommodation of exclusive groups in the political system has resulted in a sense of “unity in Diversity”.
Moral reason for power sharing :- Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, Through participation, acquire a stake in the system.
Example:- There are many provisions in Indian constitution which provide safeguards to schedule castes and schedule tribes such as :-
Article 46: says that interests of schedule castes and schedule tribes must be protected.
Article 338: Provides for a National Commission for schedule castes and schedule tribes.
In addition to above, there are reservation provisions in the constitution for SC/ST and women such as Article 234D and Article 243T.

(Q.3) Write a note on the power sharing in J&K legislative council according to the constitution of J&K.
Ans) The state of J&K being composed of three distinct geographical regions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh; the Constitution of J&K ensures representation of each region in the legislative Council. Article 50 of the State Constitution says that –
i) Legislative Council shall consist of 36 members ii) 11 have to be necessarily from Kashmir including one each from Ladakh and Kargil iii) 11 have to be elected from Jammu region with one each from Doda and Poonch iv) two members are elected by the members of Municipal councils, Town Areas Committees and Notified Area Committees.
v) Four members are to be elected by panchayats and other local bodies as the Governor may by order specify, two each in the province of Jammu region and Kashmir region. vi) Eight members are nominated by Governor from amongst persons belonging to socially and educationally backward classes in the state or persons having contributed in the field of literature, science, art, etc.

(Q.4) The major of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the Town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non Dutch speakers integrate in this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Ans) The power shearing arrangements in Belgium provide for the equal representation of all the linguistic groups in the decision-making bodies, i.e Government. So, a ban on speaking French in the Town‟s schools of Merchtem as defended by its Mayor is against the spirit of power sharing arrangements in Belgium.

(Q.5) Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing afered in this

{Read Passage from Book } Page No. 8

Ans) We need to give more powers to the panchayats to realize the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our constitution.

Q.1) Here are some examples of power sharing. Which of the four types of power sharing do these represent ? Who is sharing power with whom ?
(A) The Bombay High Court ordered the Maharashtra state Government to immediately take action and improve living conditions for the 2000- odd children at seven
children’s homes in Mumbai.
Ans) Type of power Sharing :-Horizontal Distribution of power.
Power is shared between:- Executive (Maharastra State Govt). and Judiciary (Bombay High Court)
(B) The Government of Ontario state in Canada has agreed to a land claim settlement with the aboriginal community. The Minister responsible for Native Affairs announced that the Government will work with aboriginal people in a spirit of Mutual respect and co-operation.
Ans) Type of power sharing :-
Power sharing among different social groups.
• Power is shared between :-
Government of Ontorio and the aboriginal community.
C) Russia‟s two influential political parties, the union of Right forces and the Liberal Yagbloko Movement, agreed to unite their organizations into a strong right wing coalition. They propose to have a common list of candidates in the next parliamentary elections.
Ans) Type of power sharing :-
Power sharing among political parties to capture political office.
Power is shared between :-
The union of Right Forces and Yagbloke Movement.
D) The Finance Ministers of various states in Nigeria got together and demanded that the federal Govt. declare its source of income. They also wanted to know the formula by which the revenue is distributed to various state governments.
Ans) Type of power sharing :-
Federal system of power sharing i.e power shared between the government at different
Power is shared between :-
States of Nigeria and Federal Government of Nigeria.

Q2) Define power sharing.
Ans) Power sharing is a mechanism of distribution of power among different governmental and non-governmental entities in modern democracies. On the basis of the principle of power sharing, there is a distribution of power :-
a) Among different organs of government i,e legislature, executive and judiciary.(Horizontal Distribution of power)
b) Among Governments at different levels, i,e Union or Central Government and Regional govt. or State Government.
c) Among different social groups, such as religious and linguistic groups.
d) Among Political Parties, Pressure Groups and Movements.

Q.3) Why is power sharing desirable?
Ans) To Avoid conflict (prudential reasons)
(i) It reduces the possibility of conflict between various social groups.
(ii) Power sharing is a good way to ensure political stability.
(iii) It helps to avoid Majoritarianism which is oppressive to the minorities and hence undermines the unity of the nation. Spirit of deomocracy :- (Moral reasons)
i) Power sharing is the basic spirit of democracy.
ii) People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.
iii) A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation acquire a stake in the system.

Q.4) Mention the steps taken by Sri-lankan government to achieve Majoritarianism.
Discuss majoritarianism in Sri-Lanka with reference to its Ethnic composition?
How did Ethnic composition of Sri Lanka resulted in majoretarianism in Sri Lanka.
What were the reasons for the ethnic conflict in Sri-Lanka.
Ans) Sri-Lanka, an island country in Indian ocean, has a diverse population. The population structure of the country is as under :-
• Sinhala speaking population constitutes 74% of population and occupy the major portion of Island in central, west and southern parts. They are the original inhabitants of the Island and are Buddhists.
• The Tamil speaking population constitutes 18% of the island population. The Tamils consist of two subgroups –
a) Srilankan Tamils :- They constitute 13% of Srilankan population and are considered as native to the Island as they reside there from centuries.
b) Indian Tamils :- These are the descendents of Tamil people who came from India as Plantation workers during the colonial period. They constitute about 5% of the population. The most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims.
c) There are about 7% Christians on the Island who are both Tamil and Sinhala.
d) The remaing 1% are the non-native population on the Island.
Basis of conflict :- After the independence of Sri-Lanka from colonial rule in 1948, the leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. The Sinhala govt. adopted a series of measures to establish Sinhala
Supremacy over the Tamils such as :-
i) Sinhala only :- In 1956, the Sinhalese Government of S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike passed an act to recognize Sinhala as the only official language. This was seen as a cultural invasion by Tamil Minority. As Sinhalese was not a language of Tamils, they now felt a language handicap to apply for jobs and also in education institutions.

ii) Standardisation :- The Sinhala government followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
iii) Religious bias :- A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Budhism.
iv) Land alienation :- The land in north and eastern part of the country, which was considered as Tamil homeland, was distributed among the landless Sinhala population.
v) Problems of power sharing and devolution :- The Sinhalese mainstream political parties and Sinhala Buddhist lobby vehemently opposed the equal representation of Tamils in the decision making bodies.
All these factors went a long way to make the conflict more intense. It ultimately resulted in the demand of Tamils for a separate homeland in north and eastern part in the form of Tamil Elam.

Q.5) How did the Ethnic conflict in Sri-lanka led to a civil war?
Ans) The government measures in Sri-Lanka which aimed to establish Sinhala supremacy, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Tamils. They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights. The Sri-Lanka Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recogtnition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demands were repeatedly denied. By 1980‟s Several political organizations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Elam (state). A armed Tamil group named LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam) was organized to fight for the cause of Tamils. The result was a civil war which lasted till May 16-2009 and ended with the defeat of LTTE at the hands of Sri-Lankan army.
The civil war resulted the Killings of thousands of people from both sides, and thousands had to leave their homes & livelihood.

Q.6) What were the lessons learnt by Sri-Lankan leadership from the civil war..
Ans) With the defeat of LTTE in 2009, the Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate Tamil State in favour of a federal solution. The then president Mahindra Rajapaksa appointed the “Lessons learnt and Reconciliation commission (LLRC)” to look back at the Sri-Lankan civil war and to provide recommendations for an era of healing and peace building. The commission recommended the evolution of a home grown political process which addresses the economic and social grievances and provides power sharing mechanism in the central Government to facilitate nation-building.

Q.7) Explain the differences between vertical and horizontal power sharing.
Ans) Horizontal power sharing :-
i) Under the horizontal power sharing, power is shared among different organs of government such as legislature, executive and Judiciary. ii) Under horizontal distribution of power, organs of the government are placed at the same level to exercise different powers. iii) Under this system, there is a system of checks and balances as each organ checks the other.
Vertical power sharing :-
i) Power is shared among the different levels of government.
ii) The vertical division of power involves the highest and the lowest levels of government.
iii) Under this system, the lower government or organ exercises less powers than the higher organ or government.


Q.8) What is Majoritarianism?
Ans) It signifies that a majority community rules the country the way it wants. The wishes and needs of the minority are not considered. Q.9) What is community Government?
Ans) A Government which is elected by people belonging to one language community to regulate their educational, linguistic and cultural affairs. Q.10) What is civil war?
Ans) A violent conflict between two or more opposing groups within a country is known as civil war.
Q.11) What are reserved constituencies?
Ans) It is a system in which constituencies are reserved in the Assemblies and Parliament for minorities in order to give them a fair share in power. Q.12) What is a coalition government?
Ans) After elections in a multi-party democracy, when no single party is able to obtain majority to form the govt. then two more parties join hands to form the government. This is termed as coalition Govt.
Q.13) What is a Prudential reason?
Ans) It is a set of reason which is based on careful calculation of gains and losses. Prudential reason stresses on beneficial consequences.
Q.14) What is a Moral reason?
Ans) It is a set of reasons which is based on principles, values and beliefs. It differentiates between just and injust; right and wrong; good and bad. It Judges a system on moral grounds.
Q.15) What is the system of checks and balances?
Ans) A system in which each organ of the govt. checks the others which results in the balance of power among them. It ensures that none of the organs exercises unlimited powers. It ensures the stability in governance. Q.16) What is Federal Govt.?
Ans) It is system of governance in which powers are divided between the General and regional Governments.

L. No. 2
Textual questions
Q.1) Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
Ans) Feature of Indian Federalism similar to Belgium Model:- In India as well as Belgium, there is a constitutional scheme of division of powers between the central and regional govts.
Feature of Indian Federalism different from Belgium Model:- In India there is a distribution of powers between the central and state governments, while as in Belgium, there is a distribution of powers between the three governments i.e Central Government, Regional Government and Community Government.

Q.2) What is the main difference between a Federal form of government and a Unitary one?

Ans) Federal form of govt:- In a federal Form of government, the constitution provides for the division of powers between the central government and the government of units.
Example:- Indian constitution provides for the division of powers between the Union government and State governments.
Unitary form of govt :- In a unitary form of government there is concentration of all powers of governance in a National govt. So, only a single government governs the country.
Example:- In Shri Lanka, the National Government exercises all the powers of governance.

Q.3) State any two differences between the local government before and after the constitutional Amendment in 1992.
Ans) Local government in India before the constitutional Amendment of 1992 :- i) Elections of these local governments were not held regularly.
ii) Local governments did not have any powers and resources of their own. Local Government in India after the constitutional Amendment of 1992 :-
i) It is now constitutionally compulsory to hold regular elections to local government bodies, i.e Panchayats and municipalities. ii) Now,the state governments are required to share some revenue and powers with local government bodies.

Q.4) Write a note on Panchayati Raj in Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans) The concept of decentralization in J&K owes its origin to Naya Kashmir Manifesto adopted by National Conference in 1994.
The local self governance was incorporated in the state constitution that was promulgated in 1957 under article 16, which reads as- “The state should take steps to organize village Panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government.
The Jammu and Kashmir Panchayati Raj Act 1989 provided for a three-Tier Panchayat Raj system in the state as under :-
i) Halqa panchayat, at village level;
ii) Block Development council at Block level;

iii) District Planning and Development boards, at District level;
Besides above, a panchayat Adalat (Panchayat Court) for each Halqa Panchayat.
The recent elections to panachayats were held in the year 2011 to constitute the Halqa Panchayats. However, the upper two tiers i,e Block level and District level Panchayats are yet to be constituted.

Q.5) What are the functions of Local Urban bodies in J&K.
Ans) The functions of local urban bodies as per the J&K Municipal Act-2000 are as follows: I) Urban planning including town Planning.
II) Regulation of land use along with construction of Buildings.
III) Public Health, sanitation, conservation and solid waste management.
IV) Urban Forestry, protection of Environment & ecology.
V) To safeguard the interest of weaker sections of society.
VI) Slum Improvement & upgradation.
VII) Maintenance of urban facilities such a parks, playgrounds, gardens etc.
VIII) Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.
IX) To Maintain burial/burial grounds, cremation and cremation grounds. X) Cattle ponds and prevention of cruelty to animals.

Q.6) Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument
and an example to support any of these positions.
I) Sangeeta:- The policy of accommodation have strengthened national unity.
II) Arman:- Language based states have divided us by making everyone conscious of
their language.
III) Harish:- This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over
all other languages.
Ans) Sangeetas reaction to language policy is better than those of the other two for the reasons as
under :-
a) The policy of linguistic accommodation has helped to avoid social conflict on linguistic
b) This has made administration easier as the demands and expectations of different
linguistic communities come easily to be identified and hence satisfied.
c) It has helped to overcome the language handicap which a linguistic community faces in
career making competitions,.
d) It has given a sense of security to linguistic minorities.
e) It has ensured the participation of all linguistic communities in nation building,
administration as well as governance.
If India had not followed the policy of accommodation, the result would have been multi-
ethnic conflict which would have been more disastrous than the ethnic conflict of Sri-

Q.7) The distinguishing feature of a Federal Government is :
Ans) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

Q.8) A few subjects in various lists of the Indian constitution are given here. Give them
under the union, state and concurrent list.
A) Defence (B) Police (C) Agriculture (D) Education (E) Banking (F) Forests (G)
communications (H) Trade (I) Marriages.
Union List =Defence, Banking ,Communication
State List = Agriculture, Police ,Trade
Concurrent List = Education, Marriage, Forests

Q.9) If agriculture and commerce are state subjects, then why do we have ministers of
Commerce and agriculture in the Union Cabinet?
Ans) India being a “holding together federation” makes policies and planning at national level and the states execute the same at lower or regional level. Accordingly, Indian constitution empowers the union Govt. to legislate on state list for giving effect to international Treaties. Commerce does not involve domestic financial matters and national trade only” it
uncludes international trade also which comes under the jurisdiction of Union Govt.

Likewise agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy, hence it needs a national policy
for its growth & development. The national planning which was earlier formulated by
“planning commission” and now “NITI Ayog” gives a centralized basis to whole system of
governance. That is why we have ministers for those sectors at union level which basically
belong to state list

Q.10) Did our Constitution makers not know about Federalism? OR Did they wish to avoid talking about it.
Ans) The makers of our constitution were quite familiar with the concept and system of Federalism. Under the Government of India Act-1935, Federalism was proposed by British Govt. with a division of powers between the central legislature & the provinces.
But the founding fathers of Indian constitution avoided the word Federalism and hence article-1 of Indian constitution declares. “Bharat shall be a Union of States”. This was done because.
i) India needed a strong centre to tackle the problems of poverty, under development, illiteracy, social inequalities etc. ii) A strong centre was needed to increase the pace of development.
iii) The partition of the country on communal basis and integration of about 552 princely states into Indian union demanded a strong central Govt.
Taking above points into consideration, the framers of our constitution made all constitutional arrangements for power sharing so as to accommodate diverse groups in the political system, but they avoided the use of the word “federalism” in Indian constitution. Q.

11) What do we call the Indian Govt.? is is Union, Federal or Central Govt.
Ans) India is a federal state with centralizing Tendency. The Union Govt. or Central Govt. enjoys more powers than the states or units. So whenever we call Indian Govt. It is Central or Union Govt. working in capacity of a Federal Govt.

Q.12) Why was Hindi adopted the first official language after independence. Why not any other language?
Ans) All the time of independence, Hindi was the mother Tangur of mot of the northern states of India. About 40% of population was Hindi speaking. Moreover. Hindi a represented the composite cultural heritage of India so, it was debated as the official language. But later, Hindi, along with English and 22 other Indian languages were declared as official languages.
Q.13) Prime Minister runs the country, Chief Monister run the state. Then the chair person of Zilla parishad should run the district? Then why does the District Magistrate run the district?
Ans) i) The Chairperson of Zilla Parishad is an indirectly elected head, he cannot exercise powers like a representative as Chief Minister & Prime Minister who are directly elected by people.
ii) India has adopted command economy and centralized planning after independence. So, all the plans from union Govt. are executed by District Commissioners at district level. It is his work which demands more powers & Jurisdiction so as to satisfy the model of public sector.

Q.1) List the key features of Federalism:
Ans) The key or basic features of Federalism are as under :-
1) There are two or more levels of government.
2) Different Tiers of government govern the same citizens within specified Jurisdiction in
matters of Legislation, Taxation and Administration.

3) The existence, authority and Jurisdiction of each Tier of government is specified by the
4) The change or amendment in the basic provisions or federal provisions of constitution
need the consent of both levels of government.
5) Only the courts have final power to interpret the constitution and settle the disputes
between the different levels of government as per the constitutional provisions.
6) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its
financial autonomy.
7) regional diversity is ensured to promote unity of the country.

Q.2 What are the factors crucial for the practice of federalism.
1) Governments at different levels should agree to some rules of power sharing.
2) The Governments at different levels should have mutual trust that each would observe the mutually agreed upon conditions.

Q.3 What are the different routes through which federations have been formed.
There are two kinds of routes through which federations have been formed.
1) Coming Together federations:- This route involves independent states coming together on their own to form a bigger unit. By pooling sovereignty and retaining identity, they can increase their security. The examples are U.S.A, Switzerland and Australia.
2) Holding Together Federations:- Under this system, a large country decides to divide its power between the constituent states and the national government. The central government Tends to be more powerful Vis-a-Vis the states. Very often the constituent units of federation have unequal powers as some are granted special status. The examples are India, Spain and Belgium.
Write a note on Sarkaria Commission.
In June, 1983, the Indian Govt. constituted a commission under the chairmanship of Justice R.S.Sarkaria to examine the power sharing arrangements between the union and the states. The commission submitted its report in January 1988, with different observations & suggestions related to centre State relations. The report contains 247 recommendations spreading over 19 chapters. The commission came to be known as ”Sarkaria Commission” after the name of its Chairman, R.S. Sarkaria.
What makes India a federal country.
The Indian Constitution contains all those provisions which are fundamental for a federation such as :-
1) Demarcation of legislative, executive and administrative powers.
2) Division of revenue & finances.
3) A supreme court to Interpret the constitution and settle the disputes between the union and states.
4) A Rigid amendment procedure related to federal provisions in the constitution. So, it makes clear that India is a federation.
Discuss the constitutional scheme for the division of legislative powers between the centre and the states in India.
The constitution of India provides three fold distribution of legislative powers between the union and the state Governments. It constrains three lists as under :-
1) Union list :- It includes subjects of national importance such as defence, foreign affairs, currency and communication etc.
It contains 100 items on which only the union Government can make laws.

2) State list:- It includes subjects of state and local importance such as police, Trade, commerce, agriculture, and irrigation.
It contains 61 items on which only the state government can make laws.
3) Concurrent list :- It includes subjects of common importance to both the union as well as the state Government such as education, forests, trade and trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession.
It contains 52 items on which both the union as well as the state Government can make laws. But if their laws conflict, the union law will prevail.
Residuary Subjects :- The law making powers related to subjects that came up after the constitution was made lie with the central or union Government (e.g) Cyber law etc.

Q.7) What has been the language policy of India after independence ?
Ans) The constitution of India framed after independence, did not give the status of national language to any one language. Besides Hindi being given the status of official language, There are 21 other languages recognised as scheduled languages by Indian constitution. English is also accepted as a language for official purposes.
This linguistic accommodation has helped to avoid social conflict on linguistic basis. Along with a sense of security to linguistic minorities, it has helped to preserve unity in diversity.
Q.8) Write a note on local urban Governance in J & K.
Ans) J&K has 84 urban local bodies as :-
1) Two Municipal corporation for Srinagar and Jammu.
2) Six Municipal councils for Kathua, Udhampur, Poonch, Anantnag, Sopore and Baramulla
3) Seventy six Municipal committees for smaller towns.
4) Leh Autonomous Hill Development Council was created by central Government in
1995. It consists of 30 councillors out of which 26 are elected and four are nominated.
5) Kargil Hill Development Council was created by J&K state Government in 2005. Consisting of both elected and nominated members.
The efforts of the Government are expected to go a long way to strengthen the democracy at gross root level in the state.
************************ Lesson No. 3
Democracy and Diversity

Textual questions
Q.1) Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions? Ans) The three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social diversions are as under :-
a) People’s perception of their identities :- If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms the accommodation of other social identities becomes difficult.
Similarly, the social and political accommodation becomes easier if people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with national identity.
b) Representation of a community by political leaders:- The social divisions are easy to avoid if the leaders raise demands within the constitutional frame work and without a harm to any community.
c) The reaction of government:- If the government is willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of a minority community, social division are limited. But, if the govt. tries to suppress their demands, the results are harmful for national unity.

Q.2) When does a social difference become a Social Division?

Ans) Ans) Social Sivision takes place when some social difference overlap with other differences (e.g) in northern Ireland, the social differences of class and religion overlap each other The Catholics of northern Ireland are usually poor, while as the Protestants are ones who are well off. So, there is an overlap between class and religion. As a result, there are conflicts between the two religious groups, as such differences have led to discrimination of Catholics against protestants. So, a social difference becomes a social division when it
coincides with other social differences.

Q.2) When does a social difference become a Social Division?
Social Sivision takes place when some social difference overlap with other differences (e.g) in northern Ireland, the social differences of class and religion overlap each other The Catholics of northern Ireland are usually poor, while as the Protestants are ones who are well off. So, there is an overlap between class and religion. As a result, there are conflicts between the two religious groups, as such differences have led to discrimination of Catholics against protestants. So, a social difference becomes a social division when it coincides with other social differences.
How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples?
Positive effects :- Politics is an art of conflict resolution. Social division is a conflictual situation: so, politics has a positive role in a socially divisive situation. Wherever they exist, social division are reflected in politics. Social divisions give birth to different political parties and each community supports a political party which can represent its interests in the best way. This ensures participation of every community in the electoral process of their country and hence strengthens the democratic setup of the country.
Negative effects :- In a democracy, political parties try to increase their social support base by encouraging hatred & hostility between different communities. This can result into social divisions. Moreover, the deepening of social divisions can even lead to conflict and at times even violence & disintegration of the country.
Write a note on the diversity of J&K?
The population of J&K is very diverse. It consist of various, linguistic, ethnic, religious and regional identities. The people share many differences as well as similarities. The identities, however cut across each other which in part provide the basis for harmonious interaction across different cultural groups. Ethnically different groups share same religious identities while as different regional identities share same religious and linguistic features.
Discuss the origin of Social differences?
There are mainly two basis for social differentiation which are as under:-
1) The Social differences based on birth:- Most of the social differences are based on birth. We belong to a community simply because we were born in it. So, most of the social differences like being male and female, tall & short, etc are based on birth.
2) The Social differences based on choice:- Some of the social differences are based on our choice. Some people chose to follow a religion other than the one in which they were born. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games and activities to take part in. All these lead to formation of social groups based on choice .
Mention two types of social differences with examples?
The two types of social difference are :-
1) Overlapping social differences:- The overlapping of social differences may lead to social divisions. For example, The difference between blacks and whites becomes a social division in U.S because the blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against. Likewise, in Northern Ireland, Catholics are likely to be poor and have suffered a history of discrimination.
2) Cross cutting social differences :- It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be on different sides on a different issue (e.g) in Netherlands, the Christian population is divided into Catholics and Protestants. But class and religion tend to cross each other. So there are no conflicts in Netherlands.
Fill in the Blanks:
Exclusionist. Social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions, inclusive social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.

Q.8) Which country suffered social disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
Ans) Yugoslavia.

Q.9) “The social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger”. Explain?
Ans) The social diversities in a democracy is a normal affair. The political expression of various Marginal & Disadvantaged social groups allow them to express their grievances and get them redressed by the government. Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics helps in reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of democracy.

Q.10) What are different provisions in J&K constitution which provide for the preservation of socio-cultural diversity of the state?
Ans) Article-16: organizations of village panchayats.
Article-18:- Separation of Judiciary from executive.
Article-25:- Duty of state to foster equality and secularism.
Article-49:- Reservation of seats for schedule castes.
Article-50:- Plural composition of legislative council.
Article-146:- Exstablishment of cultural Academy for the development of diverse cultures and regional languages.

Sixth schedule of J&K constitution has incorporated the following regional languages. i) Kashmiri (ii) Dogri (iii) Balti (Pali) iv) Dardi (v) Punjabi (vi) Pahari
vii) Ladakhi (viii) Gojri

Q.11) Who were Tommie Smith and John Carlos? What is their contribution to civil Rights Movement in the United States?
Ans) Tommy Smith and John Carlos were the two U.S athletes. They won gold and Bronze medals respectively in 1968 Olympics race held at Mexico. Being African, Americans, they received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black poverty. With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States.

Q.12) Who was Peter Norman ? How is he linked with Civil Rights Movement in U.S.A?
Ans) Peter Norman was an Australian athlete, and a silver Medalist in Mexico Olympics race 1968. He supported Tommy Smith and John Carlos in supporting the civil right Movement during Award ceremony of Olympics 1968. For this, he wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the two Americans.

Lesson No. 4
Gender, Religion and Caste
Textual questions
Q.1) Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India?
Ans) Indian society is a patriarchal society. So, women are disadvantaged and discriminated in different ways as listed under :
1) Education:- The literacy rate among women is only 65.46% as compared with 82.14% among men. Similarly a smaller proportion of girl students go for higher studies. It is because the parents prefer to spend their resources for education of their sons rather than spending equally on their sons and daughters.
2) The Proportion of women in paid jobs:- Women have a small share in highly paid jobs and higher posts. On an average, a woman works one hour more than a man per day. Yet much of her work is not paid and often not valued.
3) Preference to male child:- Indian parents mostly prefer sons over female children often, the girl child is aborted before she is born. This has led to a decline in child sex ratio to merely 927. The ratio has fallen below 850 or even 800 in some places.
4) Crimes against women:- There are frequent incidents of crime against women. They are exploited and harassed at the work places, and also at home.
5) Status of women representation in politics:- In India, the proportion of women in legislatures has been very low. In 2014 Lok Sabha elections, the percentage of women in the Indian parliament is around 11% only. The govt. cabinets are largely male dominated. Although there is a provision of 1/3rd reservation for women in Panchayat Raj Institutions; Yet the women’s reservation Bill envisaging 33% reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and state Assemblies is pending before the parliament.
All these factors have prevented the Indian women from actively participating in the work outside their homes and have confined her to domestic work only.
Q.2) State different forms of communal politics with one example each.
Ans) Communalism can take various forms in politics as under :
I) Expression of communalism in every day beliefs which involve religious prejudices, stereo typing of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one‟s religion over other religions.
Example:-Militant religious groups are a good example of this type of communalism.
II) The desire to form a majoritarian dominance by a religious majority community and a separate state by the religious minorities.
Example:- Ethnic conflict in Srilanka is a good example of this type of communalism
III) The use of religious symbols, and religious leaders in politics along with emotional appeal.
Example:- The communal political parties in India are the best example.
IV) Communal politics sometimes can take form of communal violence and riots. Example:- Gujrat riots 2002 is the best example.

Q.3) State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
Ans) Caste inequalities have not completely disappeared from India.
1. Even today, most people marry within their own caste or Tribe.
2. Despite constitutional prohibition, untonchability has not ended completely.
3. Education is not easily available to the so called low castes.
4. Economic status is closely linked to the caste system. Poor are mostly the low castes, while the rich are the high castes. All this shows that caste based inequalities still continue in India.

Q.4) State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine elections results in India? Ans) Caste alone can not determine election results in India because:
I) The voters have strong attachment to political parties which is often stronger than any attachment to their caste group.
II) People within the same caste or community often have different interests.
III) Rich and poor or men and women from the same caste often vote very differently.
IV) People from the same caste have different assessment of the performance of their government.
V) No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear Majority of one single caste. So, every party and candidate needs to win the confidence of more than one caste.
VI) Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste.

Q.5) What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
Ans) In India, the proportion of women in legislatures has been very low. In 2014 Lok Sabha elections, the percentage of women in the Indian parliament is around 11% only. The govt. cabinets are mainly male dominated. Although there is a provision of 1/3rd reservation for women in panchayat Raj institutions, yet the Women‟s Reservation Bill envisaging 33% reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha and state Assemblies is pending before the parliament.

Q.6) Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state?
Ans) The constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are :-
i) The constitution provides to all individuals and community freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
ii) The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
iii) There is no official religion for the Indian state.
Q.7) Define Sex Ratio. What is its significance?
An) Sex ratio means the number of females per thousand males.
The significance of sex ratio lies in the fact that it is a sensitive indicator of status of women in society. It gives an indication of forebearance for girl child, their upbringing and nature of gender relation in a society. Sex Ratio also serves as an indicator of development. Higher in sex ration more is development.

Q.8) Write a short note on the rights of women as mentioned in Naya Kashmir Manifesto 1944?
Ans) “Naya Kashmir Manifesto launched” by National Conference in 1944 contains a women’s charter which aims to accord women just and rightful place in the society. The charter provides for certain rights and privilege so that a woman could act as a responsible citizens. It provides (a) political rights to women so as to

Q.9) When we speak about gender division, we usually refer to :
Ans) Unequal roles assigned to men and women by the society.
Q.10) In India, seats are reserved for women in :
Ans) Panchayat Raj bodies.
Q.11) Communal Politics is based on.
Ans) (A) One religion is superior to that of other
(C) Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
Q.12) Which is wrong about Indian Constitution.
Ans) Gives official status to one religion.

Q.13) Social divisions based on:
Ans) castes are peculiar to India.

Q.14) Write few sentences about the following.
(I) Margret Thatcher :- Margret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of United Kingdom from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British Prime Minister of 20th century and is the only woman to have held the office. She was called “Iron lady” because of her uncompromising politics and leadership style. She received many honours for her unparalleled contribution to politics. She died on 13 October 2013.
(II) Indira Gandhi :- Indira Gandhi was the fourth Prime Minister of India and one of the tallest leaders of Indian National Congress. She is the longest serving Prime Minister of India 1966 – 1977 and 1980 – 1984 after Nehru and also the only women Prime Minister of the country till date. She is known for her Pro-poor socialist ideas which she implemented in the form of “Gharibi Hatao Andholan” she is considered as the pioneer of Green Revolution in India. She was given the name “Durga” by A.B Vajpayee after her decisive victory against Pakistan in Bangladesh war of 1971. Shimla agreement is considered as her greatest political achievement. She was assassinated in 1984.
(III) Benazir Bhutto :- Benazir Bhutto was the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan and the only woman to hold such an office in Pakistan. She was the daughter of Zulfkar Ali Bhutto- the founder of Pakistan People‟s Party, who also remained Prime Minister of this country. She contributed a lot for the socio-economic development of her country. She was an internationally recognized political personality. She was assassinated in 2007. She has written her autobiography, “The Daughter of the East”.
(IV) Khalida Zia :- Begum Khalida Zia is a Bangladeshi Politician who was the \Prime Minister of Bengladesh from 1991 to 1996 and again from 2001- 2006. When she took office in 1991, She was the first woman in Bangladesh and second in the Muslim world to head a democratic government as Prime Minister. She is the chairperson and leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Khalida Zia led the movement for democracy after Military coup of 1982, so as to restore democracy in Bangladesh.
(V) Sheikh Hasina :- Sheikh Hasina is the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh since January 2009. She Priviously held this office from 1996-2001. Being the eldest child of Sheikh Majibur Rehman (The First Prime Minister of Bangladesh), She has led the Bangladesh Awami League since 1981. She has received numerous prestigious awards for her achievements in politics and contribution in various fields.

Q.1) Write short notes on the following.
(I) Feminist Movements:- The issue of gender discrimination is raised in politics world over. Women in different parts of the world organize and agitate for equal rights. These agitations demand enhancing the political status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities. More radical women movements aim at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called feminist movements.
(II) Communalism :- It is a belief system where religion is taken as the principal basis of social stratification. It is love and respect for one‟s own religion and hatred towards all other religious communities.
When the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest. This manner of using religion in politics is communal politics.

Secular State :- When the state does not have only official religion and treats all religion equally, that state is termed as a secular state.

Q.2) Name the law which have been passed for the protection of women’s right in India. Ans) Following laws have been passed for the protection of women‟s rights in India

(1) Prohibition of child Marriage Act.
(2) Dowry prohibition Act.
(3) Domestic violence Act.
(4) The criminal law Amendment Act.


Lesson No. 5 | Power Struggles and Movements
Textual questions
Q.1) What is a Pressure Group. Give a few examples?
Ans. A pressure group is an organization which attempts to influence govt. politics through protests and demonstrations. It is formed when people with common occupation, interest or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective. The examples of pressure groups are:
(a) The Bolivian organization FEDECOR
(b) BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees Federation).

Q.2 Describe the forms of relationship between Pressure Groups and political parties?
Ans. The relationship between political parties and pressure groups can take different forms.
i) Pressure groups are often formed and led by politicians and political parties. Most trade unions and students organizations in India are either established by or affiliated to one or the other Major Political Party.
(ii) Political parties sometimes grow out of movements. The formation of J&K Muslim league in 1931 from the uprising of 1931 is an example.
(iii) Many a times, the issues raised by a pressure group or movement is taken up by political parties, leading to a change in their policies.
(iv) Most of the new leadership of political parties come from interest or movement groups.

Q.3 Explain how the activities of Pressure Groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government?
Ans. Pressure groups are important in the functioning of a democratic govt. as they provide an opportunity for marginalised people to voice their opinions. In some cases, the government opinion might be biased towards a small group of rich and powerful people. It is here that pressure groups step in and force the govt. to make policies which will benefit certain other sections of society as well.

Q.4 In what ways do Pressure Groups and movements exert influence on politics? Ans. Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways.
(i) They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information campaigns, organizing meetings, file petitions.
(ii) By organizing strikes and disruptions, they force the government to take note of their demand.
(iii) They also influence decision making by lobbying.
(iv) They issues raised by them often influence the policies of political parties.

Q.5 What is the difference between a Pressure Group and a political party?
Ans. The major difference between a Pressure Group and a political party is that while political parties try to directly control or share political power; pressure groups do not aim to do so.
They influence the policies of govt. as well as political parties using methods like agitation,
protests, demonstrations, etc.
Moreover, a pressure group mostly represents the interests of a particular social
group while as a political party has to represent all social groups so as to widen its electoral
Q.6 Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social
sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called ______ groups.
Ans. Sectional Interest Group Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers and lawyers are called sectional interest groups.

Q.7 Which among the following is the special feature that distinguish a pressure group
from a political party.
Ans. (C) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.

Q.8 Write a short note on umbrella movement?
Ans. In September 2014, Hong Kong students protest for more political freedom. They used
umbrellas to protect themselves from police pepper spray. The umbrellas became a symbol of the movement and gave it the nick name, the umbrella revolutions. The movement was initiated by a group called Occupy Central with Love and Peace, led by Hong Kong
University law professor Benny Tai. The main demand was full democracy in Hong Kong.
Protestors want the right to nominate and directly elect the head of the Hong Kong
government known as the Chief Executive.

Q.9 Mention the objectives of J&K Women’s Welfare Association?
Ans. J&K Women‟s Welfare Association formed in 1927 is an important contributor in breaking the traditional and stereotypical approach towards women in J&K. The motto of this association was upliftment of women by imparting them education and training them for personality development, health care and social service.
Q.10 Write a note on the dawn of social awakening in J&K?
Ans. The period between 1925 and 1930 witnessed the dawn of political awakening in Kashmir. “The all India Kashmiri Muslim Conference; Kashmiri People‟s Organisation which was functioning from Lahore, helped some Kashmiri Muslims to go for higher studies in British India. These Kashmiri Youth came in contact with many intellectuals of India When they returned to Kashmir, they failed to get suitable jobs under Dogra Rule. They formed a small group called “Reading Room Group” which aimed to evolve a political programme
to redress the problems of people. This small group gradually emerged as the main
organization to control and co-ordinate the political struggle in Kashmir. Its guidance
enhanced the interest of people in politics.

They influence the policies of govt. as well as political parties using methods like agitation, protests, demonstrations, etc.
Moreover, a pressure group mostly represents the interests of a particular social group while as a political party has to represent all social groups so as to widen its electoral base.
Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers, and lawyers are called ______ groups. Sectional Interest Group Organisations that undertake activities to promote the interests of specific social sections such as workers, employees, teachers and lawyers are called sectional interest groups.
Which among the following is the special feature that distinguish a pressure group from a political party.
(C) Pressure groups do not seek to get into power, while political parties do.
Write a short note on umbrella movement?
In September 2014, Hong Kong students protest for more political freedom. They used umbrellas to protect themselves from police pepper spray. The umbrellas became a symbol of the movement and gave it the nick name, the umbrella revolutions. The movement was initiated by a group called Occupy Central with Love and Peace, led by Hong Kong University law professor Benny Tai. The main demand was full democracy in Hong Kong. Protestors want the right to nominate and directly elect the head of the Hong Kong government known as the Chief Executive. Mention the objectives of J&K Women’s Welfare Association?
J&K Women‟s Welfare Association formed in 1927 is an important contributor in breaking the traditional and stereotypical approach towards women in J&K. The motto of this association was upliftment of women by imparting them education and training them for personality development, health care and social service.
Write a note on the dawn of social awakening in J&K?
The period between 1925 and 1930 witnessed the dawn of political awakening in Kashmir. “The all India Kashmiri Muslim Conference; Kashmiri People‟s Organisation which was functioning from Lahore, helped some Kashmiri Muslims to go for higher studies in British India. These Kashmiri Youth came in contact with many intellectuals of India When they returned to Kashmir, they failed to get suitable jobs under Dogra Rule. They formed a small group called “Reading Room Group” which aimed to evolve a political programme to redress the problems of people. This small group gradually emerged as the main organization to control and co-ordinate the political struggle in Kashmir. Its guidance enhanced the interest of people in politics.

Q. 11 Write short note on Chipko Movement:
AnsThe Chipko Movement is an ecological movement in the Himalayan regions. The movement began in Uttarakhand in 1970 where women protested felling of trees by grabing the Oak and Rhododendron trees near their villages. Its impact spread to all over the country. The movement voiced the issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region. The special feature of the movement was the active participation of women. It was a great success for the movement when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years, till the time green cover was restored again. Right to information Movement: The Right to information movement was started in 1990 in Rajasthan by an NGO Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) when it demanded records of famine relief work and accounts of labourers. In 1994 and 1996, MKSS organized Jan Sunwais or public hearings, where the administration was to answer about the Misappropriations of funds of developmental projects. The movement gained a small success when an amendment was introduced to permit the people to procure certified
-Sir Ishfaq

copies of documents held by the panchayats. In 1996, MKSS established National Council for people‟s Right to Information in Delhi to demand RTI at the national level. Before that there were proposals form different corners for an RTI law, so, they RTI bill found its final passage in parliament in 2014 and became an Act in 2005.
Women’s Movement: 20th century has witnessed a growth of women‟s organization at national and local level. The women India Association (1917) All India Women‟s Conference (1926) etc were few organizations to work for women liberation in 1970‟s The phase of women‟s liberation in India focused on issues of women‟s rights, domestic violence, dowry, property, rights etc. in 1990‟s Anti- Arrack Movement in Andhra – Pradesh proved a success in which women protested against sale of alcohol. But the movement slowly turned to provide a platform to discuss issues like domestic violence, dowry sexual abuse at work and other places. The campaigns by different movements helped in increasing awareness about women issues.
The shift of the movement from legal reforms to social confrontation led to 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment acts which granted 33% reservation to women. In Panchayat Raj institutions one more bill for giving reservation to women in parliament is pending before the parliament.
Peasant Movement: Peasants Movements have taken place since pre-colonial days. The Bardoli Satyagraha (1928), All India Kisan Sabha (1928), Tebhaga movement (1946 – 47) Telangena movement (1946 – 47) etc were most famous peasant movements. These movements demanded land reforms, abolition of Zimiandari, Public credit system, irrigation etc. one such movement was Bhatiya Kisan Union Organised by Mahendra Singh Tikait. BKU was one of the leading organizations in the 1980‟s agitations of farmers. It was mainly a reaction of farmers against the liberalisation programme which led to crisis in cash crop market. So, about 20,000 farmers in Meerut, UP demanded govt. support so as to overcome the crisis situation.
Adivasis Movement: Tribel people have a long history of launching movements against oppression and exploitation during British period. But even after independence, Tribals have benefitted least from the advent of freedom. On the basis of issues the tribal movement in India are directed against.
(i) Exploitations by outsiders.
(ii) Economic deprivation (E.g Gonds Movement of Madhya Pradesh and Mahars in Andhra Pradesh)
(iii) The Indian state with a separatist agenda (Nagas and Mizo‟s movement in North east).
The tribal movements can be classified on the basis of their orientation into four types.
(i) Forest based movements.
(ii) Socio religious movements
(iii) Movements seeking political autonomy and formations of states.
(iv) Agrarian movements.
Although all such movements are beneficial for a balanced development of the country and ensures political participation of the tribal people but Naxalite Movement of the Tribals in Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand has become a security issue for the Indian state. So, the best way to deal with these armed rebellious groups is to open the channels of communication with them and invite them for dialogue and discussion.

Q.12) Pressure Groups and parties?
Ans) (A) Organized expression of the interests and views of specific social sections.
(B) Pressure Groups take positions on political issues.


Lesson No. 6 | Political Parties Textual questions

Q.1) State various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
Ans. The various functions political parties perform in a democracy are as under :-
(i) Parties contest elections :- Candidates are put forward by parties to contest elections. These candidates may be choosen by the members of the party or by the top leaders of the party.
(ii) Parties put forward different policies and programmes :- A party reduces vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports. A government is expected to base its policies on the line taken by ruling party.
(iii) Parties play a decisive role in making laws :- The party members within the legislature support laws on the directions of party leadership.
(iv) Parties form and run government :- Parties recruit leaders, Train them and then make them ministers to run the government.
(v) Parties play the role of opposition :- Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition in the legislature. They criticise the govt. for its failure and wrong policies and hence keep check on the government.
(vi) Parties shape public opinion :- Parties provide political knowledge to its members and activists. They have a lot of influence on the opinion of the people.
(vii) Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes:-
For an ordinary citizen it is easy to access a party leader than a government official. Parties are responsive to peoples needs and demands. Hence they act a link between the government and the people.

Q.2 What are the various challenges faced by political parties ? Ans. The various challenges faced by political parties are as under :-
(i) Lack of internal democracy :- There is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top. Few leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the party. Those who disagree with the leader find it difficult to continue in the party.
(ii) Dynastic Succession :- In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unfair for other capable leaders as well as bad for democracy.
(iii) Use of Money and Muscle power :- Since parties are focused only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections. The influence of rich people and entry of criminals in politics is a grave concern for democracies all over the world.
(iv) Reduction in differences over policies :- In order to offer meaningful choice to the voters, the parties must significantly be different. But in recent years, there has been a decline in the ideological differences among parties. Those who want different policies have no option available to them.

Q.3 Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well?
Ans. The reforms to strengthen political parties are as sunder :-
(i) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. There should be a party constitution and an independent authority, to act as a Judge in case of party disputes. There should be open elections to the highest posts in the parties.

(ii) At least 1/3 tickets of the party should be given to women. Also, there should be a quota for the women in the decision making bodies of the party.
(iii) There should be state funding of party elections.
Q. 4 What is a political party ?
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promote the collective good. They seek to implement these policies by winning popular support through elections. A political party has four components :
(i) Ideology (ii) The leaders `(iii) The active members (iv) The followers.
Write a short note on the ideologies of each political party in J&K.
National conference :- National Conference is one of the oldest political parties active from 1932 in the politics of J&K. It was formed by Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, Who led the party from 1932 upto his death in 1981. It has been led subsequently by Sheikh‟s son Farooq Abdullah (1981-2002) and his son Umar Abdullah (2002-2009). Farooq Abdullah was again made the president of the party in 2009.
Ideology :- (I) National Conference believes in secularism i.e equal respect for all religious communities in the state.
(II) It believes in the accession of the state with Indian Union with Autonomy as the basis of this accession. Autonomy to National Conference means that only defence, foreign affairs, Currency and communication of the state will be regulated by the Indian Union while as the rest of the items are to be administered by the state govt. according to the provisions of state constitution.
(III) It believes in restoration of J&K constitution.
(IV) It believes in the reunification of J&K i.e Indian Administered Kashmir (PAK) and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. (POK)
People’s Democratic Party
Ideology :- The basic ideology of PDP in J&K is self rule, which can be summarized as under :-
 It believes in the political integration of Indian administered Kashmir without compromising the sovereignty of either India or Pakistan.
 It believes in economic integration in between all regions of the state including Pok regions by –
 Providing a common economic space.
 Instituting a dual currency system
 Harmonizing economic, legislation coordinating economic policy and  Free flow of capital, goods and services in between the region.
 It believes in constitutional restructuring in the state by limiting the scope and
Jurisduiction of Indian constitution over the state and increasing the legal space for state constitution of J&K.
People’s Conference :- This party was founded on 6th September 1978 by Late Abdul Gani Lone. The party was recognized by Election commission in 1982, and allotted an election symbol of lion to it.
Ideology of the party Under the leadership of Late Abdul Ghani Lone, peoples conference was dedicated to the restoration of internal autonomy in Kashmir . It was recognized as a separatist organization till 1982, when it got converted into the mainstream political party.
However, after the death of Abdul Ghani Lone, in 2002 his son Sajad Gani Lone‟s ideology attempted to achieve.
(a) Single boundry-less Jammu and Kashmir. (b) Economic union with India and Pakistan.

(c) Joint Management of defence and foreign affairs of the state by India & Pakistan.
But in the Lok Sabha elections of 2014, the political alliance of Peoples Conference with BJP shows a radical ideological shift in the party.
National Panthers Party:- The Party was founded by Dr. Bhim Sing in 1932-1982 who continued to lead it.
Ideology: (1) To respect and honour the aspirations of the people of all the regions of J&K including Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
(2) To promote and strengthen the secular bonds and democratic system in the state.
(3) To reunite and reorganize the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
(4) To struggle for true federalism.

Q.6 Trace the origin of party system in J&K.
Ans) The origin of the party system in J&K can be traced a under :- Pre-independence period :-
(i) The first political organization in the state was Jammu based Dogra Sobha under the leadership of Hans Raj Mahajan. It was liberal in outlook and non-communal in character. It had a limited programme of social reforms.
(ii) In October 1932, Sheikh Abdullah founded All J&K Muslim conference to fight Dogra rule in the state.
(iii) All Jammu & Kashmir Muslim conference was renamed as All J&K National
Conference on 11 June,1939 so as to give it a secular character.
Post Indepence period :
(iv) When Sheikh Abdullah was arrested in 1953 by Indian Govt. on charges of conspiracy, Mirza Mohammad Afzal Beig formed a new party named Plebiscite Front to oppose the Govt. formed by Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The main demand of the front was plebiscite in the state.
(v) After the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1981, panthers party was formed in 1982, which had a support base in few parts of Jammu division.
A split in the National Conference led to the formation of Awami National Conference in 1984.
(vi) Likewise Peoples Conference was formed by Abdul Gani Lone in 1978 with moderate separatism as its political goal.
(vii) With separatism as its political programme, the All parties Hurriyat Conference was farmed on March 01, 1993. It is an alliance of 26 political, Social and religious, organization. However, it is opposed to Mainstream politics in the state and hence does not participate in electoral politics.
(viii) In the year 1999, Peoples Democratic Party was farmed by Mufti Mohammad Syed with a political aim of peaceful settlement of Kashmir dispute.

Q.7 Enumerate the difference between a National party and a Regional party.
Ans. Democracies that follow a federal system all over the world have two kinds of political parties i.e National, parties and Regional parties. They can be described as under :-
(i) National party:- Those parties which are country-wide parties are called National parties. These have their units in various states. By and large, National Parties follow uniform policies, programmes and strategy that is decided at the national level.
Election Commission declare those parties as national parties which have got 6% of the total votes and have at least won 4 seats in Lok Sabha.
The National Parties include Indian National Congress, Bhartiya Janata Party, (BJP) Communist Party of India (CPI) Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M) Bhujen Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party etc, There were six national recognised parties till 2006.

(ii) Regional parties:- Those parties which are present in only one of the federal units are called regional parties. However, some of these are operative in more than one states and have their units in many states (e.g) Janta Dal, RJD etc.
Election Commission recognized a regional party when it secures 6% of the total votes in an election to legislative Assembly of a state and wins at least 2 seats. National conference in J&K, DMK and AIDMK in Tamil Nadu, Akali Dal in Punjab, are some examples of regional parties.
Q.8 A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a Ans. Political party.
Q.9) Who is the founder of Muslim Conference in J & K.
Ans). Sheikh Mohd. Abdullah in October 1932.
Q.10) What is the guiding philosophy of Bharatiya Janata Party.
Ans) (D) Modernity.
Q.11) Write notes on following:-
(1) Indian National Congress:- It was founded in 1885 as a political organization to launch a struggle against British rule in India. However, after independence, it actively participated in elections and hence came to be popularly known as congress party. The party played a dominant role in the growth of electoral politics in india. The party ideology is mainly based on :
(i) Ideals of freedom movement (ii) Nehruan Socialism which aims to create a welfare state. (iii) State sponsored industrialization and development.
(iv) Secularism along with due care for minorities and poor classes.
The party ruled and dominated the Indian political scene from 1966-1977 and then from 1980 -1989 under the leadership of J.L. Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Raju Gandhi.
The revival of the party took place under the stewardship of Sonia Gandhi. So, congress under her leadership formed the Govt. two times at centre i.e 2004-2009 and 2009-2014. Both the govts. Were a result of grand coalitions with congress in the lead. However, under the new leadership of Rahul Gandhi, party is facing a deep challenge and crisis, which needs a great skill to revive it once more.
(2) Bhartiya Janata Party:- BJP was found in 1980. It wants to build a strong and modern India by drawing inspiration from India‟s ancient culture and values. Its ideology is based on :-
(i) Hindutva (an extreme type of nationalism.) (ii) Total meager of J&K state with Indian union by eliminating Article-370 from Indian constitution.
(iii) Uniform civil code (iv) Ban on religions conversions (v) construction of Ram Mandir
at Ayodhya (vi) Establishment of “Ram Rajya” in form of a Indian “Hindu State” (vii) Aggressive policy towards Pakistan (viii) Rewriting the history with a focus on the achievements of Hindu Kings, Saints, and Scholars.
It came to power at centre in 1998 with the help of a grand coalition named NDA. The
NDA Govt. was led (National democratic Alliance) by Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The BJP emerged as the single largest party in the 2014 general elections and hence formed the Govt. at centre. The tallest leader of the party till date was Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
(3) Communist Party of India(CPI)
(a) It was farmed in 1925
(b) It believes in Marxist and Leninist ideology, secularism and democracy.

(c) It accepted parliamentary democracy a a means of promoting the interest of working class; farmers and poor. (d) It shows a significant presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
(e) Its support base has gradually declined over the years. It secured only 1 seat in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections.
(4) Communist Party of India(CPI-M):-
(a)It was founded in 1964 after a split in CPI. (b) It believes in Marxist Leninist ideology.
(c) It supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.
(d) It accepts democratic elections as a useful and helpful means for securing socio-economic Justice in India.
(e) It is critical of new economic policies and Ghobalisation. (f) It enjoys a strong support base in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura. It has been in power in west Bengal without a break for 30 years. (g) In 2014 elections, it won 9 seats in the Lok Sabha.
(5) Bahujan Somajwadi Party:- (a) It was farmed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram.
(b) It mainly represents Bahujan Samaj which includes dalits, adivasis OBC’s and religious minorities.
(c) It draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maraj, Mahatma Jyotibha phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambidkar.
(d) Its main support base is in U.P, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttarkhand, Delhi, and Punjab.
(e) In 2014 elections, it failed to get any seat in Lok Sabha.
(6) Aam Aadmi Party:- AAp was born from “India Against Corruption” movement which had been seeking an anti-corruption Jan Lok pal bill since 2011. Despite the doubts from movements leader Anna Hazare, many activists of the movement under Arvind Kajriwal felt the need to seek political power so as to fight corruption.
In Delhi Assembly elections of 2013 it won 28 out of 70 Assembly seats. After farming the Govt. with the support of Congress the party resigned from office after 49 days on political grounds.
In the general elections of 2014 the party won only 04 Lak Sabha seats. However, in Delhi Assembly re-elections of February 2015, the party won 67 out of 70 seats which improved the political image of the party. Presently, the party holds power only in Delhi; but an increasing support base is an indicator of its bright political career in future.


Lesson No. 7
Out Comes of Democracy
Textual questions
Q.1) How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?
Ans. Democracy produces an accountable, responsive and legitimate government becaused of the following:
(1) Election: It provides a scope for free, fair and regular elections.
(2) Debat and Discussion: It provides a platform for debate and discussions on public issues.
(3) Mass Awareness: It provides information to citizen on public policies.
(4) Electorate Oriented Polices: It provides for an elected representative govt. with a responsibility of formulation policies according to the needs of the electorate. Hence the govt. becomes responsive to the citizens.
(5) Constitutional Legetimacy: The democratic govt. works according to a constitution. Hence it makes the govt. Legitimate by commanding obedience of citizens.
(6) Rule of Law: The democratic govt. ensures rule of law and hence adds to its legitimacy.
(7) Periodic Review of Governemtn functioning: The legitimacy to democracy also rests on periodic elections and power of citizen to change the govt. if it is insensitive or irresponsive to people.

Q.2) What are the condition under which democracies accommodate social diversities.
Ans) Democracy can only be successful if it is able to create a society that is peaceful, safe and harmonious to its citizens. Social diversities are to be accommodated and differences among ethnic groups are to be sorted out amicably in democracies. There should be a mechanism for reducing tension in times of trouble . In the multi-ethnic and socially diverse societies of the present world, democracies should ensure that;
I) Fair Repersentation: All social groups get a fair representation in government.
II) Monoply free Poltical Power: No single linguistic, Ethnic or religious Majority should monopolise the politicalpower.
III) Equal Oppertinitues for Political Positions: Public offices should be open to all citizens and birth should not be a qualification for holding a political position.
IV) Inclusive Society: Majority should take into consideration the needs of the Minority so that they may not feel alienated.

Q.3) Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
(I) Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
Ans) The argument that poor countries need dictatorship to become rich is wrong. If we consider the case of India which was a very poor and under developed country at the time of independence; we observe that without resorting to dictatorship, India was able to achieve a considerable economic growth since independence.
The importance of democracy in poor countries is supported by the facts as under:- a) The positive aspect of democracy cannot be sacrificed only for achieving economic growth.

b) Democracies in poor countries have shown a sustained economic growth.
c) The economic achievements of dictatorship are short-hand while as democracies have recorded a stable economic growth.
(II) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
Ans) Democracies do not appear to be very successful in reducing economic inequalities. But, poverty in developing countries cannot be attributed to democracy only. The other factors like lack of Technology and resources along with colonial exploitation for centuries are also responsible for this state of affairs.
In countries democratic govts. have launched different programmes of Poverty Alleviation; but it will take time to achieve its goal because of the lack of resource.
III) Government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
Ans) Poor Countries have to spend more on poverty reduction, health & education as the best resource for a country is human resource. A healthier, happier and educated society will automatically bring prosperity to the nation.

(IV) In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of domination and conflict.
Ans) The basic principle of democracy is that it believes in equal worth of all individuals. So, every citizen has one vote and all votes are of equal value. Allthough conflicts are certain to arise in every society and the problem of domination by a majority is experienced every-where in world; but a democracy provides a scope for a peaceful settlement of these problems by way of negotiations, dialogue and discussions and ultimately through consensus and accommodation.

Q.4) Identity the challenges to democracy in the following description. Also suggest policy/institutional mechanisms to deepen democracy in the given situations.
(i) Following a high court directive a temple in Orissa that had separate entry door for dalits and non-dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.
Ans) In the above given description, there is a discrimination among the citizens on the basis of caste. It is a great challenge to democracy as democracy needs a homogeneous society where fraternity and equality is the guiding value for society as well as public policy.
So as to overcome this challenge, the elected govt. of the country should pass laws to stop caste based discrimination and prescribe punishment for those who preach and practice Casteism.

(II) A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.
Ans) In this case, the govt. has failed to provide economic security to the farmers. To provide economic and social justice along with political rights is a necessary condition for the successful working of democracy.
It is a challenge for govt. to strengthen local administration and implement poverty alleviation programmes with more vigour and enthusiasm. The farmers security through different schemes need to be made accessible by making the procedure for loans more simple. The corruption and negligence in implementation need to be addressed by accessing different schemes and their outcomes periodically. Policies need to be framed to protect the farmer from market risks as well as the risks of crop failure.

(III) Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police an inquiry has been ordered.

Ans) Right to life is a fundamental right in every democracy and a common man can have this right even against the state and its agencies. The protection of Human Right is a grave challenge to every democracy. In the above given case the govt. has to take all necessary steps to punish the guilty so as to protect and maintain its legitimate claim of being representative of people failing that, it will turn into a totalitarian state.
So, strict laws need to be passed and implemented to punish the guilty and prevent Human rights violations by security forces. This is necessary to keep and maintain the faith of people in their govt.

Q.5) In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct. Democracies have successfully eliminated.
(a) Conflict among people. (b) economic inequalities among people.(c) differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated.(d) the idea of political inequality.
Ans) (c) differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated.

Q.6) In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Ans) (c) Majority rule.

Q.7) Studies on political and social inequalities in democracies show that;- Ans) (B) inequalities exist in democracies.


Q.1) RTI Act.
Ans) Right To Information Act is important outcome of democracy that aims at making public institutions transparent and accountable. It was enacted in 2002 in India and is now a fundamental right of a citizen. The Right to Information Bill, 2005 was passed by the Lok Sabha on 11th May, 2005 and Rajya Sabha on 12th May and received the consent of the President of India of June,15th,2005 and came to force on October 12th 2005.
It is lone of the most important legislations passed after 1947 It empowers an ordinary citizen to access the right to information in public offices and, therefore, participate in good governance by minimizing corruption and other evils. The public information offices have been set in all the offices for citizens to obtain government records.
The J&K Govt. enacted RTI law in 2004, however a new RTI law known a RTI Act,2009 was enacted under pressure from activist groups.
Q.2) Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act-2006.
Ans) Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act,2006(Launched in February 3,2006), The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005 envisages securing the livelihood of people in rural areas by guaranteeing 100 days of employment in a financial year to a rural household. The main provisions of the Act are:-
(a) Employment to be given within 15 days of application for work.
(b) If employment is not provided within 15 days. Unemployment allowance in cash has to be paid.
(c) Employment within 5 km radius, else extra wages to be paid.
(d) At least one-third beneficiaries have to be women.
Q.3) National Food Security Act-2013.
Ans) The parliament passed the NFSA on 10 September 2013 to provide food and nutritional security to humans. The Act entitled the beneficiaries to receive 5 kgs of food grains per person per month at subsidized prices of Rs 3, 2 and 1 per kg for rice, wheat and coarse grains respectively. The salient features of the Act are:

a) 75% of rural and 50% of the urban population are entitled to 5 kg food grains per month at above mentioned prices for three years from the enactment of the Act.
b) The state are responsible for determining eligibility.
c) Pregnant women and lactating mothers are entitled to a nutrition “take home ration” of 600 calorie and a maternity benefit of at least Rs 6000 for six months.
d) Children from 6 months to 14 years of age are to receive free hot meals or “take ration home”.
e) The eldest woman in the household is the head of the household for the issuance of ration card.

Challenges to Democracy

Lesson No. 8

Textual questions
Q.1) What are the challenges to democracy in the modern world?
Ans. Democracy faces different challenges in different countries. So, the challenges for democracy in different parts of the world are very different and diverse. The main challenges faced by democracy in the modern world are listed as under:-
(1) Foundational Challenges:- At least one-fourth of the globe is still not under democratic governments. So, many countries face the challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting democratic govt. This involves, bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping armed forces away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign democratic state.
(2) The Challenge of Expansion:- This involves applying the basic principle of democratic govt. across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions; Ensuring greater power to local governments, extension of federal principle to all the units of the federation, inclusion of women and minority group etc. fall under this challenge.
This also means that less and less decisions should remain outside the arena of democratic control.
(3) The Challenge of deepening the democracy:- This involves strengthening of the institution and practices of democracy. In general terms, it usually mean strengthening those institutions that help people‟s participation and control. This requires an attempt to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision.
(4) Constitutional design:- This involves the challenge of providing a stable constitution which fulfills the aspirations of different sections of people particularly in a diverse country. The constitutional design should be such that it is able to adjust to changing political situations as well as growing needs of the people.
(5) Demographic rights:- This challenge involves the accommodation of all sections of population in the political system in such a way that they all feel satisfied with their democratically elected government. This challenge is mainly visible in multi-ethnic, multireligions & multi-lingual country like India.
(6) Efficient working of institutions:- The inefficient working of political and governmental institutions particularly in the immature democracies of the third world is a one more serious challenge to democracy. There is a need of reforms in the working of these institutions so as to strengthen the roots of democracy as well a the faith of people in their political setup.

(7) Free and Fair elections:- The use of Money and Muscle power in politics; the criminalization of elections and politics; appeasement of voters on the basis of caste and religion are some of the serious challenges during elections, which the democracies in the third world are confronted with.
(8) Strengthening of Federalism and decentralization:- Although Federalism and decentralization of powers is a general practice in vast and diverse countries worldwide; but to evolve a successful federation with the fulfillment of the aspirations, demands and needs of units is yet a goal to be achieved in most of the federations. Moreover, the practice of decentralization is yet based on a biased applications in favour of the majority in many cases which poses a great challenge to be overcome by democracies worldwide.
(9) The challenge of political organizations:- Although almost all democracies have an ample scope for the formation and operation of political organizations in form of political parties and pressure groups. Yet, the democratic values are lacking in most of these organisations as they operate only so as to satisfy their partisan interests. To get rid of this particularism and develop a national and country wide programme of action, the democratic reformation of all these organizations is a great challenge for democracy.
Q.2) What are the guidelines which are to be kept in mind while devising ways and means for political reforms in India?
Ans) The guidelines for political reforms in India can be listed as under :-
(1) Although carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones; but legal-constitutional change by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. So, the democratic reforms are to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.
(2) The people are to be empowered to carryout democratic reforms. Laws that give political actors incentives to perform political functions have more chances of success. Right to information is one such Act which empowers people to make govt. accountable.
(3) Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political practice. Therefore the main focus of political reforms should be on ways to strengthen democratic practice. The quality of political participation by ordinary citizens needs to be increased and improved.
(4) Political reforms should be supplemented by a proposal for its proper implementation. Laws that unnecessary harm the interests of political and non-political actors are to be avoided. But if there is any such demand from non-governmental organisations, movements or media, they need to be carried out and given a legal shape by the legislature and then implemented by executive.
Q.3) Redefine the basic principles of democracy.
Ans) The basic principles of democracy are listed a under :- (1) The rulers are to be elected by the people.
(2) The rulers elected by the people must take all major decisions.

(3) Elections must offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers.
(4) The political rights (right to vote) should be available to all the people on an equal basis.
(5) The elected government must be limited bys the basic rules of the constitution and the rights of citizens.

Lesson No:1 | Disaster Management

Disaster Management & Community Participation
Disaster :- A Sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.
Disaster: A disaster is a natural, manmade or technological event that causes significant physical damage or destruction, widespread loss of life or drastic change to the environment. Disaster can destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.
Types of disaster
Natural disaster: A natural hazard of severe situation is a process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage on a large scale, e.g. earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruption, floods, tornadoes, blizzard, tsunamis and cyclones and avalanches; cloud bursts and stampedes.
Manmade or Anthropogenic disasters: The human centered action, which cause a threat, to the resource like property, lives, environment in every respect due to the human negligence, error or involving a failure of human made system. It is also harmful like natural disaster because it either can result in huge losses of life, property as well as damage to peoples mental, physical and social well being, e.g. 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy (B.G.T,) 1994 Kumbokonan school fire, terrorist attacks, bomb blasts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, rail accidents, plane crushes, arson war etc,

Disaster Management :- It is a discipline that Involves preparing, supporting and rebuilding society when Natural or manmade disasters occur.

Rescue:- The action of evacuating or taking out victim of natural or Manmade disasters to a safer place. This is an emergency life saving action?

Search and Recue:- This is the search for and Provisions of aid to the people who are in distress or Imminent danger due to a disaster.

First Aid :- The preliminary treating treatment given to a victim at first approach is called first Aid.

Bio Radars:- Equipment with sensors able to detect heartbeat and respiration signals without direct skin contact.

Precaution :- This is the necessary action to be taken on wisdom to avoid future disasters or to lessen their effects.

Heat Stroke :- A severe condition caused by Impairment of the body‟s temperature regulating abilities, resulting from prolonged exposure to excessive heat.

The characteristics are no sweating, severe headache, high fever, hot dry skin and in serious cases collapse and Como situation.

Oral Rehydration Solution:- (ORS) A liquid preparation developed by the world Health organization (WHO) that can decrease fluid loss in persons with cholera or diarrhoea. It can also be prepared at home using one litre of plain water with half a teaspoon of salt and some quantity of sugar.

Q.1) What do you mean by Seismic Band?
Ans) Seismic Bands are stafety rings or belts which are constructed using either reinforced concrete(RC) or timber. Proper placement and continuity of bands is must. These bands act as shock absorbers.

Q.2) What do you know by Plinth Band?
Ans) Plinth Band is the band provided at plinth levels of walls on top of the foundation wall. This is to be provided where the soil is either soft (J&K cities) or uneven or slopy land as frequently observed in hill tracts.

Q.3) What do you know about lintel Band?
Ans) Lintel Band is the band provided at door/ window top level on all load bearing internal, external longitudinal and cross walls.

Q.4) What do you mean by Eave Band?
Ans) Eave Band is a band provided on top of walls just below the sloping roof of rafters or trusses, to which they will be securely fixed through nails and Iron straps. Q.5) Identify two Indigenous ways to rescue people in case of floods?
Ans) The Indigenous methods can be :-
i) Deployed rescue teams with row boats or motor boots to evacuate people from flooded areas. ii) In case somebody is already in the floodwaters, throw to them an inflated tube of a car or truck, by using which they can reach to a safe place.

Q.6) What should be the configuration of an Earthquake resistant building. Ans) The configuration of Earthquake building should be as follows :-
i) The building should have a simple rectangular plan.
ii) Long walls should be supported by Reinforced concrete columns.
iii) Large building having plans with slabs, T,L,U and X should preferably be separated into rectangular blocks by providing gaps in between.
iv) Good quality material should be used.

Q.7) What do you mean by heat stroke? What should be done during heat stroke.
Ans) Heat stroke is defined as a sudden temporary loss of consciousness because the temperature regulating system of the body fail in hot and dry environment. The patient experiences quick rise in temperature of body, red skin and no sweating, with very fast pulse rate and also confused.
i) Immediately take the victim to cool shaded area from hot environment.
ii) Make efforts for loosening of clothes and fanning the victim.
iii) Use Ice packs in armpits.
iv) Give plenty of cold fluids to drink.

v) Keep a watch that victim urinates vi) Don‟t overcrowd the area. vii) If the conditions of the victim worsens immediately shift him/her to nearest hospital.

Q.8 What measures should be taken while constructing a building in seismic zones IV and V ?
Ans) The primary objective of earth quake resistant buildings is to prevent collapse of building during earthquake in order to reduce the risk to life. The following steps should be taken into consideration :-
i) Soil testing is very important tool for safe construction of buildings.
ii) The buildings should have a simple rectangular plans. iii) Long walls should be supported by reinforced concrete columns. iv) Doors and windows openings in walls should be small and centrally located. v) The location of openings should not be too close to the edge of the wall.
vi) Material strength and quality of construction should be good. vii) Seismic bands at plinth level doors-window and lintel level must be laid. viii) Vertical steel bars at each corner and T junction of walls should be used.
ix) At the edges and corners the steel bars must be bended and free edges of these bars should be away from the edges. Moreover we must remain cautious during the earth quack in these zones because these zones are very intense zones of earth quake.

Q.9) What is the difference between Hazard and Disaster?
Ans) Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment.
Disaster is a serious disruption of a functioning of a community or society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceeds the ability of the affected area, community or society to cope using its own resources.

Q.10) What do you understand by natural disaster? Explain up few.
Ans) A natural hazard of severe situation is a process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage on a large scale, e.g. earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruption, floods, tornadoes, blizzard, tsunamis and cyclones and avalanches; cloud bursts and stampedes.
Examples: 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake, 2005 Waltengu Nar Snow avalanche, 2010 Cloud burst in Leh, 2014 Kashmir floods.

Q.11) Write down some events of earthquakes in India?
Ans) The events of earthquakes in India are as follows:
Area Year Magnitude on Richter scale
1. Rann of Kuchh 1819 8.0
2. Assam 1897 8.7
3. Kangra 1905 8.0
4. Arunachal Pradesh 1950 8.5 5. Uttrakashi 1991 7.0 6. Kutch 2001 7.7
7. Indian Ocean (Tsunami) 2004 9.3
8. Sikkim 2011 6.9
Q.12) What is the difference between Drought and Famine?
Ans) Drought can be defined as lack or shortage of water for an unusually long period.

Famine is a situation when there is a widespread scarcity of food, causes by several factors including crop failure, overpopulation, misgovernance, drought, floods etc.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1) What do you understand by Mitigation? Give some examples?
Ans) Mitigation is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. Mitigation is taking place before the next disaster, so as to reduce human and financial consequences later. To reduce the impact of disaster whether natural or anthropogenic we should take steps on war basis that is we should try hard to analyze the risk, reduce the risk and insuring against risk. Effective mitigation requires that we all understand local risks, addresses the hard choices and inert in long term commonly well being. Without mitigation actions, we jeopardize our safety, financial security and self reliance. Here are some examples:
Enforcement of buildings codes
Verification of building plan
Retro filling of existing buildings
Public awareness
Safety rules
Retaining walls
Q.2) List some of the major natural disasters that are likely to occur in hilly regions. Elaborate any one of them.
Ans) The major natural disasters that are likely to occur in hilly areas are landslide, avalanche, floods and cloud burst. These are common in hilly regions or mountainous areas. Because main thing behind these natural disasters in those areas is the vulnerability due to slope of land.
Avalanche means down slope movement of snow. It is a large mass of snow that moves rapidly down a mountain slope sweeping and grinding everything in its path. It occurs when the slope is steep and snow is unstable. Whenever any external disturbance is generated by anything, animal or human moving or passing over the slope. Due to working or due to structural failure snow leap lying on mountain slopes. Such structural functions may occur due to:
a) Excessive melting of upper layer due which there is lubrication in snow and enables it to slip and creates a snow avalanche.
b) Excessive loading and movement of person, animals and thunder, traffic vibration etc creates a snow avalanche.
Q.3) What is Drought? Describe how it can be prevented?

Ans) Drought can be defined as a situation of an area over an unusually long period when there is lack, shortage, scarcity, or non availability of water. This situation occurs when a region receives constantly below average precipitation due to which the area has low water table as well there is less ground water and surface water as well. The drought type situation has a substantial impact on environment, agricultural fields, productivity, food safety trade and commerce and in short socio-economic activities within the area. It leads to famine which in turn causes great problems for the people of the affected area.
Preventive measures: For reducing the impacts of drought in a particular area, society, state or country the following steps should be taken:
i. Identification of prone areas that are at risk.
ii. Comprehensive and integrated development programmes should be initiated. iii. Construction of dams, reservoirs, check dams to store water. iv. Development of watershed, management technology.
v. Proper selection of drought and disease resistant crops.
vi. Soil conservation techniques.
vii. Reducing deforestation.
viii. Mass awareness
ix. Development of canals.

Q.4) What are the relief steps that need to be taken in the aftermath of landslides or snow avalanches?
Ans) Landslides are mostly observed to affect hilly areas and are recurring phenomenon occurring in all parts of India, from Kerala to Himalayas. Areas prone to land slide, mudslide, include eastern, western ghats, the Nilgiri, the Vindhyas, mountains of northern and north eastern states throughout the Himalayan range. The incidence of landslides mostly occurs during and after spell of heavy rains. The snow avalanche means down slope movement of snow. It is a large mass of snow that moves rapidly down a mountain slope sweeping and grinding everything in its path. These are common in northern India like Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand.
Q.5) Relief step taken after snow avalanche and landslide.
Ans) (i) Retaining walls: Construction of concrete retaining walls that prevents the slippage from slopes.
(ii) Plantation: Growing more and more plants along the slide zones to help in total or maximum check of slippage.
(iii) Administrative response: The govt. of state and centre should gear up the rehabilitation process on war footing situation by deploying the people in all the respective areas like physical, financial, medical help and to make availability of power supply, food items, drinking water and shelter for the affected people.
(iv) Forecasting and warning: After the landslide or snow avalanche it is important to inform the people about the future happening like climate, rainfall, snow avalanche or anything disastrous through radios, cinemas, T.V, newspaper i.e. mass communication (v) Retrofitting of existing damaged building: Due to landslide or snow avalanche the building damaged or under the debris should be strengthened in order to make them safe. (vi) Search of victim: Search for the injured and died ones for the medical aid or for the last rituals as our social and religious responsibility.
(vii) Provision of Aid and Essential: Provision of free medical aid, food supplies, dress/clothes, blankets, tents and sure help in every respect.
(viii) Excuatation: Evacuation from the affected site or area to any safer place with home life like environment.

(ix) Displaying Sympathy and Solidarity: To be with the affected people and to console them for what they had lost.

Q.6) Describe some of the safety measure that should be adopted during an earthquake.

Ans) The safety measures that should be adopted during an earthquake are as under:
i. We should try to remain calm and to reassure others to derive an action plan.
ii. We should watch for the falling of plaster, stone, light fixtures, and heavy objects on shelves and try to save ourselves.
iii. Watch for high book case, shelves and other cabinets which might slide or topple to seek a safe place or for hiding ourselves.
iv. Stay away from glass, windows, mirrors and chimneys.
v. Switch off the lighting system, gas stoves, or gas cylinder and never try to lit fire or burn a match stick. vi. Hide under the table, desk or bed in a corner away from the window with your head covered by your hands. vii. Keep with yourself a torch and first aid box and some necessary medicines.
viii. Check and see that sewage lines are intact before using/flushing of toilets.
ix. Do not eat or drink anything from open container, especially near shattered glass.
x. Call, 100, 101 only if you have a life threatening risk.
xi. Respond to request for help from civil, defense, fire services, police, army, home guards and local people. xii. Do not crowd in damaged areas unless help has been requested, cooperate with public safety officers.
xiii. Do not spread rumours. These often do great harm following a disaster.

Long type questions.
Q1) Write in details the role of search and Rescue team during a disaster. Ans) The main objectives of a search and rescue team are to :-
i) Search the victims and timely rescue to safety.
ii) Provide first Aid services to the trapped survivors and to dispatch them for medical care.
iii) Take immediate necessary actions, as for temporary support and protection to endangered, collapsed buildings and other structures.
iv) Help administration in Hand-over, recover and dispose off the bodies of the deceased as this may cause health hazard for the others.
v) Train, demonstrate and raise awareness on how to use the local material for rescuing the community people vi) Respond to the phone calls if any.
vii) Avoid Rumours and try to take help from local people N.G.O”s police and army.
viii) Search for gas leakage and short circuit failure so stop hence forth disaster.
ix) Try to maintain people, particularly women folk, children patients and older ones. Q.2) What should be the approach help a fire burnt patient ?
Ans) For minor burns (first and second degree), the following first aid measures can be Taken:
i) Cooling the burn:- The burnt area must be cooled using running water or cool water for about 20 minutes. If this does not reduce pain, the burnt area can be left immersed in the water. ii) Bandage and pain relieve:- The burnt area can be next, bandaged loosely and blistered skin must be protected. Pain relievers like aspirin can be given to the injured if he/she is not allergic to it.

For major burns (Third degree)
i) Burned clothing :- The burnt clothing must not be removed off the skin but heating or smoldering materials must be removed. ii) No cold water:- Cold water must not be used in case of serious burn. This can deteriorate body temperature, blood pressure and circulation.
iii) CPR:- If there is no breathing or no sign of circulation or movement, then CPR must be initiated.
iv) Covering the Area:- The burnt Area must be covered with moist, sterile cloth like towels.
v) Elevation:- The body must be elevated, if possible, above the chest portion.

Q. Explain in detail the first, second and third degree of burn?
There are three levels or degrees of burn :-
i) First Degree:- In this level, only the outer layer of the skin is burnt. The area becomes red and dry and the burn is generally Painful. The area may swell. ii) Second Degree:- In the second stage, the first and second layer of the skin is burnt. The area remains red and blisters may open and weep fluid, making the skin appear wet. These types of burn are usually painful and the area swells up as in first degree.
iii) Third Degree:- In third degree all the layers of skin get burnt. Tissues can be burnt permanently and elements like fats, muscles and bones can also get burnt. It is the most serious case of burns and some times leads to death.

Q. What is the safe construction practice ?
Safe construction practice means to adopt ways to construct or build disaster resistant buildings. Building should be constructed which can withstand natural disasters like earthquake; landslides; cyclones and floods because building collapse during these disasters causing the maximum damage to people and property.
About 60% of land area of our country is susceptible to damaging levels of seismic hazard. The history of the earthquakes that hit our country in the recent past brought home the harsh reality that Earthquakes don‟t kill people but unsafe buildings too. The Jammu and Kashmir falls in seismic zones IV and V that represent high and very high risk for earthquake disaster. Till date we are unable to predict earthquake and therefore can‟t avoid future earthquake damages. However preparedness and safe building construction practices can certainly reduce the extent of damage and loss. It is therefore, necessary to have some elementary knowledge about construction and designing of disaster resistant buildings. Using these disaster resistant practices, we shall have an additional but very little finaincial burden thousand of rupees, but will definitely reduce the loss of precious human lives. So we should take the suggestions from the well known civil engineers, and geologist in order to make safe and secure houses and colonies for less damage and loss of life from now onwards.
What should be the role of community during a disaster?
i) The community is an Institution in itself, emerging as the most powerful in entire mechanism of disaster management.
ii) Local volunteers are particularly important because citizens are in many cases the first responders, and they have the greatest chance to save lives and provide support immediately following the aftermath of a disaster.
iii) Certainly, an effective community response can serve to diminish some of the sufferings and loss that occurs during and after disasters. iv) Community and volunteer coordinators have an obligation to help facilitate community organization and preparation to aid fellow citizens in times of such great need.
v) These community leaders serve as the noodle body for effective management of
vi) The main task of the community is to make people informed, alert, self reliant and make
them capable of participating in all activities and programmes organized by NGO‟s or govt agencies.
vii) The quality and extent of community participation holds the key to minimize disaster effects, maintaining order, increasing hope, and maximizing recovery efforts.

Q.1) What equipments should be carried by the rescuer?
Ans) A Rescuer should carry :-
i) Equipments for personal safety: Halmet, life Jacket, Gum boot, torch, whistle etc. ii) Equipments for safety of victims :- Ladders, Ropes, pulleys, stretcher, First Aid kits, Bamboo sticks, Barrels, Air filled tube‟s, Hammer and small cutting tools.
iii) Modern Equipments:- Infrared cameras, Acoustic devices, Bio radars and life locators.

Q.2) What is ABC formula in disaster management?
Ans) ABC is method to save life by maintaining vital function. ABC mean Airway, Breathing and circulation.
Q.3) What should be the constituents of First Aid Box?
Ans) A First Aid Kit should have the following items :-
i) Light weight box (ii) Sterile cotton (iii) Bandages (iv) Gloves (v) Sterile dressing (vi) Antiseptic sol. (vii) AMBU Bag (viii) Soap (ix) Airway (x) Scissors (xi) small towels (xii) ORS. Q.4) Fill in the blanks :
Ans) 1) 100 and 101 numbers should be dialed in case of emergency.
2) Sudden temporary loss of consciouness because of the failure of temperature regulating system of the body is known as Heat Strike
3) A kit containing, some medicines, bandages, dressing etc for immediate treatment is called as First Aid Kit.
4) NDMA stands for National Disaster Management Authority
5) Strengthening of old building is called Retrofitting

Q.1) The first and the foremost life saving procedure in disaster is :-
a) Modern equipments (b) First Aid (c) Heart massage (d) Search and Rescue.
Q.2) After search and rescue of the victims necessary ______ is provided depending upon the conditions of the victim:
a) Rescue (b) First Aid (c) Artificial breathing (d) safety measuns.
Q.3) These are superficial burns involving top layer of the skim :-
a) First degree burn (b) second degree burn(c) third degree burn (d) None of these
Q.4) Jammu region falls in the seismic zone ________ fleur represents high and very high resto for equate disaster
a) I and II (b) II and III (c) III and IV (d) IV and V


J K Economics
Lesson No:1
Agrarian Economy :-It is type of Economy which is based on producing and mantaining crops and farm land product. Moreover the Economy of our state JK is almost agrarian because the major share of state domestic production is coming from Agriculture sector.

GDP :- Stands for Gross Domestic Produce. It is the monetary value of all the finished goods and service produced within a country in a specific time period. It usually calculated on an annual basis.

Floriculture:- Floriculture or flower farming is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for garden ad for florist, comprising the floral Industry.

Horticulture:- It is discipline of agriculture which is purely concerned with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, for commercial purposes.

Oliericulture :- Branch of Horticulture dealing with the cultivation of non woody plants for food i.e vegetable growing. It is cultivation or production of plants for using their edible parts.
Sericulture :- It is an agro based Industry. It involve rearing of Silk worms for the production of raw silk which is the yarn obtained out of the cocoons & pun by certain species of Insects.
Handicraft:- It is the process in which mainly the involvement of the craftsman is necessary who work and decorate domestic or other objects by hand.
Pisciculture :- It refers to breeding of fishes in specially constructed tanks and ponds. Viticulture :- Cultivation of grapes is also going to be a great venture keeping in view its ever increasing areas which now moves out of the Ganderbal and Zaberwan foot hills.
Apiculture :- Rearing of honey bees for the production of honey. The farmers now move to Punjab during winters in an attempt to make it round the year business activity.
Livestock :- It is the integrated programme along with farming where domesticated animals are raised in order to produce commodities such as food, fibre and labour. Animals are domesticed when the breeding and living conditions are controlled by human.
Q.1) Name the major forest based raw material supplied from the state of J&K?
Ans) The major forest based raw material supplied from the state of Jammu & Kashmir includes Timber, Herbs, Gum, Resins, wood etc.
Q.2) Write about the qualities of major Fruits Produced in Jammu & Kashmir.
Ans) The state of J & K is well known for its horticulture produce both in India and abroad. The state offers good scope for the cultivation of horticulture crops. This Includes Apple, Apricot, Almond, cherry, Pear, Peach, Plum, Mango, Guava, Citrus, litchi etc, The
Important qualities of major fruits of our valley are as follows :-
i) Nutritional value: The valley of Kashmir produces the fruits of high Nutrational valve like apples, pears, peaches, Apricots etc.

ii) Rich in Bioactive compounds : The fruits including Mango, Apple, peach, Plums etc are rich in Bioactive compounds. iii) Tasty and Juicy : The fleshy fruits of our valley are famous for their taste and are full of juice.
Q.3) Write a short note on Handicraft and Handloom Industry in the state?
Ans) The handicraft and handloom Industry, the states oldest traditional, Industry has special socio-economic significance due to its vast potential for economic activities like generation of employment, Revenue and standard of living. All the three region of the state have unique specialties in this sector. The Jammu holds the domain in Basholi Painting, calico painting, phoolkari.The Kashmir specializes in carpet, Shawl, wood
Carving, paper mashie, crewel; and the Ladakh,” area has expertise in wood carving, panting, clay moulding, pashmina weaving, carpet and Thanka painting. The handicrafts and handloom sector provides employment to more than 4-Lakh people. Realizing the vast potential for employment, the Jammu & Kashmir govt. has under- taken various programs to boost the handicraft and handlooms industry.

Q.4) Identify five each metallic and non metallic mineral resources found in Jammu and Kashmir.
Ans) The Jammu & Kashmir state is rich in its deposits in mineral wealth which contribute materially for the building of economy. The metallic and non metallic minerals found in the state are as follows:
Metallic Minerals :- These Include Bauxite, Iron ore, Copper ore, Lead, Silver ore, Zinc, Nickel, Gold, Chromium, etc.
Non Metallic Minerals: These Include Gypsum, Gem, stone, Sulphur and Magnease and coal
Q.5) What is role of Service Sector in Economic Development of state ?
Ans) The Service Sector in J&K is presently dominated by traditional services. The tourism and allied activities likes hotels, on spot service, trekking, skiing and other adventure tourism activities are involved in it. The service sector once treated as third grade sector as per its role in the economic development in the state but with the past reforms it has shown tremendous growth and is getting leading role in the economic development. The service sector is going much ahead of agriculture and industrial sector in terms of contribution to NSDP. This sector has shown an Increase from 13.86% to 54.23% from 1960-61 to 201112 and is likely to grow by 10.10% more in the coming few years. There is no doubt in saying that service sector has now become the key sector of J&K state.

Q.1) Identity major agriculture crops grown in Jammu and Kashmir. Distribute these crops according to Kharif and Rabi season?
Ans. The main crops of agriculture sector of J&K, which are grown here on the varied Physiography are rice, maize wheat, barley, bajra, and jawar. About 84% of the total cropped Area is under the said crops. Our state is known to be a leading producer of fruits. The best quality of apple is produced here. Our other sub sectors of the agriculture are forestry, fisheries, horticulture and Livestock.
The state has 1223 thousand hectares of gross sown area (2011-12) of which only 43.09% is irrigated. Out of total cropped area under kharif crops 41.74% is under Maize, 37.12% under paddy and remaining 21.14% under pulses, oil seeds vegetables, fodder, mellets etc while out of total area under Rabi crops 51.84% is under wheat, 24.41% under oil seeds, 9.07% under Fodder and of the remaining area 14.68% under barley, pulses etc.

Q.2) Write down the basic objectives of Forest policy in Jammu & Kashmir?

Ans. Forests are vital for existence of man kind on earth. The state of J&K is richly endowed with diverse forest resource which play an Important role in preserving the fragile ecosystem. The recoded information about the state forest department which was formed in 1881 when J.C Mc.Donald was appointed the first ever Conservator of Forests of the state. He started the process of consolidation and demarcation of forests in 1923. Moreover H.L. Wright was appointed as the chief conservator of forests.
The basic objectives of state forest policy 2010 are as follows:-
i) Conservation of biodiversity and natural habitat through preservation of natural forests with the vast variety of flora and fauna.
ii) Rehabilitation of degraded forests so as to optimize their productivity and restore their potential to provide ecosystem goods and services on sustainable basis.
iii) Poverty alleviation by meeting livelihood needs of forest dependant communities with suitable supply of Forest produce by Improving productivity of existing forest.
iv) Afforestation Extension: Extending tree cover outside forests to reduce the pressure on natural forests for supply of forest produce.
v) Checking Soil Erosion: Checking denudation and soil erosion in catchment through Integrated watershed management techniques and practices.
vi) Proper Maintanance: Maintance of the health of forest vegetarian and forest soil for agumenting water supplies through recharge of undergood water aquifers and regulation of surface water flow, sediments and water quality.
vii) Community Mobilization: Creating a sustained people”s movement for achieving the aforementioned objectives so that environmental security is ensured.
viii) Management Practices: Utilization of natural resources using best management practices including depletion of non timber forest produce and institutionalization and operationalization of concepts of eco-tourism and nature tourism
Q.3) What is copper ore. Write down the names of places where copper one is found?
Ans) Copper ore is an important mineral resource, which spawns on the surface as well as in the underground. It is named after Cyprus the principal mining place is Rome. It was discovered in Middle east some 9000 BCE. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductively. Pure copper is soft and malleable. The main places in J&K where its mining and manafuctures goes hand in hand are Lashttialin in Baramulla, Shinbul in Anantnag. Kishtwar, Kargil and Zanaskar have sufficient deposits of copper. It is also found in Dhar and Tommachil areas in Ladakh.
Q.4) What are the major reason of slow growth of handicrafts and handloom industry in the state?
Ans) The world Community has acclaimed and accepted the handicraft articles of Jammu & Kashmir with top priority. As these are mostly designed, decorated by the famous craftsman of Kashmir, They have also earned a good amount of foreign exchange of J&K But still there are some draw backs of this industry which are acting as a major reason for slow growth:
i) Poor quality control (ii) Obsolete designs (iii) Explortative middleman
iv) Competition from machinemade goods (v) Less govt attention (vi) Poor market facilities vii) High price rise a non affordable for everone.
Q.1) Identify places of religious pilgrimage in Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans) The State of Jammu and Kashmir is called the paradise on earth. It is the northern most state of India. For its scenic beauty, diverse ethenic and religious cultural and linguistic standards. It is famous in the whole world. There are more than 500 places of religious pilgrimages in J&K
Some Notable ones are as follows :-
i) Baba Reshi Shrine (ii) Hazratbal Shrine (iii) Sahadra Sherief (iv) Amarnath cave
(v) Mata Vaishno Devi Temple (vi) Temple Shiv Khori (vii) Hemis Gompa

(viii) Shankaracharya Temple (ix) Gurdwara Chatti Padshahi (x) Khir Bhawani temple (xi) Famous shrine of Hazrat Sheikh Noordin Norani Charia Charief (xii) Shrine at Aishmuqam (xiii) Makhdoom Sahab shrine Srinagar etc.
Q.2) Write down the main principles of P.P.P?
Ans) P.P.P means Public Private Partnership. It is the Govt. scheme for the infra structure development in J&K. The main principles of it are as under :-
i) To take full benefits of various scheme and Initiatives of Ministry of Finance.
ii) To work for the Economic growth of the state.
iii) To address land related concerns in a practical manner for the development of Tourism in J&K. iv) To connect different regions of the state.
v) Training the youth in the hospitality and adventure tourism sector.
vi) Creation of an Integrated online tourism portal in PPP mode.
Q.3) What is the role of Handicrafts sector in employment generation in J&K.
Ans. Handicrafts is a pivotal source of revenue generation of Jammu and Kashmir state. This Industry is an Important sector contributing to over all development of current and other allied sectors in term of wealth and employment creation. Thus occupying an important place in economy of JK. It is basically a cottage Industry and provides direct and gainful employment to more than 3 lakh people and has the potential to facilitate the path of raising the living standard of the citizens residing within and outside boundry of the state. This Industry is famous for pashmina and kani shawls, woollens and cotton fabrics. Moreover hand woven carpets, paper machie, wood work and silver ware.
Q.4) Write a brief note on Micro, Small and Medium scale Industries in employment generation.
Ans. Micro, Small and Medium scale Industrial sector has emerged as a highly vibrant and dynamic sector of the Indian Economy over the last five decades. It not only plays a crucial role in providing large employment opportunities at comparatively lower capital cost than huge Industries but also helps in Initialization of rural and backward areas, there by reducing regional balances. This sector has not done well in the state of Jammy and Kashmir due to number of reasons including Inadequate local demand, poor credit flow, distance from market etc. In our state more than 5 lakh people are getting benefit through these small scale units.
Q.5) How employment potential in Jammu and Kashmir can be increased?
Ans. The economy of J&K has suffered from disturbed condition prevailing in the state for almost two decades. It would therefore be necessary to put the economy back on the rails to enable the average person to get employment opportunities. Now the state‟s vast employment potential can be Increased by the below mentioned factor :-
i) Diversification of the Agriculture, Food processing, Handicrafts and Handlooms.
Animal Husbandry, poultry.
ii) Proper attention toward the most Important sector i,e Tourism.
iii) Proper planning for the fast developing and emerging IT Industry and Biotechnology.
iv) The establishment of special Industrial package covering all the areas.
v) Proper attention and carefull management in the Border area of the state.
vi) Establishment of Education and Health Institution in the state.
vii) Large Infrastructure projects i,e Roads and Railways.
viii) Extension of the mineral wealth of the state.
ix) Construction and Architectural sector.
x) A highly profitable, ecofriendly industrial policy.
xi) After all corruption free and good governance.

Q.6) Name the programmes conducted by Infosys development centres?
Ans. The Infosys development centers have conducted Faculty Enhancement programmes, soft skill development Programms, Development of various centres for providing training and out sourcing for different sectors, computer programs, Job fairs, placement drives, career specific counseling and guidance, Human Resource development programs.

Q.1) Discuss the role of Tourism in generating employment in Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans. Tourism is considered as the back bone of J&K economy. Tourism in modern era is one of the main avenues of employment generation, economic development, cultural exchange etc, Different tourist centres have different attractions like heritage. Pilgrimege, infrastructure, natural beauty etc. But Kashmir has combination of all the attractions including natural beauty, pilgrimage, heritage, cultural, handicraft. Kashmir was a popular attraction in ancient times as well. It was also one of the important destination of silk route. Kashmir was the attraction of almost all the rulers like Mughal, Sikh, Britishers, Afgans etc India has a whole and particularly Kashmir has a lot of potential in tourism sector, Earlier it used to be seasonal tourist destination but now things have changed all year round Tourism activity is in place. The tourist place are loving well furnished accomodation of Hotels, Restaurants, Resting places, and the well established pony riding association, photographs, shikars etc in which thousand and lakhs of people are able to generate revenue. Morever the Ministry of Tourism has also lanched a special programme called Hunar sa Rozgar which offers short but quality training course offering food and catering services, housekeeping utility etc. Besides this Govt. has tried from very Initial stages to improve Tourism sector in Kashmir by creating developmental authorities like
Pahalgam Development Authority (PDA), Gulmarg Development Authority (GDA), Kokernag Development Authority (KDA), Doodhpathri Development Authority (DDA) etc. These development authorities have yielded good results by creating Employment opportunities and generating revenue as well for the state.
Q.2) Write down sectoral Initiatives by the govt. to generate employment in Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans. The sectoral Initiatives taken by the govt. for the betterment of the both, Jammu and
Kashmir and the whole India was a good step taken by the India Govt. by constituting an Expert group by Prime Minister on August 18-2010 under the committee of Dr CRangarajan. The following sectorial Initiatives were discussed at length to regulate the Economy of J&K and to create some better employment opportunities.
i) Developement of labour Intensive livestock sector with its capacity to cater to the poor and absorb large number of skilled and un skilled worker. ii) Increased public investment in the poultry sector.
iii) Emphasis on tackling diseases and infertility issues in diary.
iv) Improvised agronomic practices for quality fodder production.
v) Development of Tourism sector across the state.
vi) Providing skill spectrum and positive expertise for other sectors like handicrafts, handloom and transport .
vii) Development of IT/BPO sectors as the sector has attracted a number of young antrepreneours.
viii) Providing skill development by the Central Govt. under the scheme like UDAAN and Himayat.
ix) Providing easy loan scheme for establishment of sheep farm, trout culture and ornamental plants at lower grass root level.
x) Development in the educational sector by providing free computer education etc.

Geography | Chapter No. 1
Resource Concept, Classification and Management

Very Short Answer Type Question
Q.1 (i) Any means of attaining desired ends can be designated as a Resource.
(ii) The most clearly recognizable resource are those consisting of living things.
(iii) The renewability of a living resource varies with the species and the area involved.
(iv) The usefulness of abiotic resource depends upon its accessibility and consecration.
(v) Solar energy is an inexhaustible resources relative to the human use and time scale.

Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.2 (i) Define a Resource? Give some example of resources.
Ans. A resource is a source or supply from which benefit is produced, moreover a resource has been defined as any means of attaining given ends example materials, energy, services knowledge or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consume or made available.
(ii) Which three things interact to develop resources for human satisfaction?
Ans. The man three things that interact to develop resources for human satisfaction are nature, man and man‟s culture.
(iii) How is manganese ore a renewable resource despite of abiotic nature?
Ans. Manganese ore is a renewable resource despite of abiotic nature because the rate of its formation in the nodules on the ocean floor through chemical precipitation from sea water exceeds the rate at which the ore is being used.
(iv) Define inexhaustible resources given some examples.
Ans. Resources which can be renewed by reproduction or by physical, mechanical or chemical processes are known as inexhaustible resource e.g, solar energy, air water, wildlife forest and human beings.
(v) Different between biotic and abiotic resources?
Ans. Biotic: A resource which continues to reproduce and regenerate is called as biotic resource e.g, Population, forest etc.
Abiotic: A resource consisting of nonliving things. These are least renewable resources. These get exhausted by reckless use while theri rate of formation is exceeding slow eg minerals.
(vi) Write a short note on resource development.
Ans. Resource development is an action oriented activity in which the main effort is to develop the resource fully to enable their complete utilization which minimum wastage for example land is a resource, which has to be cleared of unwanted materials and ploughed in order to grow crops. Water has to be taken to fields to irrayate lands. Minerals have to be fallen out from the earth and smelt them, purify them to use them completely and making a huge variety of things from them. Such as, machinery, and implements. Thus resource development can be describes as a necessary exercise for the complete, managed and scientific utilisation of resource.
(vii) What is the principle sustainable yield?
Ans. Principle sustainable yield can be defined as a process in which, the locally available renewable resource should be used when possible and renewable resource should not be used faster than their replacement by natural processes. This is known as the principles sustainable yield.

Long Answer Type Questions:
Q.3 The definition of natural resources has change over time discuss.
Ans. The term, “natural resource” has undergone an expansion in meaning as a result of mean’s greater understanding of his relationship with the world he lives in Earlier natural resources were viewed primarily as sources of valuable and useful commodities. Such as raw materials, minerals fuel, forest, wild life, water etc but now in the present would the concept of natural resource has been broadened and includes now the total natural environment. In real sense it encompasses the entire surface layer earth, because all parts of earth’s surface are of some use to man as they contribute to the production of necessities and communities that people demand. Thus from this period of view all the living and non living elements of earth outside and inside too have same valuable resource.

Q.4 What are exhaustible resources and how are they different from in exhaustible resources?
Ans. Resources classified on the basis of renewability are termed as exhaustible and inexhaustible resource. The difference between these two is important.
Exhaustible resources are those resources which once taken out and used can not be replaced. If an exhaustible resource is not conserved, it ultimately disappears because its total reserves are limited needs conservative approached and sctantific management. Exhaustible resource are as coal, petroleum natural gas. Iron are copper aluminium, thorium sulphur etc. The natural replacement of such resources particularly mineral through geological events are processes are exceptionally slow and can not compactly the current rate of mineral extraction. White as inexhaustible resources are those which can be renewable by reproduction or by physical mechanical or chemical processes. These resource are present in plenty and often regeting of these is available by natural process. Now day the trend is to used such resources in large concentration some of these are non polluting such as wind, water, solar energy and easily available. These can be of greater value then present only it technology development will be available example, solar energy wind energy, nature OTE, Tidal energy, geothermal energy etc.
Q.5 What is resource planning? Discuss detail about it various stages.
AnsResource planning is the technique or skill of utilizing or exploiting the resources judiciously and properly. Unscientific exploitation can lead to environmental and ecological problems, such a pollution and uneconomical utilization can lead to the wastage of resources. Thus resource planning helps to reduce wastage, keeps the environment pollution- free and takes care of future needs. Resource planning comprises of three stages.
(1) Resource Mapping: It is the surveying, mapping and estimation. Under the mapping, the location, quality, magnitude and measurement of properties and characteristics of resources is extensively done to develop resource inventory. Different expert agencies are engaged for the exercise of mapping. e.g Geological Survey of India is responsible for mapping of minerals in India.
(2) Resource Evaluation: Before exploitation of a particular resource, an evaluation process is undertaken to look into the economy, technology, need and other issues including ecology in order to ascertain that the value of final resource product is significantly lower than the value of the imported one.
(3) Planning for Resource exploitation: This is related to action-oriented planning. This includes planning for infrastructure, men and material. Planning of resources also involves the sustainable development and the inclusion of 3Rs (Reduce, Recycle and Reuse) so that the exploitation is not wanton i.e not taking due care of the needs of future generation.

Q.6 What are various methods which help in managing and conservation the resources. Ans. Resources are an essential and complimentary part of human life on this unique planet, therefore their conservation is must because if resources get vanished from this earth. Human
survival will be in difficult. The conservative methods and management of earth are given as below:
(i) Locally available renewable resources should be used where possible and renewable resources not be used faster than their replacement by natural resources. This is called as principle of sustainable
(ii) High quality energy should not be used to do something that can be done with lower quality energy. This is knows as principal of energy efficiency.
(iii) Pollution prevention and waste reduction are the best and cheapest ways to sustain the earth. This can be done by controlling pollution and producing minimum water. This is known as principal of pollution prevention and waste reduction.
(iv) Reducing resource consumption and waste production should be top priority followed by resusing items, recycling of three “R”s of earth care.
(v) Products or wastes that can be cycled or reused should not be dispersed, mixed, burned or baried. This is termed the principle of resource conservation.
(vi) Last but not least we should leave all the global commons like fresh H2O and fresh air to our next generation as good as we leave received then from our ancestass. This is known as principle of global common.
So we should follow these principle and help other people to follow them as well to make it a success for sustainable earth to prevail. Q.7 Match the following:
(a) Mesabi Range U.S.A
(b) Kola Mines Karnataka
(c) Amu Darya Central Asia
(d) Rhene River Europe
(e) Hwang HO China

Additional Questions
Q.1 Differentiate Renewable resources & Non-renewable resources
Renewable resources Non-renewable resources
(i) These resources have ability to renew themselves in a given period of time. (i) These resources can not be renewed after their utilization.
(ii) These are inexhaustible. (ii) These are exhaustible.
(iii) These resources may or may not require substitutes or conservation, e.g. forests, water, etc. (iii) These resources require substitutes or conservation, e.g. Petroleum, iron, coal, etc.
(iv) These are maintainable resources. (iv) These are non-maintainable resources.
(v) The examples of renewable resources are water, forests, solar, wind and tidal energy. (v) The examples are , mineral deposits, coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Chapter No. 2
Land Resources
Textual Exercises
A. Very Short Answer Type Questions: Q.1
(i) Total geographical area of Indian is 328.73 million hectares.
(ii) India covers 2.4% global land area and contains 16.74% of global population.
(iii) About 27% land area of India is plateau which possess rich reserves of mineable fossil fuels and forests.

(iv) The use of land is determined by physical as well as human factors.
(v) Cultivable waste includes the land available for cultivation but not cultivated during the last five years.
B Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.2 (i) What is the importance of land as a resources?
Ans. Land is an important resource, because it converse about 30% of the total area of earth‟s surface and not all parts of this percentage are heritable or productive. All other resource either of any state solid, liquid or gas are present on it or inside it. So it is obvious that it supports natural vegetarian wildlife, provides minerals, gives us accommodation shelter and provide hustate to every type of organism. Not only this but it also provides us every thing that we need. So it is an important resources.
(ii) What are the two major categories of land not available for cultivation?
Ans. The two major categories of land not available for cultivations are as under:
(a) Land put to non agricultural uses. It included the land occupied by buildings, industries, roads, railways, shopping complex, malls, airport etc.
(b) Barron and uncultivated land: it includes rocky mountains, hills, rocky outcrops, deserts, saliva lands coastal beaches, weed infected ravine lands etc.
(iii) Differentiate between gross cropped area and not sown area.
Ans. Gross cropped area: It is the total area under crops, irrigated once or more than once in a year. It is counted as many times as the number of times the areas are cropped and irrigated in a year.
Net sown area: This represents the total area sown with crops and orchards, around 141.58 million hectares (46.4%) of land in India is under net sawn area out of total reported area.
(iv) Write about four measures that control land degradation?
Ans. Land degradation is a menace. It is necessary to slop this menace as soon as possible by some good steps. The following four measures will prove good for controlling land degradation. (i) For factors see old Note Q. No.
(v) Define a protected forest.
Ans. An area notified under provision of Indian Forest Act having limited degree of protection, in protected forests, all activities are permitted unless protisuited.
(vi) Height light various factors which are helpful in increasing Netsown area Ans. The following factors helps us to increase Netsown area.
(i) Good and Tandy rainfall, (ii) Good weather conditions (iii) Prices of Agricultural commodities (iv) Political stibnite (v) Secarity of tenure and tenancy.
(vii) Name four ways of Urban land utilization?
Ans. The four ways of urban land utilization are as under:
(i) It is used for construction of houses and buildings.
(ii) It is used for setting industries railways, Roads.
(iii) It is used to set up big Malls, shopping complex and Amusement parks.
(iv) It is used for erecting administrative blocks and different Govt. Office, Hospitals, Banks etc.
C. Long Answer Type Questions:
3. Forest play an important role in the ecology and economy of India. Discuss.
Ans. A forest is a complex ecosystem which is predominantly occupied by trees, plants, herbs shrubs and other things including wild animals, birds, rephles etc India has 70.01 million hectares (22.9%) of total reported area under forest. Indian forests are vital for India and its landscape, forest land in India is far less than usually accepted scientific norm. For a self sufficient economy and accurate ecological balance, at least one third of the total area must be kafa under forests and natural vegetation.
Ecological and Economic importance of Indian forests:

• Forests contribute substantially to our economic development.
• They play a major role in enhancing the quality of our environment.
• They modify local climate, control soil erosion and regulate stream.
• Forests provide livelihood for many communities and offer opportunities for recreation.
• They influence air temperature and reduce wind force.
• They provide industrial wood, Timber, fodder and other forest produce.
• They provide natural environment for wild life.
• They have a great role in maintaining ecological balance and life support systems. • They help in preparation.
• They provides humans to soil.
• They provide us resins, lac, gums, rubber etc.
• They also given us medicine.
• They help to reduce noise pollution etc.
Q D. What is land degradation what are its major caused?
Ans. The process of depletion of quality of land mainly as soil resource is called land degradation. There fore land degradation is a process which decreases the productivity or the potential productivity of the land which is not under cultivation. Thus degradation involves loss of minerals, nutrients, organic and humus content, water retention capacity, aeration etc. besides change in chemical properties that all lead to decrease in productivity. Land is the most important natural resource which the mankind has been using right from its descendence. The conservation of land by our earlier generations help us to survive and there fore we as generation are obliged to do the same for future generation as well to make the earth an abode of human life including all other species.
Presently there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. Approximately 28% of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56% to water eroded area and rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
Causes: The vicious human activities have sufficiently contributed to the land degradation. Man has not only directly damaged land but also aggravated the place of natural forces to cause a great damage to it. Land degradation is a global problem and is caused by a hot of activities mainly induced by humans:
(i) Land clearance, such as clear cutting and deforestation.
(ii) Depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices.
(iii) Overgrazing and overdrafting.
(iv) Inappropriate irrigation.
(v) Urban sprawl and commercial development. (vi) Soil contamination.
(vii) Vehicle off-roading

Q.5 What is fallow land? What are the various reasons for keeping land fallow?
Ans. Fallow land is cultivable land, which is cultivated once far a short period and is kept out of cultivation for a period of not less than one year and not mark than five years. India has 24.59 million hectares of land area under fallow land category. It is of tow types.
(i) Current fallow land: which is left without cultivation for one year or less than one year. This category includes 14.27 million hectors of total land are in the county which accounts for 4.7% of the total area.
(ii) Other than current fallow land: Land area left uncultivated for the part 1 to 5 gram. India has 10.32 million hector under other than current follow category which is 33 of total land area.
The various reasours for keeping such land fallow area as under:
(a) Inability of farmers to cultivate

(b) Inadequate water supply.
(c) Malarial climate.
(d) Silting of canals and revers.
(e) Soil erosion.
(f) Unremuneraive farming.
(g) To regain fertility.
(h) Non availability of sees. (i) To radian health.
Q.6 Highlight various programmes that have been initiated by the govt to control further land degradation.
Ans. Land degradation is a serious problem that India faces since 1600 AD. However some measures are taken into consideration by the Govt. of India to check it, below are some programmes initiated by Govt. recently for checking land degradation.
(a) Integrated watershed management in the catchment of flood prove are 1980 – 81.
(b) National watershed development projects for rainfed areas.
(c) Reclamation and development of Alkali and Acidic soils.
(d) Integrated wasteland development project.
(e) Desert area development programme.
(f) Hill area development programme.
(g) Drought prone area development programme.
(h) Command area development programme.
Additional Questions
Q.1 What are the measures which can be taken to check land degradation?
Ans. The land degradation can be checked in a number of ways which are described as under:
(1) Afforestation: By planting more and more trees, the land abandoned due to one or other reason can be upgraded.
(2) Controlling Overgrazing: When vegetal cover is exposed to intensive grazing for long periods of time or with out sufficient recovery ability time land become prone to degradation due to easy erosion and non replenishing . Land degradation due to over grazing is observed in the states of Gujrat, Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra. Controlling the overgrazing will check the land degradation.
(3) Checking Over irrigation: Over irrigation is the cause of land degradation due to water logging in Punjab, Haryana and Western UP. Water logging leads to increase in both the salinity and alkalinity. Proper drainage or checking over- irrigation helps in stopping the land degradation.
(4) Stablized cropping: Most of the nutrients from the land are exhausted due to over cropping there-by decreasing the land productivity. The cropping pattern and intensity has to be stabilized to check land degradation.
(5) Disposal of Industrial wastes : Industrial effluents are great menace for bringing about land and water pollution in many parts of India. Proper disposal of wastes can help in reducing the land degradation.

Chapter No. 3
| Water Resources
Textual Questions:

Q.1. Very Short answer type questions:
(i) The percentage of water locked in the ice caps and ice sheets of world is 2%
(ii) India possesses 4% of water resources and 17% of populations of the world respectively.
(iii) The ground water utilization is very high in the states like Punjab and Haryana.
(iv) In most parts of India, 80% of annual rainfall is received from souti west.
(v) Irrigation is the most important sources of irrigation well and Tube wells in India. Q.2 Match the following canals with their sources rivers:
(i) Upper Bari Doab caneal Ravi river.
(ii) Agra canal Yammuna river
(iii) Sirhind Canal Sutlej River (iv) Mether canal Kaveri (v) Ianrahar Canal Nagarjuna sager dam.

Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.3 (i) Define surface water and highlight its major sources.
Ans. Water that flows on the surface of earth in the form of streams, rivers, lakes or reservoirs etc major sources of surface water which include rivers, lakes, ponds and tanks.
(ii) Mention sector wise major users of water in India?
Ans. India has 4% of world water resource, as per the water resources information system of India. As per the latest repast of food and agriculture organisation (FAO) agriculture is the major user of H2O in India. It consumes 90% of the replonishable yield of water. Domestic water supply uses 8% while industry consumes 2% available water resources.
(iii) Name any three states where groundwater utilization is very high. Give reasons. Ans. Water beneath the surface of earth which saturates the pores and factures of sand, grave and rock formation is armed as ground water. The ground water utilization is very high in the rats of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Because these states lie near the river becomes.
(iv) What are the major sources of irrigation in India.
Ans. The major sources of irrigation in India in different part of it are as follows: wells, Tube walls, Canals, Tanks etc.
(v) Highlight merits and demerits of well irrigation?
Ans. Following are the merits and demerits of well irrigation.
(i) Cheapest source of irrigation.
(ii) They can be doing at a convenient place. (iii) Indispensable source of irrigation Demerits:
(i) They tend to be shallow and may dry up.
(ii) They can irrigate only a small area.
(iii) They need high water fall.
(iv) At some places well water contains a high percentage of minerals, which makes the water unseuturse for irrigation.

(vi) Canal irrigation is widespread in Northern India. Give reasons.
Ans. Canal irrigation is widespread in Northern India because of the below maintained reasons.
(i) Leveled relief is present in north India.

(ii) Deep fertile soil is available which helps in recovery the cost of construction of canals.
(iii) Alluvial formation due to which digging of canal eany.
(iv) Perrenial flow of rivers which originates in the snow covered Hamalayan rays.
(vii) Name the states were tank irrigation is wide spread in India. Give reasons:
Ans. Tank irrigation is widely prevalent in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Predesh, Karnataka and Orrissa. The following reasons that favour tank irrigation in pensiular Indian area as under:
(i) Undulating topography.
(ii) Hard and impermeable bedrock.
(iii) Seasonal Nature of peninsular rivers.
Long Answer Type Questions:
Q.4 Name the major uses of water in India and also suggest measures to solve the emerging water crises in the country?
Ans. The major users of water in India are as follows:
Agriculture: It is the major user of water in India as it consumes 90% of the replineshible yield of water. Because of its vast size and population. It needs to produce large amount of different food products from agricultural land, for which maximum amount of H2O is used.
Domestic water: Supply used 8% of water because of large no of population the water which is an indispensable thing is consumed at every step for carting, cutting washing etc.
For Carting: India as a fast developing country were industrial growth is taking place at faster rate to produce a large No of products for such an enormous population, this sector uses 2% of available water resources.
Following are the measures which can help us to solve the emerging water crisis in the country.
(i) Stopping, the water contamination at local, regions state and national level.
(ii) By conserving the water through adopting various measures.
(iii) Existing water bodies should be preserved.
(iv) Avoiding to through garbage and other domestic and Municipals dirt into rivers, ponds etc.
(v) Adopting water harvesting techniques national wide.
(vii) By establioting efficient and innovative means of irrigation such as sprinkle and drip irrigation.
(viii) By implanting strict laws and giving punishment to the offenders, whosoever will be responsible for pollution of water bodies.
(ix) By checking the population of the country as well.
(x) Recycling of purification of used water can be a gold step.
(xi) Execution of water policies and leering of water tax at every level, so as to keep water pure and clean.
Q.5 What are multipurpose river projects? Highlight their merits and dement?
Ans. Multipurpose river project is a large scale interrupted hydraulic system designed to serve several purposes simultmeously. These projects are used for irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric power generation, Navigation, fisheries and tourism.
Merits of multipurpose river projects:
(i) Generation of hydel-power: These projects are the main sources of power generation. According to economic survey 2005-06 these produce more than 30,000 MW power. They provide us neat, pollution free and cliap energy which is the back bone of industry and agriculture.
(ii) Flood Control: These projects control the floods because of their huge water storing capacity. These projects have concurred may rivers of sorrow into river of boon of kosi and damdar river.
(iii) Soil Conservation: These projects help to conserve the soil as they showdown the speed of ` water they relueing its erosive intently.

(iv) Irrigation: These projects are the main sources of irrigation for our country. These irrigate the fields during the dry season.
(v) Afforestation: Trees are systematically` planted in and around reservous. This helps in preserving wild life and natural ecosystem.
(vii) Water Navigation: These projects often provide for inland water navigation through main river and conds. The help to then navigate its the cheapest means of transport for heavy goods.
(vii) Fisheries: These are ideal condition for breading fish. Which act an source of of food to people and supports the economy of the said area.
(viii) Tourist centre: These projects are well cared and scientifically developed . so the be cone the centres of tourist attraction and also offer recreational avenhe to the adjoin area.
Demerits of Multipurpose river projects:
(i) High Court: It cost, a lot to build the infrastructure of this. It requires huge capital and engineering with modern machine which is not available usually with poor no developing countries.
(ii) Advance impact on Environment: The to construction of these projects on a certain rivers. It impact the biodiversity due loo and certain species, causes sedimentation loss and lap tact and in this of flood the whole area gets affects. Flores and fuan, agriculture, forest and displacement.
(iii) Non availability of H2O through to year: Most of the year in India flow only for free months. So it affects the generation of electrify crop pollution etc.
(iv) Disputes between difference soils: This is one of the major causes of delay in the completion a many projects. Number of stats are at dispute over sharing of later. Height of the dem and so on.
(v) Advance effect on the fertility of the soil: Due to these projects the get present in the downstream region gets deprived of the nutrient rich soil, ultimately read to decrease in the fertility of soil.
(vi) Displacement of local Communities: Building of large dams results in displacement of local communities. It couplets then to given up their lord. Resource and level for the greater good of the nation.
(vii) Change in the cropping pattern: Multipurpose projects are response for providing assumed means of irrigation to famous, so most of the famous have changed the cropping system. Shifting to water intensive and commercial crop have inersumed the salt consult of the soil epically56yu in semi aid and acid rejoin at the country. Q.6 Define irrigation and highlight its importance?
Ans. The process of supplying water to crops by artificial means such as canals, wells, tube wells tanks, etc from various sources of water is called irrigation.
(i) Water is basic input for agriculture cultivation of crops depends on the availability of H2O water dissolves minerals and other nutrients in the ground. The roots of the plants draw this nutritious water from the soil.
(ii) Water is must for commercialization of agriculture.
(iii) Irrigation played a major role in the success of green evaluation in India.
(iv) Many regions like Pubjab, Haryana have become leading produces of rice because of irrigation.
(v) Many crops are grown in Rajasthan and other acid regions of India because of irrigation.
(vi) Irrigation in India is necessary because these are three crop season, Rabi, Kkarif and Zaid for which the need of water is not fulfilled by rain alon.
(vii) There is unequal and concentration distribution of rainfall is India.

Q.7 Highlight the advantage and disadvantages of tube wells as a source of irrigation.
Ans. Tube well irrigation is one major source of irrigation in India. A tube well is a deeper well generally over 15meters deep from which water is lifted with the help of pumping set operated in on electric motor or a diesel engine. Following are the advantages and disadvantages of tube wells.
(i) It is a cheapest source of irrigation.
(ii) Tube wells can be doing at a convenient place.
(iii) It is am indispensible source of irrigation.
(iv) It does not need any high tech mode of technology.
(v) It does not need much capital to complete its construction.
(i) They tend to be shallow and may dry up.
(ii) They can irrigate only a small area.
(iii) They need high water lable.
(iv) At some place I contain a high forestage, minerals. Which melts water unsuitable for irrigation.
(v) These have proved futile for many pacific at many place who fell in these well and tube wells and lost their lives.
Q.8 What is rainwater harvesting? Mention various components of rainwater harvesting system.
Ans. Rainwater harvesting is a technique through which the ground water is increased by recharging it. It is done by capturing and storing rain water by constructing structures such as percolating pits check dams. Broadly there are two way of harvesting rain water (i) Surface rain of harvesting (ii) Rooftop rain water harvesting. The main objective of rain water harvesting is to make water available for futence case. It is used particularly in dry, hilly urban and control areas.
Main components of a Rain water harvesting system.
(i) Catchments: The catchment area of a water harvesting system is the surface which directly receives the rainfall and provides water to the system. It can be a paveal are like a lawn or open ground, reinforced, concrete roof or galvanised iron sheet, can also be used for water harvesting.
(ii) Coarse mesh of coarse mesh is required at the roof to prevent the passage of debuis with the water.
(iii) Gutters: Gutters include channels all round and transport rainwater to the storage tank.
(vi) Conduits: Conduits are pipelines or drains that carry rainwater from the catchment or rooftop area to the harvesting system.
(v) First flushing: A first flush device is a value that ensures that runoof from the first spell of
rain is flushed out and doesn‟t enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface.
(vi) Filter: The filter is used to remove suspended pollutants from rainwater collected over roof. A filter unit is a chamber filled with filtering media such as fibre, coarse gravel and reed etc.

Additional Quesitons

Q.1 Examine the importance of multipurpose projects in development of Hydel power and irrigation facilities in India?
Ans: The multiple purspose or river valley projects are also called dams. Among other things, river valley projects mainly contribute in development of Hydel power and irrigation. The

Chapter 4
Textual Exercise
(A) Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.1 (i) Slash and Burn type of farming is a characterises feature of Shifting Cultivation.
(ii) People moving seasonally along with their herds between mountains and lowlands are known as Nomads.
(iii) Olives and grapes are most important commercial crops of Mediterranean agriculture. (iv) Which crops are better known as monsoon crops or summer crops Kharif crops (v) Coffee is a Commercial crop.
(B) Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.2 (I) India is bestowed with variety of crops and multiple cropping seasons. Give reasons:
Ans. India is bestowed with variety of crops and multiple cropping seasons because of the following reasons.
(i) India has a tropical and subtropical type of climate.
(ii) It has different and diverse geophysical nature.
(iii) The presence of different types of soils in India support variety of crops.
(iv) The variations and difference in the food habits of its people living in different states owe them to grow different crops, cereals, fruits, vegetables as per their requirement.
(v) Population explosion has compelled it to grown a variety of crops.
India has been bestowed with three main cropping seasons such as kharief, Rabi and Zaid.
(vi) Availability of irrigation facilities such as canals, wells and tube wells, Tanin and monsoon rains.
(vii) Availability of technology, new scientific ideas about agriculture and availability of labour.
(viii) Long growing seasons that enables to cultivate a number of crops in succession. Q. II Highlight the importance of agriculture in India?
Ans. The importance of agriculture in Indian economy is given as:
a) 67% of the Indian population earns its livelihood from agriculture.
b) Agriculture contributes 26% of the G.D.P ( Gross Domestic Product) of India.
c) It supplies raw material to numerous industries especially to agro-based industries. d) It ensures food security for the country.
e) It is a pre-condition of national prosperity.
Q.III Name some commercial crops grown in India?
Ans. Commercial crops are grown on a large scale often by agriculture corporations, mainly for the market to get cash. Its main goal is to garner profit which is done through maximizing crop yields. Some commercial crops are bananas, coffee, corn, cotton, nuts, tea, sugarcane, potatoes and wheat.
Q.IV What are the climatic condition required for the cultivation of wheat?
Ans. Wheat is the second most important food crop of India next to rice. Wheat is a Rabi crop or winter crop sown in October and November and harvested between February and April.
Temperature: It thrives well with cool winter and hot summer. It requires monthly averages temperature between 10o – 15oC during sowing and 21o – 26oC during ripping.
Rainfall: An annual rainfall of 50 -1 00 cm is suitable. Alternatively it needs artificial means of irrigation is case rain fall is below 50cm.

Q.V . What is the utility of by products of rice?
Ans. Rice produces many by products. Rice husk is used as cattle feed on large scale. Rise bran is obtained from the outer layer of the brown rice and is good source of edible oil. Rice flour is used to produce crisps, cereals, snacks, desserts etc. The oil from cured rice is used in soaps and de-oiled bran is used as poultry feed.

Q.VI Name the three main components of Green Revolution?
Ans. The three main components of green revolution are a follows:
(i) Continued expansion of the farming areas.
(ii) Double cropping in existing farmland.
(iii) Use of high yielding variety seeds (HYVs)
All these led to increased production and made India self sufficient in food stuffs. In India Dr. Swaminathons project played major role in the Green Revolution of India. Q.VII Define Zaid Crops?
Ans. Zaid crops are raised through out the year deploying artificial irrigation system. However, in major parts they are grown in the short duration between Rabi and Kharif crop seasons, mainly from March to June. Important crops of this seasons are Watermelon, Cucumber, Muskmelon, Bitter Gourd etc.
Q.3) Match the following
Food grain wheat
Commercial crop sugarcane
Plantation crop cotton
Horticulture crop apple
Q.4) Food production in India is showing signs of Stagnation. Give reasons.
Ans) Despite recording impressive achievements in agriculture during three decades since the onset of Green Revolution in late sixties, the situation has started turning adverse around mid nineties i.e what may be called as stagnation because of following:
(i) Land degradation: Unprecedented land degradation has affected 107 million hectares across the country which has occurred due to host of reasons including Urbanization, Industrialization, Deforestation etc.
(ii) Depleting ground water resources: The ground water resources have been utilized without making recharge so much so the water table is going down continuously. The situation of depletion is ironically termed as dry breasts for the states like Punjab, Haryana etc where the resource is utilized to the fullest extant.
(iii) Slowing Growth Rate: The agricultural growth rate is also showing sign of slowing down as a function of cost and return with, off course impact of globalization.
(iv) Agrarian Distress: The decline in farmers income is leading to their disappointment and that is why instances of suicide among farmers are frequently observed in some parts of the country.
(v) Preference for non agricultural activities: Given the decline in farmer‟s income and their distress there is widespread feeling among the farming communities to switch over to other nonagricultural activities.
The agriculture is therefore, facing tough challenges which need to be addressed through multipronged strategies as 50% of our geographical area is under cultivation with 55% of population at present against 75% at the time of independence directly connected with agriculture. During the same period contribution of agriculture to the GDP has fallen from 61% approximately to 14%. This is unambiguously stagnation in production.
Q.5) What are geo-environmental conditions for the cultivation of Sugarcane in India and also give its production and distribution?
Ans) Geo-environmental conditions: Sugarcane is a tropical as well as sub-tropical crop. It thrives best in the rainy tropics and monsoon climate with temperature above 250 and rainfall of above 100cm or assured irrigational facilities. Very cold winters and frost are said to be harmful for the crop. Deep fertile alluvial soil or the nutrient rich volcanic soils with good drainage are ideal for sugarcane.
India has the largest area for sugarcane cultivation throughout the world and is the 2nd largest producer of sugarcane. The yield of sugarcane doubled in four decades increasing from 33 tons/hectare in 1950-51 to 65 in 1990-91. Among all states, UP is the leading sugarcane producer with a production of more than 13.33 crore tonnes accounting for 39%, Maharashtra 7.53 crore,

Tamil Nadu 3.75 crore tonnes, Karnataka 3.46 crore tonnes Andhra Pradesh 1.49 crore tonnes are other leading sugarcane producing states. The other sugarcane producing state are Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Utrakhan.
Distribution: India grows sugarcane over large areas in the northern plains where winters are quite cold. The higher productivity is observed in the peninsular plateau region. It is mainly grown in Satluj-Ganga plains from Punjab and Bihar, in black soil belt from Maharashtra to Tamil Nadu along the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats and coastal Andhra Pradesh and Krishna river valley.
Q.6) Highlight the importance of horticulture in agriculture sector of Jammu and Kashmir? Ans) Owing to diverse geo-climatic set up, the Jammu and Kashmir has tremendous scope and potential for horticulture development. The temperate fruits like apple, pear and walnuts of Kashmir are world famous and the subtropical fruit include some famous varieties of mango coming from Jammu. Similarly Ladakh is famous throughout for production of apricot.
More than seven crore boxes of apples are exported from the state every year. The export of apple, walnut, almond and saffron earns valuable foreign exchange for the country. Horticulture in Jammu and Kashmir provides direct and indirect employment to a large number of people and plays a crucial role in poverty alleviation.
Horticulture in Jammu and Kashmir can help in the establishment of a strong agro based industry which will help in diversification of state economy.
Q.7) Write a note on green revolution its merits and demerits?
Ans) In the mid-sixties, a strategy of agricultural development based on adoption of irrigation, chemical fertilizers and high yielding varieties of seeds known as package technology was introduced by Indian Govt. As a result of this package technology, Indian agriculture has made rapid progress and production of cereals have registered a tremendous increase in yield. This tremendous increase in production of cereals, which covers crops like rice, wheat, jawar, bajra and maize is called the Green Revolution.
Green revolution owes its origin to Mexico when it was started there in 1940 with regards to renewal and modernization of agricultural practices. The period between 1667 and 1978 was marked with use of improved seeds of high yielding vericties, adequate and assured water supply for irrigation, and appropriate applications of chemical fertilizers. There were three basic elements in the Green Revolution which include:
(i) Expansion of the farming area.
(ii) Double cropping in existing farmland and (iii) Use of high yielding varieties.
All these there basic elements of Green Revolution increased production of food grains thereby making India self sufficient in food stuffs.
Merits of Green Revolution:
1. Enhancement in agricultural productivity and increase in yield per hectare.
2. Change in approach of the peasants.
3. Employment opportunities both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors.
4. Shift from traditional agriculture.
5. Emergence of new cropping patterns, improved, economy and standard of living.
Demerits of Green Revolution:
1. Environmental degradation
2. Soil and water pollution.
3. Loss of bio diversity.
4. Decrease of water table
5. Loss of local variety of crops.
6. Promoted weed and pest resistance.

Additional Quesstions
Q.1 Mention the main features of Indian agriculture.
Ans. The main features of Indian agriculture are:
(i) Lack of irrigation:- Despite large areas covered under irrigation, only about 1/3rd of total cropped area is irrigated.
(ii) Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides :- The use of fertilizers and pesticides has substantially increased.
(iii) Increase in Production and Productivity :- With the use of high yielding varieties and latest technology, there has been tremendous increase in the productivity (yield per hectare) and thereof the overall production, particularly in food grains which indicated a significant break through as visualized in Green Revolution.
(iv) Subsistence Agriculture:- Even with great achievements in agriculture, India is not able to export the food grains. That is why we still continue to have subsistence type of agriculture in most parts of the country.
(v) Poor infrastructure :- Means of transport in villages are quite inadequate, storage facilities too are lacking.
(vi) Small Land holding :- About 1/3rd land holding is less than one hectare which is big hurdle in going for mechanizations and economizing the agricultural expenses besides avoiding wastage.

Q.2 What is plantation agriculture?
Ans. Plantation agriculture is also called tree or bush farming. In India it was introduced by
Britishers in 19th century. Its main features are as under;
i) The plantation agriculture is done in tropical countries like India, Srilanka and Malaysia. It is single crop farming in which we generally have tea, coffee, rubber, spices, coconuts, sugarcane and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges etc. ii) This type of agriculture is essentially a commercial type because all the crops are meant for sale in the market. iii) Plantation is very large, most operations are carried out manually, only processing is done by machines. iv) It involves large capital input, vast estates, technical know how, fertilizers, good transport facilities and sophisticated factories for processing.
v) Women are generally employed in picking tea leaves, coffee berries etc
vi) In India it is mostly practiced in Assam, sub Himalayan areas, West Bengal,
Niligiri, Anaimalai, Cardamon Hills at the Trijunction of Kerala, TN and Karnatka.
. vii) Its aim is huge profit making at a time. After all plantation agriculture is much profitable agriculture.

Lesson No. 5
| Forests and Wildlife

A. Very Short Answer Type Questions:
Q. 1(i) Natural Vegetation refers to plant life that grows naturally or wild in an area.
(ii) Wild life refers to animal life found in an area that has not been domesticated.
(iii) Topical forests are found in areas with 100 – 300 cm of rainfall (100 – 200 Tropical Deciduous 200 – 300 Tropical Evergreen).
(iv) The species whose population has declined dangerously low level are known as Endangered species.
(v) The two types of conservation are in-situ and ex-situ.

B. Short Answer Type Questions:
Q.2 (i) Name the main geographical factors which influence the type and distribution of vegetation?
Ans. There are two main geographical factors which influence the type and distribution of vegetation. These are climate and soil.
(ii) What is a Biosphere Reserve?
Ans. Biosphere Reserves are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystem or a combination thereof and representative examples of biogeographic zones or regions. The purpose of Bio-reserves is to promote environmental research, maintain and preserve natural beauty particularly wild life and to conserve plant and animal species in their respective ecosystems. It also provides opportunities for education and trainings to local residents regarding its conservation. Currently there are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India.
(III) Name different types of Natural vegetations in Indian?
Ans. The different types of natural vegetations found in India are Tropical Evergreen, Tropical Deciduous. Thorny forests, Mangrove forest and Mountain vegetation.
(IV) Define Tropical Deciduous Forest and their concerns?
Ans. Spreading over the vast area of the country, Tropical Deciduous Forests constitute the most dominant vegetation belt found in India. These are the mostly typical forest of monsoon region and hence also called as Monsoon Forests.
Important characteristics:
1. These are found in areas with an annul rainfall of 100 – 200 cms.
2. These shed their leaves for six to eight weeks during summer to resist dry season.
3. The shedding of leaves although is during summer season but timing being different for different species never gives the forests to look absolutely bare at any time.
4. These forest are of high economic importance.
5. Important trees are Teak and Sal besides Sandalwood, Rose wood, Ebony, Shisham, and Mahua.
Concerns: These forest having high economic importance are most exploited. Over cutting, overgrazing, fires etc are some important thetas to these forests. These forests therefore, call for urgent conservation and scientific management.
(V) Define Mangrove Forest and their distribution in India?
Ans. Mangrove forests are also called Tidal or Litoral forest. These are found on the estuaries and fringes of deltas along the East coast. The roots of the plants are submerged under water. The most common and important tree is the Sundari which gives name Sunderbans to the largest delta. Yet another common species called Mangrove tree takes the form dense Mangrove Forest which occur along the coast-line in the sheltered estuaries backwaters, salt marshes and flats. The mangrove tree can attain the height of about 30 mts.

Sunderbans (W.B) contains 50% of Indian‟s Mangrove Forests. The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation. The other types of trees found in the Tidal forests are Palm. Coconut, Canes etc. The plants growing on other plants called Epiphytes are predominant all over the region.
(VI) Write a note on the main objectives of the National Forest Policy?
Ans: The National Forest Policy is the recommendation management of forests by the govt. which is in operation since 1884. This forest policy was revised in 1952 and then again in 1988. The main emphasis of National Forest Policy-1988 is on the protection, conservation, regeneration and development of forest. The main objectives of the National Forest Policy 1988 are;
i) Bringing 33% of the area under forests.
ii) Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance. iii) Conserving the biological diversity of the country.
(v) Conservation of forests as a national heritage with vast varieties of flora and fauna.
(vi) Control of soil erosion and denudation in catchment area of rivers, lakes and reservoirs.
(vii) Check on sand dunes extension in desert areas of Rajesthan and along coasts.
(viii) Substantial increase in forest cover through massive Afforestation, Reforestation and Social Forestry programmes.
(ix) To meet the needs of fuel-wood, folder and miner forest products for the rural and tribal people.
(x) Involvement of people in forest management particularly woman.
(VII) Write an note on the Project Tiger?
Ans. In 1973, Government felt that the tiger population has decreased to 1827 from an estimated 55000 in 1901. Poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, increasing human population are the main reasons behind declining tiger population. The trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines are also major threats to tiger population.
As a result project tiger was launched in 1973 which shows good positive result as evidenced by their population which rose to 4002 in 1985, 4334 in 1989 but it again decreased to 3600 in 1993. Spread over an area of 37,761sq kms. there are 27 Tiger Reserves in India. Some important Tiger Reserves include, Corbett National Park (Uttrakhand), Sunderbans National Park (WB) Baghavgarh National Park (MP) Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary (Rajasthan), Manas Tiger Reserve (Assam ) and Periyar Tiger Reserves in Kerala. Q. Define Tropical Evergreen Forests?
Ans. These forest which need high humidity and high temperature throughout the year are found in areas with 200 – 300cms of rainfall. These are dense with thick undergrowth and yield hard wood trees like Rose wood, Ebony and Shisham.
These forests are very dense and composed of tall trees reaching upto a height of 60mts. The trees with good canopy look like a green carpet when viewed from above. Due to dense growth of trees, sunlight does not reach the ground and thus canes, bamboos, climbers, ferns etc grow there, thereby making the passage through these forests very difficult.
Elephant, Monkey, Rhinoceros are important animals found in these forests. Q.3 Human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna. Explain?
Ans. Since the industrial revolution, the Bio-diversity has been getting affected. Overfishing, hunting, destruction of habitat through agriculture and urban sprawl, use of pesticides and herbicides and the release of other toxic compounds in to the environment have all taken their toll particularly on vertebrates. There are number of activities which by humans have contributed towards the depletion of flora and fauna. These are listed as under:
(i) Habitat Destruction: Humans have been engaged in building houses, factories, shopping malls, parks, garbage dumps, roads and other buildings by destroying the wild land. The animals

that once lived there from bugs to birds disappeared. There is not enough food, water or shelter for all of them. So they died.
Farmer‟s spray chemicals on crops to save them from pests. Thus water is getting polluted which mixes with soil, thereby poisoned bugs may not only die but the birds feeding on them too face it. Irrigation too has environmental importance which include effect on soil and water quality, water logging, soil Salinization etc.
(ii) Over utilization of Forests: In the earlier days man‟s needs were limited. He was dependent on Forests only for few things. Forests are being used to fulfil man‟s needs directly and indirectly. We obtained wood, bark, leaves, rubber, medicine, dyes, food, fuel, fodder etc.
(iii) Colonial plans: The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to expansion of railways, agricultural, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
(iv) Agricultural Expansion: Even after independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion. Between 1951 and 1980, according to Forest Survey of India, over 26200 sq mts. of forests were converted into agricultural land all over India.
(v) Multipurpose Projects: These projects have also contributed significant to loss of forests. Since 1951 over 5000 sq kms of forests were cleared for river valley projects like Narmada Sagar project in M.P which inundated 40,000 hectares of forest area.
(vi) Mining: It is another important factor behind deforestation. Mining operations need big machines, labour, transport (Road and Railway) etc. All these lead to deforestation. The mining activities have blocked the migration roots of several species including great Indian Elephant, thus disturbing the natural habitat.
(vii) Grazing and Fuel collection: Overgrazing of land also leads to soil erosion in many parts of India. Hill sides have become barren because of overgrazing by animals. By wood collection, deforestation has been caused as lay down by some forest exports and environmentalists.
(viii) Electricity Generation: The environmental importance of electricity generation is significant because modern societies use large amount of electric power. There are a number of environment issues related with generation of hydro power which include habitat destruction, loss of biodiversity etc.
(ix) Nuclear Power Generation: Nuclear fuel cycle includes mining processing, transportation and radioactive fuel waste. Released radio isotopes pose serious threats to human health, animals and plant as these particles enter their bodies through different transmission modes.
Q.4 What steps have been taken by the Govt. for the conservation of flora and fauna? Ans. The conservation of forests is a national problem which is needed to be tackle with perfect co-ordination between the Forests Development and other Departments.
To conserve our forests the National Forest Policy which holds immense importance with regard to the protection, conservation and development of forests in the country has been put in place. Govt. strives hard for maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance.
Afforestation programs are being encouraged in the areas which are unsuitable for crop cultivation.
People‟s participation in the conservation of forests is of vital importance. So we must get them involved in this national task.
Van Mahotsava is being celebrated with Zeal and Vigour throughout the country. The national Environment Awareness Campaign is being launched in every corner of the country.
Proper planning is needed to check on soil erosion, check on extension of sand dunes, increase in forests tree cover, increase in productivity of forests and efficient and utilization of forests produce. For ensuring growth and survival of wild life, host of conservation steps have been taken by the government. There are 5 National Parks, 14 Wild life Sanctuaries, 21 Conservation Reserves, 14 Wetland Reserves and 4 Ramsar sites.

Q. 5 Forests are very important. Explain?
Ans. Forests are important life sustaining natural resource which contribute a lot in the multidimensional development of a state or a nation. They perform the following protective and productive functions.
Protective: Protective functions of forests are as follows;  To improve the quality of environment.
 To modify total channel.
 To control soil erosion.
 To regulate flow of streams.
 To reduce wind force and influence air temperature.
 To provide humus to the soil and increase to fertility.
 To provide shelter for wildlife.
Productive: Productive functions of forest are;  Provide livelihood for many communities.
 Offer recreation opportunities.
 Provide industrial wood, timber and grass.
 They provide rainsuins, rubber, gum, paper wood for agro based industries.
 Provide food for animals.
 Provide various medicinal herbs, shrubs, plants etc.
Q.6 Give a detailed account of the Forests of Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans. The Natural Vegetation of Jammu and Kashmir has great diversity ranging from lush evergreen conifers on high attitudes to deciduous frosts on the Southern slopes of the Siwaliks. The state has a recorded forest area of 22539 sq kmts. which constitutes 22.5% of the geographical area of Jammu and Kashmir. About 51% of forests are found in Kashmir valley and the rest in Jammu region. The Ladakh being a cold desert is devoid of any forest cover. There are five forest types occurring in the state which include Sub-tropical, Dry Evergreen, Himalayan Moist Temperate, Himalayan Dry Temperate, Subtropical Sub-alpine and Alpine Forests.
The state has a good diversity of plant life which provide daily needs of food, Medicine, Fuel, Fibre, Timber etc. The wild and domesticated animals too depend on our forests for habitat and food. The Flora of Kashmir Himalayas comprise of about 3053 species, 800 species are found in Ladakh and 506 in Jammu. The plants of Western Himalayas are well known for their medicinal properties which find use in pharmaceutical and perfume industries. There are about 55 species of important medicinal and aromatic plants.
Faunal diversity of Jammu and Kashmir due to unique location and climatic conditions is also of quite good range. 16% of Indian mammals are present in Jammu and Kashmir which include Hangul, Muskdeer, Markhor. The Carnivores represent 32% of total mammalian fauna of the state. For ensuring growth and survival of wild life, host of conservation steps have been taken by the government. There are 5 National Parks, 14 Wild life Sanctuaries, 21 Conservation Reserves, 14 Wetland Reserves and 4 Ramsar sites.

Additional Questions
Q.1 What are reserved forests?
Ans. Reserved forests are those which are permanently earmarked either for production of timber or other produce and in which right of grazing and cultivation is generally prohibited.
Q.2 What percentage of India is covered with forests?
Ans. In India, the total land area under forests is about 76.5 million hectares which account for about 23.3% of total geographical area including large areas without forest cover. The areas actually covered with forests are 63.7 million hectares which accounts for about 19.4% of the total geographical area.

Q.3 What is a national park?

Ans. A National park is relatively a large area where one or several ecosystems exist and where plant and animal species are preserved for special educational and recreational purposes.
Q.4 Name National parks of the state of J&K .?
Ans. The National parks of the J&K are :
i) Dachigam National Park (Srinagar 1981) ii) Hemis High Altitude NationaPark (Leh 1981) iii) High Altitude National Park (Kishtawar 1981) iv) City forest (Salim Ali ) Srinagar 1992.

Q.5 Where in our state are wild life sanctuaries located?
Ans. The wild life sanctuaries in our state are located at Overa-(Phalgam), Ramnagar (Jammu), Nandni (Jammu), Surinsar and Mansar (Jammu).


Mineral Wealth
| Lesson No. 6
Q.1 (i) Naturally occurring substances with uniform chemical composition and ordered atomic structure are know as Minerals.
(ii) Coal is a Conventional source of energy and is used as a Raw Material for a large number of industries.
(iii) Lignite is a type of coal which contain 40 – 60% of carbon.
(iv) The oldest Oilfield of India is Digboi oifield .
(v) Sapphire is found in the Padder (Kishtawar) area of J&K.
Q.2 (I) Define minerals and their importance.
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring substances uniform in chemical comportion and have a ordered atomic structure. The importance of minerals in human civilization is reflected from the fact that many stages in the history of economic development are named after minerals used in those days e.g, Iron age, Copper age etc.
(i) Minerals are important because they have largely contributed to human progress.
(ii) Minerals are an essential part of industrial development.
(iii) Minerals support the economy of the country.
(iv) Minerals are important for making of different types of daily uses items big and small such as railway, locomotive engines etc.
(v) They give us a part of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), help in trade and commerce, besides in the circulation of money.
(vi) They are also helpful for the strengthening of foreign policy by means of trade.
(vii They earn us foreign exchange.

(II) What are the various purposes for which Bauxite is used?
Ans. Bauxite is the main ore of aluminium. It is used for making pots and panes. Because it is a good conductor of heat, I t is widely used to make electric wires due to variable resistance as compared to copper and other materials.
(i) Aluminium is used to make cans for various beverages and other liquids.
(ii) It can be pressed into a thin foil for wrapping foods for storage and transport.
(iii) It is widely used for aeroplanes and space crafts.
(iv) It is used as a panelling material in hotels, restaurants, shops etc.
(v) It can be made even stronger by mixing it with other metals to make alloys.
(vi) It is used on the outer surface of many aeroplanes and other types of vehicles.

(III) Name important petroleum producing states of India?
Ans. The important petroleum production states of India are . Assam, Arunchal Pradesh, Tripura, Gujrat, Maharastra, Tamial Nadu and Mizoram.
(IV) Highlight the contribution of Orrisa in the national mineral production?
Ans. Orrisa has emerged as the leading producer of iron ore. India‟s richest hematite depoits are located in Barabil-Koira valley where these depoists are spread over 530 sqkms. Orrisa ores are rich in hematite with 60% of iron content. Orrisa has rich coal reserves. Most of these deposits are found in Dhenkanl, Sambalpur and Sundergarh Districts. Orrisa is the largest producer of bauxite and produces more than 40% of the total production of India. Orrisa is again the largest producer of manganese. It accounts for 1/3rd of countries total manganese production.
In this way Orrisa is the largest contributor in the national mineral production. It contributed with a share of 11% in the value of national output. Thus we can say Orrisa is a gift of nature to our country and its industrial sector.
(V) Discuss any three measures of conservation of minerals?
Ans. The three measures of conservation of minerals are as:
(i) The minerals should be used in a planned way in a judicious manner.
(ii) The wastages of minerals should be minimized and checked.
(iii) The wastage and metal scraps should be recycled.
(iv) The export of minerals should be decreased.
(v) Modern technology should be used for the exploration of minerals.
(vi) We should search and develop the substitutes of non renewable minerals.
(vii) We should adopt the policy of conservation, preservation and sustainable development.

(VI) Distinguish between Metallic and Non-metallic minerals?
Metallic Minerals Non-Metallic Minerals
(i) Metallic mineral are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
(ii) Iron, copper, bauxite, tin, manganese are some examples. (iii) These are generally associated with igneous rocks.
(iv) They are usually hard and have shines or luster of their own.
(v) They are ductile and malleable.
(vi) When hit, they do not get broken. (i) Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.

(ii) Coal, salt, clay, marble are some examples.

(iii) These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
(iv) They are not so hard and have no shine or luster of their own.
(v) They are not ductile and malleable.
(vi) When hit, they may get broken into pieces (vii) They are classified into liquid and solid on the basis of form such as petroleum (Liquid) and potassium (Solid)
(vii) They are classified as ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals on the basis of presence of iron metal.

Q.3 Match the following:
Coal type Distribution
(i) Anthracite J&K
(ii) Butuminous Jharkhan, Orrisa and West Bangal.
(iii) Lignite Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Assam.
(iv) Peat Bihar, Madhya, Predesh.

Long Answer Type Questions:
Q.4 India is adequately rich in minerals wealth. Discuss?
Ans. India is adequately rich in mineral wealth. The minerals are wide spread and varied which provide the nation a strong industrial base for development. The most important minerals reserves that India possess include Maganese, Coal. Bauxite, Mica, Iron and Salt. However, petroleum, Gypsum, Tin, Mercury, Copper, Nickel Lead and Zinc are present below national average. India is mostly rich in Iron ore reserves. Manganese and Mica are also found in abundance. India is the largest producer and exporter of iron in South Asia. It is also one of the leading producers of manganese of high quality with great international demand. India is the largest producer of Bauxite in South Aisa. Besides this India is also largest producer of Mica in the world. Moreover India also produceses Coal and Petroleum in large quantities. Not only these but India has sufficient reserves of gold. , copper and other minerals as well.

Q.5 Discuss in detail the production and distribution of Iron Ore in India?
India is rich both in quantity and quality of iron ore deposits. India ranks 7th in the world with 20% production of iron ore. The iron ore deposits mainly consists of haematite and magnetite deposits with an iron content of 60% and 70% respectively.
Distribution: Jharkhand and Orissa produces about 75% of total production of iron ore in India. This is called “Iron ore belt of India”. Major steel plants are located in this region. Iron ore in India is mined from Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Goa and Karnataka.
In Chattisgarh major mines are Durg and Dantewara.
Paschim and Purbi Singgbhum are major mines of Jharkhand. Sundergarh, Keonjhar are major mines of Orissa.
North Goa district produce iron ore in Goa.
Chikmanglur and Bellary are the major mines in Karnataka .In other areas, Babar Budan Hills (Kasualler), Kurnool (Andhra Pardash), Lohara and Ratnagiri (Maharastra) are the locations where iron is found.
Trade of iron in India : – About half of the iron-ore produced in India is exported primarily to Japan, Korea, European countries & Gulf countries. The Japan buys threefourths of the total export of our iron-ore. Iron ore is exported through the ports of Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Marmagoa and Mangalore.

Q.6 Elaborate in detail the distribution of Coal in India?
India’s coal reserves are estimated to be 21400 million tones. At present over 330 million tones are produced annually.
There are four varieties of coal.They are: –
1. Anthracite: – Anthracite is hard, black and compact coal. Anthracite has high percentage of pure carbon with more than 80% of carbon . It is one of the best quality coal.It is found in Jammu & Kashmir only.
2. Bituminous: – Bituminous or soft coal (so called in the U.S but known as hard Coal in Europe) contains 60–80 % of carbon. Bituminous contains a higher percentage of carbon, less water and oxygen than lignite. It is the second quality of coal after anthracite. It is the most mined and most widely used coal. It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa, WestBengal, Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh..
3. Lignite: – It is often called brown coal. lignite has the lowest carbon content about 60% and highest water content. When exposed to air it shrinks and crumbles. It is considered lower grade coal. It is found in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Assam and J&K. In J & K state the major deposits of lignite are found at Kalakote, Jangalgali, Jigni, Metka, Mahogala, Chakkar, Dhansai, Swarnkot, Kotli, Ladda and Chinkah in Jammu division.

4. Peat: – It contains less than 50% carbon. It burns like wood and gives more smoke and less heat.
In India 67% of the total coal production comes from Jharkhand, M.P., Chattisgarh and Orissa. 33% of coal production comes from Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and U.P.
Consumption: – Over two thirds (67%) of the coal produced in India is consumed for generation of electric power. About 10% for making iron and steel, 4% in cement industry and the rest in chemical and fertilizer industries. It is also used for domestic purposes.

Q.7 Discuss in detail the mineral wealth of Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans. State of Jammu and Kashmir does not posses adequate reserves of metallic and nonmetallic minerals like iron, copper, zine, coal and petroleum. Howover, the state is having certain reserves of bauxite, borax, coal, gold, gypsum, lignite, limestone, magnese, marble and sapphire. Distribution: (i) Bauxite: It is the most important ore of aluminum bricks. Millions of tones of this mineral are found in Jammu.
(ii) Borax: This mineral finding use in pharamaceutical industry is found in the Puga valley in Ladakh. Tones of borax are deposited annually in this lake.
(iii) Coal: The valuable fuel and industrial mineral is found in form of both anthracite and bituminous. Rich deposits are found in Rajoruri district where a thermal power plant had been setup at Kala Kote to use the coal wealth for power generation.
(iv) Gold: It is found in the form of placer gold, it is found on the banks of river Indus in Ladakh.
(v) Gypsum: Derived form sedimentary rock and consisting mainly of calcium sulphate, finds extensive use in cement industry, dentistry and sculpture. It is found in Assar of Doda district, Parlanka (Ramban) and Buniyar in Baramullah district.
(vi) Lignite: The low quality fuel is reported from Nichhama Handwara existing in millions of tones. It is also found in Jammu region.
(vii) Lime stone: The carbon rock of sedimentary nature caps most of the hillocks in Anantnag, Pulwama, Baramullah and Ladakh. The prominent locations include Khrew –Khonmoh, Verinag, Mattan, Achabal, Shopain and Khalsi in Ladakh. It finds use in cement industry besides in manufacture of lime.
(viii) Magnesite: Finding use in the manufacture of glass, it is found with million of tons in Anantnag and near Panthal Village in Ramban district.
(ix) Marble: The carbonate rock of lime stone on metamorphosis changes in to marble that is used in buildings. It is found in Drugmulla (Kupwara) in a varity of shades and colours.
(x) Sapphire: The precious gemstone used in jewellery is found in Padder Kishtwar. It is famous world over and found in wounderful shades (resembling peacock neck), varitey and quality.

Additional Quesitons
Q.1 Differentiate Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy.
Conventional sources of energy Non-conventional sources of energy
(i) Conventional sources of energy have been used since long time. (i) Non- conventional sources of energy have come into the use only recently.
(ii) Coal, Petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectricity, thermal power are the conventional sources of energy. (ii) Wind energy, solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal, biogas are examples of Non- conventional sources of energy.
(iii) All conventional sources of energy except hydro-electricity are exhaustible. (iii) Most of the non- conventional sources of energy are inexhaustible.

(iv) These sources cause environmental pollution. (iv) These sources do not cause environmental pollution. any
(v) These are costly sources of energy. (v) These are cheap sources of energy.
Q.2 Describe the importance of minerals to man?
Ans:- Minerals are very important for man in the following ways:
i) All commodities of our daily use are directly or indirectly related to the minerals
e.g., Transport, machines, tractors, electronic goods, petroleum products etc. ii) They form the basis of industrial and economic growth progress.
iii) The minerals also help in the development of power resources e.g. coal, petroleum, atomic minerals etc.

Q. 3 What is Mumbai Hight Famous For?
Ans. Mumbai High is famous because it is the richest petroleum reserves (oil field) in India. About 63% of the total production of crude petroleum of India is produced from Mumbai High. This oil field has been able to meet domestic needs of petroleum to large extent and has therefore saved a lot of India‟s foreign exchange. Mumbai High is nearly 115 km away from the shore. In Mumbai High Oil is drilled out from sea-bed i.e., the continental shelf. Drilling operations are carried out with the help of Sagar Samrat, India’s first mobile offshore drilling platform. It has been connected with the coast by a sub-marine pipeline. .

Q.4 Differentiate Anthracite and Bituminous Coal
Anthracite Coal Bituminous Coal
(i) Anthracite coal is a type of coal which contains more than 80% of carbon.
(ii) It is hard in nature.
(iii) Its use is very limited.
(iv) It is found only in J&K.
(v) It is of high quality and gives less smoke as it contains more than 80% of carbon (i) Bituminous coal is a type of coal which contains 60 to 80% of carbon.
(ii) It is not hard in nature.
(iii) It is most widely used.
(iv) It is found in Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal
(v) It is of low quality and gives more smoke asit contains more than 60% of carbon.

Lesson No. 7
Manufacturing Industries

Q.1) Fill in the blanks.
(i) The processing of primary products into more refined and usable products is called Manufacturing.
(ii) Modern industries are Capital intensive in nature
(iii) An industry which is owned and managed by the government is called Public Sector Industry.
(iv) In the time of Zain-ul-Abdin Budshah Carpet Industry was greatly developed in Kashmir.
B. Short Answer Questions
Q.2) (i) Define Manufacturing?
Ans) Manufacturing is the processing of primary products into more refined and usable products. Many of the natural resources cannot be utilized directly without processing. Therefore, we manufacture cloth from cotton, sugar from sugarcane, paper from wood pulp, and petro chemicals from mineral oil. By doing so, we make the primary products more valuable and usable.

Thus, manufacturing means transformation of natural material endowments i.e. raw materials into commodities of utility by processing, assembling and repairing.

(ii) How is Raw Material an important geographical factor in the location of an industry? Ans) Raw material is the most important geographical factor and its significance in manufacturing industry can never be underscored. Indeed, the location of industrial enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials. For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry. Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials in their primary stage in large quantities are usually located near the supply of the raw materials.

(iii) Market is an important locational factor in the establishment of an industry. Explain?
Ans. The entire process of manufacturing is useless until the finished goods reach market. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates. It is becoming increasingly evident that industries are seeking locations as near as possible to their markets to save overall production cost.
(iv) Write a short note on cotton textile industry of India?
Ans. Growth and Development: The first modern cotton textile mill was set up in 1818 at Fort Glaster near Kolkata. But this mill could not survive and had to be closed down. The first successful modern cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854. The real expansion of cotton textile industry took place in 1870‟s. By 1875-76 the number of mills rose to 47 out of which over 60 percent were located in Mumbai city alone. The industry continued to progress till the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The total number of mills reached 271 providing employment to about 2.6 lakh persons. Present Position
At present, cotton textile industry is largest organized modern industry of India. There has been a phenomenal growth of this industry during the last four decades. About 16 percent of the industrial capital and over 20 percent of the industrial labour of the country is engaged in this industry. The total employment in this industry is well over 15 million workers.
Production: Cotton cloth is produced in three different sectors, i.e. Mills, Power-looms and Handlooms.
Mills: The mill sector played a dominant role in cotton textile industry at the intitial stage. But its importance reduced drastically with the growth of power-looms and handlooms. The share of mill sector in cotton cloth production came down from 80.69 percent till 1950-51 to only 5 percent in
Power-looms: The decentralized power-loom sector plays a pivotal role in meeting the clothing needs of the country. This sector not only contributes significantly to the cloth production in the country but also provides employment to millions of people. The power-loom industry produces a wide variety of cloth with intricate designs. The production of cloth as well as employment has been increasing in the power-loom sector. During 2002-03, the production of cloth in the decentralized power-loom sector was 18281 million sq.metres while the employment generation was 4.23 million.
Handlooms: The handloom sector provides employment to over 65 lakh persons engaged in weaving and allied activities. The production of handloom fabrics registered more than fifteen fold increase from 500 million sq.metres in 1950-51 to 7585 million sq.metres in 2001-02
Distribution: Although cotton textile mills are located in over 80 towns and cities of India, yet its larger concentration is found in Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.
(i) Maharashtra: Maharashtra excels all other states in the development of cotton textile industry. It produces 39.38 percent mill cloth and 10.79 percent yarn of India. Mumbai is the largest centre of India having 63 mills out of Maharashtra‟s total of 122 mills.

(ii) Gujarat: Gujarat is the second largest producer of cotton textiles. This state accounts for over 33 percent of the mill cloth and over 8 percent of the yarn production of the country. Ahmadabad is the largest centre where 73 out of 118 mills of Gujarat are located. Ahmadabad is the second largest centre of cotton textile industry after Mumbai.
(v) Differentiate between Private Sector Industry and Public Sector Industry? Ans.
Public Sector Industry Private Sector Industry
(i) These industries are owned by the government of the country.
(ii) All the capital is invested by the government
(iii) These industries are directly or indirectly managed by the government. (iv) Bhilai Steel Plant and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. are the examples of such industry. (i) These industries are owned by individuals.

(ii) All the capital is invested by the individuals or private firm
(iii) These are not managed by the government.

(iv) Bajaj Auto and Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) are the examples of such industry.
(vi) What are the major Industries Regions of India and name five of them?
Ans) Industries are unevenly distributed in India because the factors affecting industrial location are not the same everywhere. Industries tend to concentrate in a few pockets because of certain favourable factors. The pockets having high concentration of industries are known as Industrial Regions.
The Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) recognized the Industrial centres on the basis of industrial employment exceeding 10,000 in 1971. Dr. B.N. Sinha (1972) has classified industrial regions into following categories:
(i) Major Industrial Region is identified on the basis of a minimum daily factory working force of 1.5 lakh.
(ii) Minor Industrial Region must have a minimum of 25,000 working labour force. (iii) Manufacturing District has a working labour force of less than 25,000.
Major Industrial Regions
Following are the major industrial regions of India
(i) Mumbai – Pune Industrial Region
(ii) Hoogli Industrial Region
(iii) Bangalore – Tamil Nadu Industrial Region
(iv) Gujarat Industrial Region
(v) Chota – Nagpur Industrial Region
(vi) Vishakhapatnam – Guntur Industrial Region
(vii) Gurgaon – Delhi – Meerut Industrial Region
(viii) Kollam – Thiruvanathapuram Industrial Region
(vii) Write short note on Handicrafts in Jammu and Kashmir?
Ans) In Kashmir, with its severe winter when climatic conditions are harsh, craftsmen utilize their leisure as well as creative intelligence in creating artifacts of exquisite beauty. Princely patronage encouraged these handicrafts from early times. Even today these products, light in weight and rich in art, have great demand in India and abroad. The State Government has set up many training centers for coaching young boys and girls in traditional arts and crafts. As a result there has been a wide dispersal of handicrafts throughout the State.
Kashmir is known for the following handicrafts throughout the world:
(a) Carpets: The art of making Carpets is a gift of caravans coming into the valley from central Asia for trade purposes. In the time of Zail-ul-Abdin Budshah, this art was greatly developed by imported skill and royal patronage. The Europeans also took keen interest in

it. It resulted in the establishment of more than 15 well known factories with about 350 looms weaving carpets.
(b) Namdas: Namdas are made of wool of inferior quality and old woolen blankets are used for making Gabbas. The art of felting wool into Namdas has come from Yarkand. Namdas and Gabbas are embroidered with thread, to have beautiful designs of flowers, fruits etc. besides which giving them colour, and strength. This cottage industry is concentrated in Anantnag, Rainawari and Baramulla.
(c) Lois: Lois (woolen blankets) of Shopian and Bandipora are well known. Hand-woven blankets of Rainawari are also durable and warm. Woolen pattus, tweeds and worsted are manufactured in hand and power looms established in and around Srinagar.
(d) Kangri: The Kangri making is a cottage industry concentrated in the areas on the banks of Wullarlake near Watlab and at Chrar and Batingoo villages.
Wicker-work and basket making are arts common to Kashmir and Jammu
Kashmir is known for its Wicker Willow. Wicker is used for making baskets, boxes, lampshades, curtain rings, trays, chairs, tables, and cycle baskets etc. Srinagar, Harwan, Shalabug, Hazratbal, and Soura are the centers of its production. The cultivation of Wicker Willow is the monopoly of the State.
(e) Papier Machie: It is monopoly of Kashmir. Pulp and paper are shaped into a variety of decorative articles and colourful designs are painted on them. The goods prepared are mostly boxes, table lamps, toilet sets, jewellery boxes and other articles of decoration. Srinagar, Rainawari and Anantnag are famous for this cottage industry.
(f) Pashmina Shawl Industry: This industry is an old industry of Kashmir. Pashmina wool used to come from Tibet via Ladakh but since the invasion of China in 1962 and closing of the Leh Yarkand route, Pashmina shawl and carpet industries have been affected greatly. Now the raw material comes from Ladakh only.
(g) Silver ware and imitation jewellery: Silver-smiths, engravers and polishers work to make beautiful silverware articles like tea sets, tumblers, boxes, trays, soap cases, toilet cases, and other articles of decoration. This work requires skill and craft. Engraving is a specialty of Kashmiri engravers. Kashmir purchases about one lakh tolas of silver a year for this cottage industry. There are about 80 units of imitation jewellery at Srinagar. They prepare rings, cuff-links, bangles, broaches, bracelets, ear rings, and tops etc. Jammu region is famous for its handicrafts, especially for Basoli Paintings, Calico Paintings, and Phoolkari work.
Furthermore, Ladakh region is also famous for wood carving, clay modeling, Pashmina weaving, Ladakhi carpets and Thanka Paintings.

Q.3) Match the following
Mumbai Capital Intensive Industry
Pune and Bangalore Information Technology
TISCO and Reliance Private Sector Industry
NHPC and ONGC Public Sector Industry
Amul Cooperative Sector Industry

D. Long Answer questions
Q.4) What are the Geographical, Non-geographical factors which influence the location of an industry?

Ans) Location of industry is influenced by many geographical factors. However there are several non-geographical factors of historical, political and economic nature which also influence the location of industries across the world. Consequently, the factors influencing the location of industry can be conveniently divided into two broad categories; Geographical factors and NonGeographical factors.
(A) Geographical factors:
(i) Raw Material is the most important geographical factor and its significance in manufacturing industry is so fundamental that can not be undermined. Indeed, the location of industrial enterprises is sometimes determined simply by location of the raw materials. For example, pig iron, produced by smelting industry, serves as the raw material for steel making industry. Industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials in their primary stage in large quantities are usually located near the supply of the raw materials. Some of the industries, like watch and electronic industries use very wide range of light raw materials and the attractive influence of each separate material diminishes. The result is that such industries are often located with no reference to raw materials and are sometimes referred to as “footloose industries” because a wide range of locations is possible within an area of sufficient population density.
(ii) Power: Regular supply of power is a pre-requisite for the localization of industries. Coal, mineral oil and hydro-electricity are the three important conventional sources of power.
Most of the industries tend to concentrate at the source of power. The iron and steel industry which mainly depends on large quantities of coking coal as soruce of power are frequently tied to coal fields.
(iii) Labour: Labour supply is important in two respects (a) Workers in large numbers are often required (b) People with skill or technical expertise are needed. In our country, modern industry still requires a large number of workers inspite of increasing mechanization.
Although, the location of any industrial unit is determined after a careful balancing of all relevant factors, yet the light consumer goods and agro-based industries generally requires a plentiful labour supply. This is the reason sugar industry is mainly concentrated in UP and Bihar.
(iv) Transport: Transport by land or water is necessary for the assembly of raw material and for the marketing of the finished products.
The development of railways in India, connecting the port towns with hinterland determined the location of many industries around Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
(v) Market: The entire process of manufacturing is useless until the finished goods reach market. Nearness to market is essential for quick disposal of manufactured goods. It helps in reducing the transport cost and enables the consumer to get things at cheaper rates. It is becoming increasingly evident that industries are seeking locations as near as possible to their markets to save overall production cost.
(B) Non-Geographical Factors
Following are some of the important non-geographical factors influencing the location of industries:
1. Capital: Modern industries are capital-intensive and require huge investments. Big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai are big industrial centers because the big capitalists live in these cities and there is easy availability of capital.

2. Banking Facilities: Establishment of industries involves daily exchange of crores of rupees which is possible through banking facilities only. So areas with better banking facilities are better suited to the establishment of industries.
3. Insurance: There is a constant fear of damage to machinery and men in industries for which insurance facilities are very much crucial. The destruction caused by September 2014 floods in Jammu and Kashmir is a recent example in this regard.
4. Highly professional management: and Skilled manpower is an important component in the fast growing information technology (IT) and E-Commerce industry due to which it gets concentrated in certain favoured pockets such as Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Pune.
Q.5) Highlight the importance of iron steel industry in India. What are the factors influencing its location?
Ans) Large amounts of iron and steel is required for construction of bridges, rail tracts, railways, rolling stocks, vehicles, machines, power plants, airports, etc.
As important industries like railway locomotives, ship building, heavy and light machines, constructions etc depend on availability of iron and steel, the iron and steel industry accelerates industrialization and therefore, called the backbone of all industries.
As on 2013, with crude steel production of 81.2 million metric tons, India is ranked as fourth largest steel producing country in the world. It is estimated that India would produce more than 90 million metric tons of steel by 2018.
In India iron and steel industry witnessed rapid growth after independence. India produced 16.9 lakh tones of pig iron in 1950-51. The development of iron and steel industry was envisaged during the first Five-Year Plan, but it was during the Second Five Year Plan, that the three integrated steel projects were started at Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur.
Factors influencing the location of Iron and Steel Industry
Iron and steel industry uses large quantities of heavy and weight losing raw materials and its localization is primarily controlled by the availability of raw materials. Coal and iron ore are the two basic raw materials used by iron and steel industry. On the basis of minimum transportation cost most of the steel plants are located at three distinct places viz.
(i) Near coal fields
(ii) Near iron ore mining centers and
(iii) At places between areas of coal and iron ore production
Most of the iron and steel plants of India such as Jamshedpur, Burnpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bhilai and Bokaro are located in Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa and Chhattisgarh. These states are very rich in coal and iron ore deposits and are important producers of these minerals.
Q.6) Discuss in detail the development, distribution and importance of textile industry of India?
Ans. Textile is a board term which includes cotton, jute, wool, silk and synthetic fibre textiles. The textile sector occupies an important place in terms of employment generation. The sectors like handloom, handicrafts, power loom, and readymade garments are specially known as their employment potential. Textile industries contributes about 14 percent of the value addition in manufacturing sector, 4 percent to the GDP and provides direct and indirect employment to about 40 million people.
Development of Cotton Textile Industry: –
Indian monopoly in the manufacturing of cotton textile is very old. The first cotton textile mill, however, was established in Mumbai in 1854. Today cotton textile is the largest industry of India. It gives employment to over 15million persons which is about 20 percent of the industrial labour force of the country.
There are about 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. Of this 79% are in private sector and the rest in public and co-operative sectors. Apart from these, there are several

thousand factories which have five to ten looms. Today 93 percent of the cotton cloth is produced in decentralized sector that is other than mills.
Jute Textile: Jute textile is the second important industry next to cotton textile. India ranks number one in the production of raw jute and jute goods. It is number two after Bangladesh in export of jute goods in the world.
Distribution: West Bengal has the largest concentration of jute industry. This state has 56 jute mills and 41261 looms which respectively account for 76 percent and 80 percent of all India installation. Over 84 percent of jute-goods production of India comes from West Bengal with Andhra Pradesh as distant second producing only 10 percent of the India jute goods. Apart from Kolkata, the other important centers of jute textile industry are Titagarh (9 mills), Jagatdal (8 mills), Budge (8 mills), Haora (5 mills) and Bhadreswar.

Woollen Textile Industry.
It is one of the oldest textile industries of the country. The main concentration of woollen textile industry is in Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, Gujarat, Haryana and Rajasthan.
Distribution of woollen textile industry: –
i. In Punjab, Dhariwal, Ludhiana and Amritsar are the major centres.
ii. In Maharashtra, Mumbai is the chief centre.
iii. In U.P, Kanpur, Shahjahanpur, Agra and Mirzapur are the important centres. iv. In Gujarat, Ahmedabad and Jamnagar are the main centres. v. Panipat and Gurgaon are the centres of Haryana.
vi. Srinagar in J&K.
vii. Bangalore in Karnataka is an important woollen textile centre.
Trade: -Good quality raw wool is imported from Australia. India exports woollen goods to the U.S.A., Russia, U.K, Canada and several European countries.
Silk Textile Industry
Bombyx mulberry, tasar, eri and muga are major silk varieties which are produced in India. There are 90 big silk mills besides large number of small silk mills, producing silk and silk goods in the country. More than 90% of the India‟s silk production comes from Karnataka, West Bengal and J & K. The Karnatka alone produces nearly half of the silk. India produces 8.5 lakh Kgs. Of silk and silk goods annually.
Distribution: The silk textile industry in India is an important industry which provides employment to lakhs of people in a number of states.

(iv) Main silk producing centres are:
a. Bangalore and Mysore in Karnataka.
b. Murshidabad and Bunkura in West Bengal.
c. Anantnag, Baramullah and Srinagar in J & K.
d. Kanchipuram and Thanjaan in Tamil Nadu.

Q.7) Discuss in detail the growth and importance of Petroleum industry in India?
Ans. The growth of Indian petroleum industry begain on a very sorry note. The first oil deposits in India were discovered in 1889 near the town of Digboi in Assam. The discovery was 1st phase of petroleum extraction and a sign of industrial development. The industry started mainly in the north eastern parts of India especially in Assam. Until 1970‟s the petroleum production and exploration of new locations for extraction was restricted mainly to north eastes states. The Assam Oil Campany was established in 1899 to use its production. However the important advancement in petroleum industry came with the passing of Industrial Policy Resolution in 1956 which emphasized on the growth and promotion of industries. Another major incident was the discovery of Bombay High and now recently the discovery of oil fields in the deltas of Krishna and

Godawari on eastern coastal side which changed the scenario of Indian Petroleum Industry drastically. With the setting of new oil refineries in the country, the growing demand of petroleum and its products is met out to great extent. As per June 2011, there are 21 refineries with 17 in the Public Sector, 3 in Private and the lone one in joint sector. The country is not only self sufficient in refining capacity for its domestic consumption but also exports petroleum products substantially. Significance: The petroleum industry has the most significant role to play in chaning the Indian economy from an Agrarian economy to an Indsutrial one. It contributed heavily to the manufacturing industry by providing power generating products like petroleum and diesel. It also provides the most lubricating agents and raw materials for various petro chemical products like paints, varnishes and mobile oil. The Petroleum Industry shares 8% in the GDP of the country.

Additional Questions

Q.1 What do you mean by Footloose industry?
Ans. Some of the industries, like watch and electronic industries use very wide range of light raw materials and the attractive influence of each separate material diminishes. The result is that such industries are often located with no reference to raw materials and are sometimes referred to as “footloose industries” because a wide range of locations is possible within an area of sufficient population density.

Q. 2 Write differences between Large Scale Industries and Small Scale Industries

Large Scale Industry Small Scale Industry
(i) These industries employe large number of workers.
(ii) Large quantities of finished products are manufactured in these industries. (iii) In these industries quantity of raw material and capital investment is very large.
(iv) Women workers are not generally employed in these industries.
(v) Cotton and jute textile industry is an example of such industry. (i) These industries employe small number of workers.
(ii) Small quantities of finished products are manufactured in these industries.
(iii) In these industries quantity of raw material and capital investment is comparatively very small.

(iv) Women workers are employed in large number in these industries.
(v) Soap making, bidi making, match stick making industries are the examples of such industry.

Q.3 What are the problems faced by Indian Jute Industry?
Ans. Indian jute industry is facing some very serious problems. Some of these are briefly described as under:
(i) Most of the jute-producing areas went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan) resulting in acute shortage of raw jute. Although successful efforts have been made to increase the supply of raw jute since independence, it still falls short of our current requirements.
(ii) Most of our customers could not get our jute products during World War II as a result of which several countries developed many substitutes of jute.
(iii) The newly established mills and improved machines in Bangladesh are able to produce better quality goods and have an edge over the Indian jute products in the international market.
(iv) The overall demand for jute products is gradually decreasing in the international market. The input cost for jute products in India is quite high.

Lesson No. 8 | Disaster Profile of India
Hazard: Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. A hazard becomes a disaster when it hits an area affecting the normal life.
Disaster: A disaster is a serious disruption of a functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human material economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
A disaster is a natural, manmade or technological event that causes significant physical damage or destruction, widespread loss of life or drastic change to the environment. Disaster can destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.

Textual Questions

Q.1 Define a Disaster?
Ans. I. According to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1992), Disaster is defined as a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environment losses and impacts which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope, with using its own resources.

II. What is meant by Hazard? Name some man-made and natural hazards?
Ans. Hazard is a phenomenon, an event or occurrence that has the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment. Floods, tornado, volcanic eruptions, earthquake, landslide are natural hazards. Nuclear explosions, chemical leakages, atom bomb explosions, fire accidents, stampedes etc are man-made hazards.

III. Write a brief note on earthquake zones on Indian?
Ans. India is a tropical and subtropical country present in northern and eastern hemispheres. It is prone to various kinds of disaster and earth quake is one of them. Indian landscape almost from every side is prone to it. It is about 57% of Indian landscape which is vulnerable to shaking of earth out of which, 12% is prone to very sever earthquakes which include JK, Gujrat, Eastern states, Uttarkhand and Bihar, 18% is prone to severe earthquake which comprises of JK, H.P Punjab, Delhi, Uttrakhand, Bihar, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Maharstra, Sikkim, W.B. U.P and 25% Indian landcape is susceptible to dangerous earthquakes that include, parts of Rajesthan, M.P Orrisa, Karnatka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh Telegana etc.

IV. Mention some worst cyclone affected area of India?
Ans. Indian has a long coastal line of 7516.6 Kms including Island group both in Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal. In India 8% of land is vulnerable to the tropical cyclone of varying intensities each year. Mostly the worst cyclone affected area as per the Meteorological assertion in India are W. Bengal, Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu Gujrat, Maharastra and Kerela.

V. Mention some worst affected landslide areas in North India?
Ans. Landslide is a hydro geological hazard that affects large parts of India, particularly Himalayan North- Eastern hill ranges, W. Ghats, Nilgiri hills and Eastern Ghats, Vindhayas, covering about 15%. of Indian land mass. Landslides are the recurrent phenomenon in India. The north – eastern region is badly affected by landslide problems of a bewildering variety. The worst affected areaa are Darjeeling, Sikkim, Mizoram, Tripura, Maghalya, Assam, Nagand and Auranchall Pradesh, Konkan Coast, Wester Ghats and Nilgri areas.

VI. What is meant by Tsunami. Name some vulnerable areas in India?
Ans. Tsunami is a large wave on the ocean, usually caused by an undersea earthquake, a volcanic eruption or coatal landslide. It is a Japanese form which is translated as harbour wave. Tsunami can have height upto 30 metres and reach a speed of 950Km per hour with wave length of upto 200km, as such is very much destructive when encounters land. The peninsular region of India being surrounded by three large water bodies and also the India archipelago is vulnerable to Tsunami. The worst affected area, are Aandaman and Nicobar islands, Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh, Orrisa, Lakshaweep island Karnatka, Kerala and West Bengal.

VII. Define a cloud burst and its implications?
Ans. The cloud burst is a disastrous weather event in which, the heavy rainfall occurs over a localised area at a faster rate. In other words, it is a situation when the intermolecular forces between the water molecules get very high due to rapid decrease in temperature or excess of electrostatic induction in the clouds causing the lightning to remain inside the cloud only which causes hyperactive energy inside the cloud. The water molecules get denser and denser and get condensed but do not leave the cloud due to excess of electrostatic force. Due to this water concentration gets higher and higher and becomes bulky and no longer is able to maintain equilibrium with the clouds and consequently precipitates heavily.
Implications: The drought type situation has a substantial impact on environment, agricultural fields, productivity, food safety trade and commerce and in short socio-economic activities within the area. It leads to famine which in turn causes great problems for the people of the affected area.
Q.2 Match the following
(i) Cloud burst Leh
(ii) Super cyclone Orrissa

(iii) Bujj Earth Gujrat
(iv) Snow avalanche Valtengu Nad.

Long Answer Type Questions:

Q.3 Give detailed account of flood prone regions of India. Highlight main causes of flooding in detailed?
Ans. Floods occur in almost every part of our country. Floods in Indo Gangetic Brahmputra plains are an annual feature. The perrenial river system f North and the seasonal rivers of South India – generally flood in time of extreme precipitation during the time of monsoon. Around 40 million hectares, or 12% of Indian land area is considered prone to floods. The most flood prone areas are at least six states of Assam, Bihar, Orrissa, U.P, W. Bengal and J&K. Besides the region, of the west flowing rivers of Narmada, Tappi which also come in this category.
The main causes of flooding in India are as:
(i) Floods in Northern India are generally observed in the month of July to September which is a period when melting of glaciers increases water level in various rivers of India.
(ii) The rivers sometimes are unable to accommodate the excessive monsoon runoff, forcing them to overflow and inundate the surrounding flood plains.
(iii) The inadequate drainage system and encroachment of rivers cause also aggravated flood scenario in various parts of India.
(iv) Cyclones are largely responsible for widerponed flooding in concerned areas of India.

(v) Blocking of river channels by landslides or silt of river bed also leads to floods because in such a situation water goes on accumulating in large volume and when it finds its way blocked it assumes the forms of flood.
(vi) The change in the course of a river also shows the impact of food in surrounding area.

(vii) Encroachments, lack of appropriate desilting has decreased the water carrying capacity of rivers.

Q.4 Discuss in detail disaster profile of India?
Ans. The Indian sub continent is among the world‟s most disaster prone area. As per the stastics of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) almost 85% of Indian land mass is vulnerable to one or multiple hazards. Out of 29 states and Union Territories 22, are disaster prone. It is vulnearable to strong spawned in the Bay of Bengal, and the Arabian sea area, earthquake caused by active crustal movment in the Himalayan Mountains, floods brought by monsoon and drought by below average precipitation in the country, Semi arid areas. Almost 57% of the land is vulnerable to earthquake of different intensities in the (ii, iii, iv and v) zones, 68% of Indian land is prone to droughts, 8% to cyclones and 12% to floods and also landslide, cloud burst famines, epidemic and padamics. Not only this India has also shown the severe signs of vulnerabilty to Tsunamis since 2004. Out of 7516.61km long coastline, 5700km is close to cyclones and Tsunamis incidences. Moreover, India is vulnerable to Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) emergence and other man made disasters.

Q.5 Jammu and Kashmir is a multi-hazard prone state? Discuss?
Ans. The state of Jammu and Kashmir has a long history of natural disasters. The state has witnessed many natural disaster especially in 19th and 20th centuries. Because of its peculiar topography, rugged terrian, extreme weather conditions and underdeveloped economy, the state has suffered a lot on account of natural disasters. The state of JK by virtue of being multi hazard prone region is obvious. Hazards like earthquake, flood, drought, landsdie, Avalanche, cloud burst etc, often convert into disaster leading to loss of human life as well public and private property and environoment. Enchanced vuluerabilites of the built environment make the state highey prone to natural disasters.
Human activities disturbing the ecological balance in most of the cases directly result in the disasterous event.

Q.6 Vulnerability to various disasters in India is very high. Give reasons.
Ans. Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of a community to hazard and prevailing conditions including physical, social economic and political factors that adversely affect its ability to respond to hazards. The levels of vulnerability to various disasters in India are very high. The reasons for the same are as:
(i) The vulnerability of disaster is high due to widespread of poverty in India.
(ii) The poor infrastructure is another reason for the high vulnerability of disasters in India. If the vulnerability of the population is reduced through capacity building, the impact of the disasters can be minimized to greater extedn.
(iii) The lack of education among the people regarding the proper building codes and unawareness about the disaster resistant infrastructure.
(iv) There is lack of appropriate technology with regard to cope with disasters and construction works in India as compared to Japan.
(v) The faulty development planning in India is also responsible for high vulunerability of India.
(vi) The changing demographies, socio economic conditions and unplanned urbanization with high risk zones is also one important cause.
(vii) The varied topographjy of India which is almost prone to every kind of disaster and the burden of over population over it.

Q.7 Discuss causes and consequences of drought in India?
Ans. The causes and consequences of drought in India can be summarized as under:
Causes of droughts: There are a number of reasons which cause drought in India. These are listed as under:
(i) Scarce rainfall: This th first and foremost cause of drought. The prolonged scarcity of rainfall causes drastic shortage of water, food fodder and unemployment.
(ii) Population Pressure: The increased pressure population on land for feeding growing populations has destroyed the soil cover causing sever desertification of the land.
(iii) Over harnessing of groundwater: The excessive use of ground water and over explortation of surface water results in drought conditions
(iv) Deforestation: The fast rate of depleting forest cover not only affects rainfall but rain water also has speedy rund of into rivers and seas which caused shortage of water.
(v) Global Warming: The global waming causes changes in the precipitation due to which the well waterd areas become drought prone.
The consequence of drought in India are as under:
(i) Decreasing agriculture Productivity : Drought result in widespread food crisis due to low agriculture produce.
(ii) Impact on livelihood: Drought result in widespread adverse impact on vulnerable people‟s livelihood and their socio-economic activities.
(iii) Diseases: It leads to malnutrition and certain types of diseases in children and older ones especially weak people.
(iv) Food Shortage: It leads to short supply of food due to which each section of society suffers more or less.
(v) Black marketing: It gives birth to adulteration, black marketting which leads to price rise and starvation of poor sections of society.
(vi) Distess among farmers: Drought affects the farmers most, it decreases their crop and fodder production due to which it sometimes forces them to commit suicide and kills their cattle.
(vii) Migration: Drought leads to dislocation or mass migration of people hwo leav their houses and hearths to save their lives.
(viii) Loss of biodiversity: Drought results in loss of biodiversity, reduce water, air and landscape of the affected area and imbalances the ecosystem.
(ix) Loss in agro industries: It result in the loss of dairy products, leather products and fishery products besides leads to forest fire.

Additional Questions

Q.1) Which disaster devasted the normal life in Leh on 6th August 2010?
Ans) The famous cloud burst that divested the normal life in Leh on 6th August 2010 was the sole cause of destruction in Leh which destroyed the property and at least 255 were dead and 9000 people were directly affected by the event.
Q.2 What is the difference between hazard and disaster?
Ans) Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property or environment. Disaster is a serious disruption of a functioning of a community or society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceeds the ability of the affected area, community or society to cope using its own resources.

Q.3) What is the difference between drought and famine?
Ans. Drought can be defined as lack or shortage of water for an unusually long period. Famine is a situation when there is a widespread scarcity of food, causes by several factors including crop failure, overpopulation, misgovernance, drought, floods etc.

Q.4) Describe some of the safety measure that should be adopted during an earthquake.

Ans) The safety measures that should be adopted during an earthquake are as under:
i. We should try to remain calm and to reassure others to derive an action plan.
ii. We should watch for the falling of plaster, stone, light fixtures, and heavy objects on shelves and try to save ourselves. iii. Watch for high book case, shelves and other cabinets which might slide or topple to seek a safe place or for hiding ourselves.
iv. Stay away from glass, windows, mirrors and chimneys.
v. Switch off the lighting system, gas stoves, or gas cylinder and never try to lit fire or burn a match stick.
vi. Hide under the table, desk or bed in a corner away from the window with your head covered by your hands. vii. Keep with yourself a torch and first aid box and some necessary medicines.
viii. Check and see that sewage lines are intact before using/flushing of toilets.
ix. Do not eat or drink anything from open container, especially near shattered glass.
x. Call, 100, 101 only if you have a life threatening risk.
xi. Respond to request for help from civil, defense, fire services, police, army, home guards and local people.

xii. Do not crowd in damaged areas unless help has been requested, cooperate with public safety officers.
xiii. Do not spread rumours. These often do great harm following a disaster.

Q.5) Write a short note on chemical disasters?
Ans) Chemical disasters are those disasters which are caused due to the use of chemicals on large scale but not safely, due to the human actions or errors. These chemicals prove very dangerous to the mankind has the world as seen in case of Bhopal gas tragedy 1984. After industrial revolution, the use of chemicals has increased many folds for increasing crop fields, water purification, painting of houses, washing of floor but we hardly realize that these chemicals which are helpful to mankind can be harmful to humans and environment, instance Bhopal Gas Tragedy and Acid attack are examples.

A Strange Trial Question Answers

A Strange Trial

Alice as a Character

Alice is sound, well-trained, and polite. From the outset, she is a miniature Victorian “lady” of the middle class. Considered in this way, she is the perfect foil, or counterpoint, or contrast to all the unsocial, bad-mannered eccentrics she meets in Wonderland. Her courage is the constant resource and strength of Alice. Her dignity, her directness, her conscience, and her art of conversation all fail her time and time again. But when chips are down, Alice reveals something to the Queen of Hearts-that is spunk! Indeed, Alice has all the Victorian virtues, including a quaint rationalization capacity; yet it is the common sense of Alice that makes the quarrelsome creatures of the Wonderland seem perverse despite what they consider to be their “adult” identities.
Surely, Alice doesn’t fit any conventional stereotype; she’s not an angel or brat. She just has an overwhelming curiosity, but restraint and moderation match it. In other ways, she’s also balanced. She only “samples” the cake labeled “EAT ME” to control her growth and shrink. And there’s never a hint she’d try to use her size advantage to control her destiny and set dictatorial behavioral rules for Wonderland. When she complains about being three inches tall, the Caterpillar takes offense. And the Duchess is unreasonable, brutal and coarse. But their “civility” veneer is either irrational or transparent in each case.The Caterpillar finds joy in teasing Alice into a corrupt “set of stupid rules” with his pointed, formal verb games, and the rude Duchess mellows. Yet, behind their playfulness, Alice senses resentment and rage. It’s not that Alice is kept “simple” so that the monstrous aspects of Wonderland characters are thrown into relief. Rather, it is because Alice sees herself as simple, sweet, innocent, and confused as she conceives her personality in a dream.

Some critics feel that Wonderland reflects the personality of Alice and her waking life; that may be the case. But the story itself is independent of the “real world” of Alice. As it were, her personality stands alone in the story, and it has to be considered in terms of the character of Alice in Wonderland. In all Alice’s responses to Wonderland, a strong moral consciousness operates, yet on the other hand, she exhibits the insensitivity of a child in discussing her cat Dinah with the scared mouse in the pool of tears.

In general, the simplicity of Alice owes much to the feminine passivity and repressive domestication of Victorian women. Slowly, in stages, the reasonableness of Alice, her sense of responsibility, and her other good qualities will emerge on her journey through Wonderland and in the trial scene in particular. They have a long list of virtues: curiosity, courage, kindness, intelligence, courtesy, humor, dignity, and a sense of justice. With the pig/baby, she’s even “maternal.” But her constant and universal human characteristic is simple wonder— something that can be easily identified with by all children (and the child still living in most adults).

A strange trial


Q1: What did Alice remember?

Ans: Alice remembered following a rabbit and reaching to a wonderland through a rabbit hole. There she saw a lot of odd creatures who spoke and acted strangely. Alice remembered meeting a king and a queen there and attending a mad tea party. She also remembered drinking a strange liquid that made her grow smaller, and then she ate a cake to grow larger again.

Q2: Why, according to Gryphan, were the jurymen putting down their names?

Ans: According to Gryphan, the jurors were writing down their names for the fear of forgetting them at the end of the trail.

Q3: The first witness was: Alice, White Rabbit, King, Mad Hatter.

Ans: Mad Hatter.

Q4: “Give your evidence or I”ll have you executed whether you are nervous or not”. Who says these words and to whom? What do you mean by “I will have you executed”?

Ans: These words are told by the King of Hearts to Mad Hatter. To have somebody executed means to punish unto to death.

Q5. What according to Alice, is the first wise thing that the king has said that day?

Ans. “You are a very poor speaker” told by the Kind to Hatter is the first thing according to Alice that he has said that day.

Q6: Knave denies having imitated somebody”s handwriting. What evidence does he give?

Ans: He denies having written the letter. He says had he done so, he would have signed it at the end.

Q7: What happens when the whole pack of cards and all the animals fall upon Alice?

Ans: When all the animals fall upon Alice, She screams and tries to beat them off. The animals run in different directions and disappear.

Q8: A strange trail was a dream which Alice dreamt. (true/ false)

Ans: True


A. Match the phrasal verbs on the left with their meaning on the right:


i. Put down: Write down
ii. Pick up: Take in hand
iii. Send for: Send someone a message asking them to come to see you.
iv. Take off: Remove
v. Put on: Wear
vi. Stare at: Look at something continuously
vii. Hurry up: Makes haste
viii. Look at: See
ix. Fall in: Make a line
x. Hand over: Give
xi. Beat off: Defeat
xii. Hit out: Criticize strongly

B. Do it yourself.

C. Fill in the blanks with the words given:

Bevy, Brood, Throng, Staff, Suite, Chest, Cluster, Litter, String, Shoal, Chain


1. A shoal of fish.

2. A bevy of ladies.

3. A suite of rooms.

4. A cluster of stars.

5. A staff of officials.

6. A throng of people.

7. A brood of chickens.

8. A litter of puppies.

9. A chest of drawers.

10. A string of camels.

11. A chain of mountains.

D. Give the antonyms of the italicized word in the following sentences:


1. Honesty is the best policy.

Ans. (b). Deceit

2. The chairman initiated the proceeding with a brief speech.

Ans. (c). Closed

3. William Wordsworth is celebrated for his lucid style.

Ans. (a). Notorious

4. A faithful officer is always vigilant towards his duties.
Ans. (d). Careless

Grammer Work

Ans. I told the peon that all his faults would be pardoned if he confesses them.

10. I said, “I shall finish my work as early as I can.”

Ans. I said that I should finish my work as early as I could. B. Change the following sentences into direct speech:

1. The employer warned him that he would be dismissed if he did attend the office. Ans. The employer said to him, “You will be dismissed if you do not attend the office.” 2. Sanjay said that his brother had met with an accident the previous day. Ans. Sanjay said, “My brother has met with an accident yesterday.” 3. I informed him that I might not come the next day.

Ans. I said to him, “I may not come tomorrow.”

4. The principal announced that the next day would be the holiday.

Ans. The principal said, “Tomorrow will be a holiday.”

5. The teacher told us that we were intelligent and hard working.

Ans. The teacher said to us, “You are intelligent and hard working.”

NCERT Solutions ( Answers) of Class 8th English Story Section.

NCERT Solutions ( Answers) of Class 8th English Story Section.

Lesson No.1: The Unthankful Man

Words You May Not Know

outskirts: the outer area of a city, town, or village

peep: to secretly look at something

ungrateful: thankless

slither: to move in a curving way

steep: having a sharp slope

depressed: unhappy and hopeless

cell: a small room in a prison

plight : an unpleasant condition

chamber: a special room

maid: a female servant

charge : formal accusation

Working with the text

Q1: What was Raman”s wife fed up with?

Ans: Raman’s wife was fed up with the abject poverty as she and her husband had to go hungry for days together.

Q2: What did Raman see when he peeped into the well?

Ans: Raman saw a tiger, a monkey, a snake and a man in the well.

Q3: Why was Raman scared of the snake?

Ans: Raman was scared of the snake because he thought if the snake was taken out of the well; it would bite him leading to his death.

Q4: What did the monkey do when Raman was hungry?

Ans: The monkey gave Raman delicious and juicy mangoes to satisfy his hunger.

Q5: What did the tiger give him?

Ans: The tiger gifted him a golden necklace which was given to the tiger by a prince for saving his life.

Q6: What did the goldsmith do when Raman showed him the necklace?

Ans: When Raman showed the necklace to the goldsmith, The goldsmith told Raman to sit and wait for him at the shop. He himself went to the king and showed him the necklace of the missing prince. He made the king believe that Raman had murdered the prince.

Q7: How did Raman cure the queen?

Ans: When the queen was bitten by a snake she lay unconscious and nobody could cure her. The king announced a reward for the person who will cure her. The announcement was made even in prison.

Raman offered his services to cure the queen. He was taken to the queen‘s chamber from the prison. He touched the queen‘s forehead as advised to him by the snake. Immediately, the queen opened her eyes and she was cured of the snake bite.

Q8: Why did the king send the goldsmith to jail?

Ans: After curing the queen, Raman narrated his sorry tale to the king. The king realized the thanklessness of the goldsmith. Consequently, Raman was freed and the goldsmith was put behind the bars.


A. Who said the following and to whom?

a. “Why don’ t you go to the nearby town and seek some job?”
Ans. Raman‘s wife to Raman.

b. “I live in Varanasi and I am goldsmith by profession.”
Ans. Goldsmith to Raman.

c. “Once I saved a prince’s life. In return, he gave this necklace.”
Ans. Tiger to Raman.

d. “You have killed our prince and stolen his necklace.”
An s. King to Raman.

e. “How did you land up in trison?”
Ans. King to Raman.

f. “Go home and live happily.”
Ans. King to Raman.

B. Make sentences using the following phrasal verbs:

Fed up with, Pass-through, Help out, Pull out, Call out, Slither away, Wait for, lock up, wake up, land up in, peep into, take to, slip into

1. Raman’s wife was fed up with poverty.

2. In order to reach home, he had to pass through the forest.

3. The tiger requested Raman to help him out of the well.

4. Raman pulled out the tiger out of the well.

5. Rashid called out Hafeez at his home.

6. The snake after thanking him for his help slithered away.

7. When the match was over, all the players wait for each other to go home.

8. There was a lockout strike of employees yesterday.

9. I was sleeping and was waked up by the sudden noise in the street.

10. The king enquired Raman how he was land up in the prison.

11. It was raining when I peeped into the garden.

12. The culprit was locked up in the prison.

13. The murderer was taken to the court for the sentence.

15. I quietly slipped into my room when I reached late to my home.


Change the narration:
1. “Let us push on a little further”, said Shabir.

Ans. Shabir said that they might push on a little further.
2. He said to me, “Let us wait for our friend.”

Ans. He proposed to me that we should for our friend.

3. Mubashir said, “Abuja, let us go to the Nishat Bagh.”

Ans. Mubashir proposed to Abuja that they should go to the Nishat Bagh.

4. The boy said to the teacher, “Let me take my seat, Sir.”

Ans. The boy (Obediently or with honour) told the teacher that he should take his seat.

5. Rashid said to Hamid, “Let me have a cup of tea.”

Ans. Rashid told Hamid that they should have a cup of tea. 6. He said, “Let him run fast, he cannot catch the train.”

Ans. He said that he might run fast, he cannot catch the train. Or He assumed that it is useless for him to run fast to catch the train.

Lesson No.2 : Achilles

Words You May Not Know

mythology: a body of myths (stories about superhuman beings taken as a true in ancient cultures)

fairy-tale(adj) : extremely happy or fortunate

weired: very strange and unusual

rippling: making a sound of water flowing quietly

floppy: soft and not able to maintain a firm shape or position.

dangle: to hang loosely, or to hold something so that it hangs loosely

cravat: a wide straight piece of material worn loosely tied in the open neck of a shirt.

lilting: gentle and pleasant.

waggle: to (cause to) move quickly up and down or from side to side.

fiesta: a public celebration in Spain or Latin America, especially one on a religious holiday, with entertainments and activities.

pantomime: an amusing musical play based on traditional children‘s stories performed especially at Christmas.

whirl : (to cause something to) spin around.

sprightly: energetic and in good health.

warble: to sing, especially in a high voice.

lumber: to move slowly and awkwardly.

regal : royal, supreme.

respite: pause or rest from something difficult or unpleasant.

satin(n) : a silk material shining on a side.

sprightlier (adj) : energetic and in good health .

warble (v) : to sing.

mumber (v) : chew softly .

drool (v) : dribble/talk foolishly.

drool (v) : a slow or slothful person .

hysterical (adj) : un controlled excitement.

surge(v): rise, move forcefully.

bemused (adj) : obscure, clouded, confused.

lumber: to move slowly and awkwardly.


Q1) How was the Rose-Beetle Man dressed?

Ans: Rose-Beetle Man’ s dress was fantastic. On his head, he had a hat with a wide floppy brim. His shirt was worn. Round his head dangled a cravat of blue stain. His patched trousers drooped over a pair of leather shoes with upturned toes.


Ans. Rose-Beetle Man was dressed in a wide hat on head, shirt and a startling blue satin cravat around his neck. He had worn a coat with bulged pockets, patched trousers and a pair of leather shoes with upturned toes.

Q2) How do we know that the Rose-Beetle Man cared well for his pets?

Ans: The Rose-Beetal Man had polished the shells of the tortoises & he had decorated their front legs with little red bows. This shows that he cared well for his pets.


Ans. He had kept his pets in a sack. When he undid his sack half a dozen tortoise came out tumbling. He had polished their shells with oil and decorated their front legs with little red bows. This shows that he cared well for his pets.

Q3) What made the narrator select one particular tortoise from among the other animals?

Ans: When the Rose-Beetle Man undid a small sack, half a dozen tortoises tumbled out of it. One among them took the narrator‘s fancy. It was small with a shell size of a teacup. Its eyes were bright & its walk was alert. This made the narrator select it from among the other animals.

Ans. From among the other animals one was energetic than others. Its shell was of the size of a teacup. Its eyes were bright and its walk was alert. This fascinated the narrator and he was convinced to select this particular tortoise as his pet.

Q4) How did Achilles enjoy eating strawberries?

Ans: The fruit that Achilles liked the best was wild strawberries. He would become hysterical at the mere sight of them. The small strawberries he could devour at a gulp. But if he was given a big one he would grab the fruit and take it to a quiet spot among the flowerbed, where he would eat it at leisure.


Ans. Achilles liked the wild strawberries the most. He easily swallows the small-sized strawberries but when he was given the big one, he would grab it to a quiet spot among the flower beds to eat it at the leisure time. He was very fond of wild strawberries.

Q5) How were Roger and Achilles rivals?

Ans: Roger, the pet dog of the narrator became a rival of Achilles for both had to compete for getting more and more grapes.


Ans. Both Roger and Achilles liked grapes. Before the arrival of Achilles, Roger enjoyed full part of grapes. Now the Achilles became his partner, therefore there was a great rivalry between them.

Q6) Why did Achilles find Roger irritating?

Ans. Achilles was very fond of grapes, when he ate grapes, the juice would run his chin, and Roger would lie watching him his mouth dripping saliva. Roger would creep up to Achilles and lick him vigorously to get the grape juice which irritated Achilles.

Ans: Achilles loved grapes as much as Roger did. Achilles would sit mumbling the grapes in his mouth, the juice running down his chin and Roger would lie watching him, his mouth drooling saliva. Then Roger would creep up to Achilles and lick him vigorously to get the grape- juice which irritated Achilles.

Q7) How did Roger feel at Achilles’ funeral?

Ans: Roger felt happy at Achilles‘ funeral. He kept on wagging his tail throughout the burial service.


Ans. Roger felt happy at Achilles’ death that is why he was waging his tail at his funeral.

Q8) The family wandered about the olive-groves, shouting “Achilles … Strawberries, Achilles …” at length, we found him.

a) How had Achilles escaped?

Ans: One day the garden gate was left open and Achilles was nowhere to be found.OR

Ans. Achilles was habitual to walk through the whole garden. One day, the garden gate was left opened and Achilles got an opportunity to escape from the garden.

b) Explain why the family shouted “strawberries” during their search.

Ans: Strawberries were the favorite fruit of Achilles. The family wanted Achilles to hear the call and get tempted & return. OR

Ans. Achilles was very fond of strawberries, so to find him any way they should make him greedy for his favourite fruit so that they could easily find him.

c)Where did the family finally find Achilles? What had happened to him?

Ans. Finally, the family found Achilles in the well, the wall of which had long since disintegrated. He had fallen into the well and was quite dead.

Ans: The family found him dead in a well.

Q9) There are many instances of humor in the story. Pick out any two of them.

Ans. The story has many humorous instances. Eating of grapes by Achilles and running of juice from his mouth is humorous. Searching down the path of sunbathing person and sleeping on a belly is a humorous instance in the story.


Ans: The character and costumes of the Rose-Beetle Man is humorous. The licking of Achilles by Roger is full of humour. Achilles‘ act of mountaineering on a human body is a humorous incident.


Make anagrams using the following words with the help of the clues given in the table below:

Word Anagram Meaning

Looped Poodle= an intelligent breed of dog.

Schoolmaster = The Classroom where lessons are taught.

Listen Silent = making no sound.

Admirer = fan.

Rabies Serbia = country in Southeast Europe.

Real = fun Funeral performed after someone’s death.

Retain Retina = part of the human eye. Charm March movement of soldiers.


(i) Some of the following sentences are incorrect. Correct them.

1) We get a lot of English home works. Ans. We got a lot of homework.

2) I’ve got some sands in my shoe.

Ans. I’ve got some sand in my shoe.
3) Did you hear the news about Sara? Ans. Did you hear news about Sara?

4) We need more chairs in this room. Ans. We need more chairs in this room.

5) Can I have some more pasta?

Ans. Can I have some more pasta?

6) He carried my luggage to the taxi.

Ans. He carried my luggage to the taxi.

(ii) Insert ‘a’ or ‘an’ wherever necessary.

1. Why are you taking an umbrella? It isn’t raining.

2. I had soup and a bread roll for lunch.

3. It was a good idea to have a party.

4. She’s looking for a job in Jammu.

5. I often go to her for advice.

(iii) Fill in the gaps with a noun from the words given using a/an/the wherever necessary.

Chair, Suitcase, Fly, Rice, Furniture, day, weather, accidents, luggage.

1. There’s a fly in my soup.

2. I have to some furniture for my new house.

3. I haven’t got much luggage with me. Just this bag

4. It’s a sunny day today.

5. There weren’t any accidents on the roads yesterday.

(iv) Which of the underlined words in the parts of these sentences is correct?

1. Hurry up? We haven‘t got many / a lot of time.
Ans. a lot of

2. I don‘t eat much/many chocolates. Ans. many

3. I didn‘t take much / many photographs. Ans. many

4. I don‘t listen too much / many classical music.
Ans. much

Lesson No. 3: Colors of Rainbow – A Short Story

Word Meaning

Awning: a piece of material attached to a building to give protection against the sun and rain

Barely: almost not

Oblivious: not aware

Splendiferous: splendid, grand in appearance

Musing: thought

Convolutions: twists, troubles, difficulties,

Hue: colour

Tiff: a slight argument

Brewing: about to happen

Cherish: to love, care and protect

Good riddance: used to express happiness that someone or something unwanted has gone.

Hauteur: excessive pride

Awry: not right

Well-to-do: rich, prosperous

Fortification: defense

Breach: to break through

Incarnation: the human form

1. What did the narrator observe when he looked out?

Ans: When the narrator looked out of the window he saw drops of water falling down from the awnings. He also observed drops of water drip and slide down the chili plants outside.

2. Why was the narrator unable to pay attention to what his daughter was saying?

Ans: The narrator couldn’t pay attention to what his daughter was saying because he was watching the beauties of nature.

3. Why did the narrator have a tiff with his family?

Ans: The narrator belonged to a poor family. Poverty had made their life hard. It had affected the couple‘s relationship. They would often argue over petty issues.

4. What did the narrator find when he returned home late at night?

Ans: After a tiff with his wife the narrator left home, spent the day with his friends, and returned late at night. On his return, he found that his children/kids had gone to sleep and his wife was waiting for him.

5. Why did the narrator not have an appetite?

Ans: The narrator did not have an appetite because he had taken food outside with his friends.

Lesson No.4: Rustum and Sohrab

Words You May Not Know

shield: a large flat metal object held by soldiers to protect themselves dare: to have enough courage to do something

in the family was: expecting a baby send word to send a message

feat: an act showing great skill, strength or courage warrior: one who fights in a war, soldier
combat: a fight

savior: a person who saves from danger

armor a protective covering for the body

longing: having a great desire

fate: the power that is supposed to control all events

unnerve: to become nervous

pierce: to go into or through something

slain: killed

avenge: to punish for wrongdoings

opponent: adversary; rival
clash(v): to fight

Ignorance: lack of knowledge; unawareness

Thinking about the text

Q1) Why was Rustum not able to live with his wife?

Ans) Rustum had to part with his wife because he was called by the king of Persia. The king felt unsafe in the absence of Rustum.

Q2) Why did Tanimeh send word to Rustum that their child was a daughter?

Ans) She did so because she feared if Rustum would come to know that he had a son, he would take him away and make him follow his footsteps. Tanimeh did not want to lose her son.

Q3) What secret did Sohrab learn from his mother?

Ans) The secret Sohrab learned from his mother was that he was the son of Rustum, the shield of Persia

Q4) What did Tanimeh want Sohrab to do when he met Rustum?

Ans) Tanimeh wanted Sohrab to show the precious stone to his father, Rustum so that he could recognize his son.

Q5) Why was Rustum at first not ready to fight Sohrab?

Ans: Rustum did not want to fight Sohrab because he had grown old and had to serve his aged father in the faraway village.

Q6) Why did Rustum not tell Sohrab who he was?

Ans: Rustum did not tell Sohrab who he was because Rustum thought that if he did so, Sohrab might withdraw from the fight and make peace with him.

Q7) How was Sohrab wounded?

Ans) Rustum, after fighting for three days with Sohrab, felt that he was going to lose the fight. Then Rustum uttered his war cry ―”Rustum!” which made Sohrab nervous and he dropped his shield. Rustum, instantly, thrust his sword into Sohrab‘s body. That is how Sohrab was wounded.

Q8) What were Sohrab’s last words?

Ans) Sohrab told his father to take him home and bury him there so that people will say, “Here lies Sohrab, the mighty Rustum’s son, whom his father did kill in ignorance”.

B. Find words/phrases given below for the following expressions:

Break down, precious, mighty, bury, combat, send word, invader, chief, protect, send for, parting, determined, strong-minded

a. A fight, especially in a war = Combat

b. To keep somebody/something safe from harm, injury, etc = Protect

c. Going away or separating from somebody = Parting

d. To send someone a message. = Send word

e. Wanting to do something very much regardless of difficulties. = Strong-minded

f. Determined to do something or get something. = Determined

g. Someone who enters a country by force in order to take control of it. = invader

h. A long distance away or a long time in the past or future. = Distant

i. To become very upset and start crying.= Break down

j. Of great and special value = Precious

k. An officer of very high rank in the army = Chief

l. Put a dead body in a grave = Bury

m. Very powerful = Mighty

n. To call someone back = Send for

C. Choose the correct option:

1. “Persia is safe as long as Rustum leads our soldiers,” said The King of Persia

2. “I do not fight in single combat with anyone who is of low birth,” These words are spoken by The Challenger.

3. “If you must go, I want to tell you something.” Said Tanimeh

4. “Who is so rash and thoughtless that he thinks he can attack Persia?” asked Kaikoos

5. “Carry me to your home and bury me there.” These words are spoken by Sohrab

D. Match the words in Column A with the explanations given in Column B:


Column A Column B

a. War cry a word or cry shouted in battle.

b. Challenger one who calls someone for a fight.

c. Arts of war skill in the use of weapons and infighting.

d. Champion one who fights for or defends some other person.

e. Swordsmanship skill in the use of a sword.

f. Spirit quality of courage and vigor.

g. Terror great fear.

h. Clasp hold tightly.

i. Amazed extremely surprised.

j. Ambition a strong desire for success, power or wealth.


A. Combine the following pairs of sentences with unless Answers Only;

1. Unless you run fast, you cannot catch the train.

2. Unless work hard, you cannot get the first class.

3. Unless you hurry, you will not catch the bus.

4. Unless you do as I tell, you will not regret it.

5. Unless you tell me about your problem I cannot give you some solution.

B. Match each clause from Column A with a clause from Column B and make meaningful sentences:


1. If I had worked harder, I would have got more marks.

2. If the driver in front had not stopped, the accident would not have happened.

3. If the weather had not been so bad, we could have gone out.

4. If you have arrived earlier, you could have seen her.

5. If you have moved the injured to hospital immediately, you might have saved his life.

6. If you had not lent me the money, I would not have been able to buy a car.


A. Report the following sentences in indirect speech:

1. She said, “My father will return from Jammu tomorrow.”

Ans. She said that her father would return from Jammu next day.
2. They said, “We will die for the sake of our country.”
Ans. They said that they would die for the sake of their country.
3. The teacher said, “Baber won the first battle of Panipat.”
Ans. The teacher said that Baber won the first battle at Panipat.
4. I said to him, “You have made a false statement.”
Ans. I told him that he had made a false statement.
5. They said to us, “We will play a match tomorrow.”
Ans. They told us that they would play a match the next day.
6. I said to him, “I am an early riser.”
Ans. I told him that I was an early riser.
7. He said, “My father died last year.”
Ans. He said that his father died the previous year.
8. She said to me, “The climate of this place does not suit me.”
Ans. She told me that the climate of that place did not suit her.

9. I said to the peon, “All your faults will be pardoned if you confess them.”



For God’s Sake Hold Thy Tongue

Word Meanings

Thy: (old use) your
Thee: (old use) you, used when speaking to one person
Scabbard: a long thin cover for the blade of a sword, which is usually fixed to a belt.
Thine: (old use) your
Do down: to belittle or humiliate someone.
Vent: to release or express an emotion, idea, etc in a forceful way.
Admonish: to advice someone to do or not to do something.
Scandalmonger: a person who spreads malicious talk about other people.
Condemn: to criticize something or someone strongly, usually for normal reasons.
Mimicry: to copy the sounds or movements of other people.
Sarcasm: remarks that mean the opposite of what they seem to say.
Belittle: to make an action or a person seem unimportant.
Similitude: resemblance, example.
Refuge: protection or shelter from danger, trouble, unhappiness, etc.
Denounce: to criticize something or someone strongly and publicly.
Stumble: to fall or begin to fall while walking or running.
Bridal: to control or restraint.
Slander: a false statement which damages somebody’s reputation.
Refrain: to avoid doing something.
Malice: the wish to harm or upset other people.
Deceit: an act of deceiving or misleading.
Reproach: to criticize someone for doing something wrong.

Working with Text:

Q1) What do the Quran and the traditions of Prophet (PBUH) tell us on backbiting and scandal-mongering?

Ans: The sacred scriptures of Islam, that is, the Holy Quran and the books on the traditions of the Holy Prophet(SAW) strongly condemn the acts of backbiting and scandal-mongering. In these scriptures, a person who indulges in such acts is compared with one who has eaten the flesh of his dead brother.

Q2) What do the Gita and the Bible tell us on backbiting?

Ans: About backbiting, the Gita says that the man who does not indulge in backbiting is a godly man whereas the man who indulges in it has demonic endowments. The Bible says that one who does not backbite and does not stumble in what he says is a perfect man.

The Holy Bible says, ― For we all stumble in many ways. And if anyone doesn‘t stumble in what he says, he is a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body.

Q3) What do the Granth Sahib and Lord Buddha tell us on backbiting?

Ans: The Granth Sahib says, ―The slanderer carries the great burden of sins without payment he carries loads.‖ Lord Buddha elucidates in his eightfold path that one requires living a life based on right speech.

Q4) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon bring tongues both the times?

Ans: He did so because according to him, it is the tongue that issues the good as well as the bad words.

Q5) Why did the servant of Rabbi Simeon invite his discipline for a meal?

Ans: Rabbi Simeon invited his disciplines for a meal in which both soft and hard tongues were served. The disciples ate the soft ones and left the hard ones untouched. Noticing this, the Rabbi said, -As you choose only soft tongues here, so you should be soft in your conversation.

Q6) What according to you is the moral of the lesson?

Ans: The lesson teaches us that one should always refrain from backbiting and scandal-mongering.

Q7) How does our tongue do good or bad to others?

Ans: If we refrain from backbiting and malicious talk, we won‘t harm the image and dignity of our fellow citizens while as indulging in such acts will hurt others and we shall also earn disrespect.

NCERT Solutions Class 8th English


Working with Text

Q. 1 Why is polo called the game of kings?

Ans: Polo is called the game of kings because it was widely played and patronized by kings and nobles.

Q. 2 Where did polo originate?

Ans: Polo originated in central Asia. From central Asia, the game made its way to Japan, China, Tibet, and India.

Q. 3 What was the status of polo during the Mughal reign?

Ans: Under the Mughals, polo was the national sport of India until the end of the sixteenth century. During this period, polo enjoyed the patronage of kings and nobles.

Q. 4 In whose reign did polo come to Ladakh and how?

Ans: Legend has it that polo came to central Ladakh from the neighboring Baltistan. According to history polo was brought to Ladakh either through King Jamyang‘s marital alliance with a Balti woman or through the colony of Baltics settled at Chushot.

Q. 5 How is polo played in Ladakh?

Ans: Ladakh polo is fast & furious. It is a test of human endurance, skills and horse strength to play continuously. The matches are played in the late afternoon.

Q. 6 How is polo in Ladakh different from the international format?

Ans: Ladakh polo differs from the current international format in player count as well as duration. Unlike the modern versions of the game, Ladakh polo has two rounds of 20 minutes each and few restraints and rough riding.


Julius Caesar

Working with text

Q1) Why did a certain party of Romans wish to kill Julius Caesar?

Ans: They wanted to kill Julius Caesar because they believed that he had become ambitious. They feared that Julius Caesar might be offered the crown at the National Games. They wanted to keep him away from sitting on the throne.

Q2) Why did Calpurnia beg Caesar not to go to the Capitol?

Ans: Calpurnia begged Caesar not to go to the Capitol because she had a nightmare the previous night in which she had seen Caesar‘s statue, standing in the market place, pouring forth blood. Many Romans were bathing their hands in it and smiling.

Q3) What two reasons did Antony give to show that Caesar was not ambitious?

Ans: The first reason Mark Anthony puts Record:forth is that Caesar was always kind and generous to the poor. As the second reason, he says that Caesar had refused the kingly crown three times at the games.

Q4) Why was Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi wrong?

Ans: Brutus decision to march from Sardis to Philippi was wrong because he and his tired men had to confront Octavius and Mark Antony who had the advantage of a good defensive position and a fresh and rested army.

Q5) Why has Brutus been called “the noblest Roman of them all”?

Ans: Brutus has been called “the Noblest Roman of them all” because unlike others he did wrong but his intention was right. He had no malice in his heart.

Stink: bad smell

Synthetic: a substance made through artificially done chemical process

resin: a thick sticky substance that is produced by some trees

Polymer: chemical substance composed of large molecules made from many smaller and simpler molecules.

ethylene: a colourless, inflammable gas in coal gas

residue: the part that is left behind

biodegradable: able to decay naturally

infertility: barrenness

sewerage: the system of carrying away waste water and human waste from houses through large underground pipes or passages

moderate: neither small nor large

myriad: a large number of something

ecosystem: plants, animals, and humans living in an area together with their surroundings, considered as a system of relationship

biomagnification: growing concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of organisms

Polythene A Disaster

Word Meanings

trophic: relating to nutrition in a food chain.

debris: broken pieces of something larger organic: coming from living plants and animals marine: related to the sea

bryozoans: minute mollusc animals living together in moss

polychaetes: a class of sea worms

crab: a sea animal with five pairs of legs

mollusk: an animal with a soft body often covered with a shell, usually living in the water

alien: foreign

carcinogen: cancer-causing substance

leach out: pass on

to contaminate: make impure

AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency

Syndrome: a serious disease caused by a virus which destroys the body‘s natural protection from infection, and which usually causes death

thrombosis: formation of a blood clot in a vessel

retard: to make something slower

non-permeability: the condition of not allowing gases or liquids to go through

stray: of an animal without shelter or an owner

veterinary: connected with taking care of the health of animals

SRO: Statutory Rules and Orders

Posterity: future generation

Working with Text

Q.1) What is polythene and who discovered it?

Ans. Polythene is a tough, light flexible synthetic resin made by polymerizing ethylene, chiefly used for plastic bags, food containers, and another packaging.

It was discovered by a German scientist, Hans von Pechmanne who had, completely by accident, made it, away residue at the bottom of his test tube.

Q.2) What does Rakesh’s father expect from the kids?

Ans. Rakesh‘s father expects from the kids that they will stop using polythene bags which the elders have so far failed to do. They have to make a promise not to use polythene and also encourage other kids in their schools and neighborhood not to do so. Q.3) Why is polythene widely used?

Ans. Polythene is widely used because the bags made from it are cheap and easy to carry. They are also used as packing bags. Most people also find them easy to dispose of after use as they are very light and can be easily thrown away.

Q.4) What is biodegradation ?

Ans. Biodegradation is a process with which the things, like sewage constituents, packaging material, etc.

decompose on their own by bacteria or other biological means. But so far as polythene is concerned, it does not decay on its own. It can‘t be even burnt/burned as the burning would cause immense air pollution.

Q.5) What are the harmful effects of polythene?

Ans. Polythene has many harmful effects in our day to day life. It is the cause of diseases like malaria, cholera, etc. It also increases infertility. In addition to this, it plays a major role in the blockage of water systems like sewerage and water pipes, causing floods during moderate or heavy rainfall. Nowadays, rivers, lakes and small streams have become dumping sites of polythene bags which has become the cause of several problems for plants and animals living in and under water.

Q.6) How is the soil affected by polythene?

Ans. Polythene, after remaining in the soil, damages the ecosystem of soil by retarding its carrying capacity. Besides, it has the property of non-permeability, so it cuts off respiration of soil system which in turn not only affects plant life but also other creatures living in the soil.

Q.7) How does polythene affect animals?

Ans. The polythene bags that lie on the roads are often eaten by stray animals which can cause their death.

Besides, it is estimated that about one billion marine animals die each year due to polythene pollution.

Q.8) What is SRO 182?

Ans. SRO 182 (Statutory Rules and Orders) (dated 18/06/2008) is a law made by the government of Jammu and Kashmir by which use of polythene has been banned within the territorial limits of the state.

Q.9) How can we save our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene?

Ans. In order to save ourselves and our posterity from the harmful effects of polythene, it is our responsibility to completely avoid the use of polythene.


Language Work

Q. Say which of the following sentences are simple, compound and complex.

1) I don‘t like girls/boys who are lazy
Complex sentence

2) He called her but didn‘t respond
Compound sentence.
3) She went because she was invited
Complex sentence.

4) You should work hard or you will fail Compound sentence.

5) Man proposes, but God disposes Compound sentences.

6) He stood first in the class
Simple sentence.

7) They must apologize or they will be punished.
Compound sentence.
8) She must apologize to avoid punishment.
Simple sentence.

9) The mother hit him and made him cry.
Compound sentence

10) She succeeded in the very first attempt. Simple sentence.

11) She has lost the book that my brother had given her.
Complex sentence.

12) Men may come and men may go but I go on forever.
Compound sentence.

13) We eat so that we may live.
Complex sentence.

14) They serve God well who serve His creatures.
Complex sentence.

15) One blushes when one is guilty.
Complex sentence.



A Nation’s Strength


defy== to resist boldly

foe== enemy

throng == to gather around in a crowd

shaft == the column of a building‘s foundation

rust == to become or cause something to become covered with rust; (here) decay

decay == to cause something to become gradually damaged, worse or less

pride == feeling of importance

luster == brightness

a people = a nation

dare == to have the courage to do something difficult

fly == to run away in fear

Summary of A Nation’s Strength

The poem “A Nation’s Strength” is written by Ralph Waldo Emerson. The poet wonders about the things that make a nation strong. How can a nation‘s pillars be made high and its foundations strong? How can a nation become strong enough to defend itself against powerful enemies? The poet wonders about these questions. Then the poet says that it is not gold and silver that can make a nation great and strong, but it is the people who sacrifice for their country and make it great and strong. According to the poet, it is the brave men of a nation who work hard while others sleep and build the nation‘s pillars deep and lift them to the sky. So it is not the riches but the honest and brave people that make a nation great.

Thinking about the text

Q.1) In the first stanza, the poet wonders about a certain thing. What are they?

Ans) In the first stanza the poet wonders about what makes a nation‘s pillars high and its foundations strong, and what makes it strong to defend against its enemies.

Q.2) What are the foundations of a strong kingdom built on?

Ans) The foundations of a strong kingdom are built on the greatness and toughness of people. It is built on their courage and truthfulness.

Q.3) What happens to a nation that depends on an army to keep its strong?

Ans) A nation that depends on an army does not last long after they shed blood which leads to their decay. Their glory ends soon after the bloody war.

Q.4) When a nation becomes proud, what does God do?

Ans) When a nation becomes proud and arrogant, God strikes it luster down and reduces it to ashes.

Q.5) Do you think wealth can make a nation great and strong?

Ans) No, wealth can‘t make a nation great and strong. It is only men who can stand fast and suffer hardships for the sake of their nation.

Q.6) What can the brave do?

Ans) The brave work hard while others sleep. While others fly, the brave dare. They, therefore, can make a nation great and strong.

Q.7) Explain the following line

The build a nation”s pillars deep

And lift them to the sky

Ans) In these lines the poet says that the brave men lay the pillars of a nation deep on a strong foundation and lift them to the sky to great heights of glory.


1. In this poem, certain consonant sounds dominate e.g., m, n, f, s, r, d, p, h, b, g, l. List the words beginning with these consonants.

Ans. List of consonants:



2. The poem has a fixed rhyme scheme in each stanza i.e. abab. Pick out the rhyming words e.g.


Ans. List of rhyming words:













Lesson No. 2 : Porus and His Elephant


ballad == a story told in verse

foe == enemy

battle pride == martial glory

in state == in a dignified manner

unbroken rank == close order that is difficult for the enemy to breakthrough

fray == attack

rage == anger

betide == to happen

gallant == brave

trumpet == (of a large animal, especially an elephant) to produce a loud call

foreman == the first or chief soldier in the army

hold at bay == keep back

pant == to breathe heavily

legend == a story or set of stories from ancient times

e‘er === contracted form of ever

Summary of Porus and His Elephant

The poem “Porus and His Elephant” is a lyrical ballad. It is written by Mary Dobson. The poem narrates a legend about a king named Porus and his faithful elephant. Porus is confronted with his enemy Alexander. They fought a fierce battle. Porus was fighting bravely on his elephant. But suddenly Porus got injured and fell down from his elephant. The faithful elephant came to his rescue. The elephant did not allow the enemy to come near Porus. Then the elephant took his master to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. Porus survived but his faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds/injuries. The beasts who are dumb also have feelings as proved by the elephant.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) How did the elephant save the life of Porus?

Ans) During the fierce battle between the armies of Porus and Alexander, Porus was wounded. When the wounded Porus fell down, his elephant provided him cover from the shower of arrows, spears, and swords. The elephant lifted Porus on his trunk and took him to safety. In this endeavor, the elephant received several wounds. The faithful elephant succumbed to his wounds, but his master survived.
Q.2) What does the poet mean by:

Ah! These dumb things that cry and pant,

They, too, can love, for God made them so.

Ans) In these lines the poet says that the beasts are unable to speak, but they too can feel pain and express their emotions. These creatures are also capable of loving because God also made them like that.
Q.3) Write the story told in the poem in your own words.

Ans) See the summary of the poem.

Q.4) What is the rhyme scheme of the poem?

Ans) acbd

Q.5) The poem reflects the faithfulness of an elephant towards his master. Explain.

Ans) The elephant, in the poem, stands on the epitome of faithfulness and of exemplary courage. The elephant risks his own life only to be loyal to his master. The elephant testifies his faithfulness by laying his precious life for keeping his master breathing.

Q6. Tick the right answer:

a. Porus met his enemy on the bank of a. The Nile b. The Jhelum c. The Ganges d. The Satluj .

Ans. b. The Jhelum

b. Alexander in the poem is referred to as a. Friend b. Foe c. Brother d.Statesman

Ans. b. Foe

c. Who was wounded? a. Alexander b. Porus c. Both d. None

Ans. b. Porus

d. The wounded Porus is lifted by a. His own soldiers b. Soldiers of Alexander c. The Elephant d. None

Ans. c. The elephant

e. Who saves Porus? a. His Elephant b. His soldiers‘ c. Both d. Villagers Ans. a. His Elephant


I. Use the following words, phrases, and expressions in your sentences:

Days gone by, fray, to hold at a bay, battle-pride, fought the more, gallant part, mighty trunk

Ans. Days gone by Days have gone by, since the battle between Porus and Alexander.

Fray: Alexander came to India for the fray.

To hold at bay: Our soldiers hold at bay our enemies.

Battle-pride: Participation in the war in olden times was considered as battle-pride.

Fought the more: Porus fought the more, against Alexander.

Gallant part: The elephant played a gallant part in the fight between Porus and Alexander.

Mighty trunk: The lifted his master on his back with his mighty trunk to save him.

II. Use the following words as nouns and verbs in your sentences: Record, Present, Object, Contest, Produce

Ans. Record:

(Noun) I keep the record of my all expenditures.

(Verb) In Kashmir, the maximum temperature was recorded as 35ºC.


(Noun) He gave me a present on my birthday.

(Verb) The student presented himself before the headmaster. Object:

(Noun) Do not touch an unclaimed object on the road.

(Verb) He was objected by people in his rude language.


(Noun) A music contest was conducted at Radio Kashmir Srinagar on Saturday. (Verb) He contested for writing an essay in English.


(Noun) Plants produce oxygen for animals.

(Verb) A large quantity of paddy is produced in Kashmir.


Lesson No. 3: The Bangle Seller


loads == collections (of bangles)

rainbow-tinted == having the colours of the rainbow in them

lustrous == bright; shining

meet (adj.) == proper

flushed == shining brightly

tranquil == calm

aglow == shining

limpid == transparent and clear

hue == colour

tinkling == making a light ringing sound

luminous == shining

gold flecked == spotted with gold dots

for her … midway == for a middle-aged woman

cherished = = nursed

Summary Of The Bangle Seller

The poem “The Bangle Sellers” is written by Sarojini Naidu. The poem is about bangles and bangle sellers. The bangle sellers carry loads of bangles to sell at the fairs. The bangles are delicate bright and colourful circles of light. As a woman journeys through the different stages of her life, the colour, texture, and design of her bangles also change accordingly. The bangle seller says that some bangles are for happy daughters and some for happy wives. The narrator draws colorful images from nature to reflect the exact hue and tint of the bangles. The bangle seller says that he has bangles not only for maidens but also for a middle-aged woman who in her fruitful pride worships the gods at her husband’s side.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Who is the speaker in the poem?

Ans) A bangle seller is a speaker in the poem.

Q.2) How are the bangles described in the first stanza of the poem and who are these bangles for?

Ans) In the first stanza, the bangles are described as shining, delicate and bright. They are described as rainbow-tinted circles of light and as tokens of radiant lives. These bangles are for happy daughters and happy wives.

Q.3) The poet uses different similes for the bangles. What are these?

Ans) The poet compares the bangles to the mountain mist, to the flower buds, to the fields of sunlit corn, bridal laughter and to the bridal tear.

Q.4) Name the different colours mentioned in the poem. What do they represent?

Ans) Colours of the rainbow, silver, and blue, sunlit corn colour, purple and gold-flecked grey are the different colours mentioned in the poem. These colours represent the bangles suitable for different age groups of women.

Q.5) The word “some” has been repeated in the poem. What is it?

Ans) The word some represents the different types of bangles being sold by the bangle seller.

Q.6) Explain the following lines.

Some are meet for maiden‟s wrist

Silver and blue as the maintain mist

Ans) In these lines the narrator says that some bangles are suitable for the wrist of unmarried women. Some bangles are of silver and blue colour as the mountain that is under a blanket of mist.


Lesson. No. 4 : Prayer for Strength


penury == extreme poverty; (here) hardheartedness, lacking love and compassion

fruitful == bearing abundant fruit; producing results

insolent == disrespectful; rude

might == power

trifles == things of little value or significance

thee == you (old use)

disown == to not own

thy == your (old use)

surrender == to yield; to give up

Summary Of Prayer For Strength

This poem “Prayer for Strength” is written by Rabindranath Tagore. The poem is a prayer. The poet prays God to make his heart strong enough to bear joys and sorrows. The poet entreats God to clear the malice in his heart and fill it with love and compassion. He asks God to give him strength never to abandon the poor or kneel before a tyrant. At the end of the poem, the poet prays to God to keep him away from the insignificant things of the world and let him have the strength to submit his will to the Will of God.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Why does the poet want God to strike at his heart?

Ans) The poet implores God to strike at his heart to remove the hardheartedness and remake it with love and compassion. He wants to be a loving and caring human beings.

Q.2) What does the poet want the strength for?

Ans) The poet wants strength to bear joys and sorrows. He wants strength to make his love fruitful in service. He needs strength never to disown the poor or bow before a tyrant. Moreover, the poet needs strength to avoid the daily trifles and submit his will to the Will of God

Q.3) How can love be made meaningful in one”s life?

Ans) Love is meaningful when it bears fruits of service, service of mankind.

Q.4) What should be our attitude towards the poor?

Ans) Our attitude towards the poor should be very sympathetic. We should never disown or neglect them.

We should always help the poor and work for their welfare.

Q.5) What does “bend my knees” signify?

Ans) The bending of one‘s knees means to surrender before a powerful person. Here, the poet prays to God to give him the strength to resist and not to bend the knees before a tyrant.

Q.6) Why does the poet want to raise his mind high above “daily trifles”?

Ans) The poet wants to raise his mind high above the daily trifles so that he would not be involved in the issues that fill one‘s heart with malice and prejudice.

Q.7) Why does the poet ask for strength to surrender his will to God”s will?

Ans) The poet wants to surrender his will to the Will of God in order to live a pure and obedient life. As it is not easy to submit one‘s will, the poet prays for the strength to do so.


Lesson. No. 5: The Brook


Haunt: place visited frequently

Coot and hern: water birds

Sally: to rush; to issue forth suddenly

Bicker: to move quickly with a participating noise

Ridge: a high edge along a mountain

Thorp: village

Sharps and trebles: the loud and low sound of music

Eddying bays: bays full of whirlpools

Fret: to wear away

Fallow: unploughed land

Foreland: tiny cape

Chatter: to pass with a noise

Wind about: to move in a curved way

Lusty: strong

Grayling: a trout having a broad fin

Gravel: small stones, often used to make the surface of paths & roads,

Steal: to move quietly

Hazel: a small tree that produces nuts, woods or buses

Gloom(verb): to grow dark

Glance: to produce small bright flashes of light

Netted(adj): looking like meshes

Brambly: full of thorns

Shingly bars: pebbles & sand hindering the flow

Cresses: small plants with thin stems & very small leaves

Summary Of The Brook

This poem “The Brook” is written by Alfred Lord Tennyson. In the poem, the Brook narrates a tale about a journey. The brook speaks about its emergence from a mountain and the resort of water birds. It sparkles and shines among the fern. Then the brook flows down the hill into a valley with a turbulent flow. Then it flows past hills, ridges, villages, a town & under many bridges.

Then the brook flows through the fields and meanders through the plains. As the brook flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it pours its water into the overflowing river.

Thinking About the poem

Q1) Who is “I” referred to as in the poem?

Ans: “I” is referred to the brook itself.

Q2) Trace the journey of the brook?

Ans: The brook starts its journey on the hilltops frequented by water birds. Then the brook rushes down the hill into the valleys and plains. It passes by a town, many grasslands, many villages, and half a hundred bridges. As it flows through the plains its pace slows down. It becomes calm & quiet. And then it joins the brimming river.

Q3) Explain the following lines:

“For men may come and men may go

But I go on forever.”

Ans: In these lines, the brook says that men come to this world and leave it very shortly as they are mortals. But the journey of the brook is unending and everlasting.

Q) Can the journey of the brook be compared with human life?

Ans: Yes, the very journey of the brook can be compared with the life span of a man. Like brook, a human being also passes through different stages of life before his death. And the flow of the brook can be compared with this world that doesn‘t stop while mortals are born & mortals die

Lesson No. 6: Mercy


strain’d == forced

droppeth == drops; descends

mightiest in the mightiest == mercy is more powerful than the most powerful kings become == to suit, to enhance the appearance of someone

crown == symbolizes the supreme power of the king sceptre == the royal

enthroned (adj.) == seated (in the hearts of kings)

attribute (n) == quality temporal not lasting enthrone == stain a throne seasons breeds sway == over powering

awe == dread, terror

Summary of Mercy

The poem “Mercy” has been extracted from the play The Merchant of Venice written by William Shakespeare. In this poem, the poet talks about mercy. He says that mercy descends like the drops of gentle rain. It blesses the person who gives and the one who receives it. Mercy is stronger than the strongest. Mercy is better for a king than his own crown. The majesty of a king is temporal but mercy is more encompassing and more fruitful. Mercy is an attribute to God himself. Mercy is sometimes enthroned in the heart of kings. The king‘s power corresponds with that of God‘s when mercy bears the fruits of justice.

Thinking about the poem

Q.1) Where does the quality of mercy come from? Who are blessed by it?

Ans) The quality of mercy is enthroned by God in the hearts of the people. It blesses both the one who gives and the one who receives it.

Q.2) How is mercy better than the crown of the king?

Ans) Mercy is better than the crown of the king because the crown represents the earthly and temporal powers but mercy is a divine quality and an attribute to God himself.

Q.3) What does sceptre stand for? How does it affect the kings?

Ans) Sceptre is a royal wand. It represents royal authority. Sceptre signifies the king’s awe and majesty both of which are subject to decay.

Q.4) When does earthly power look like God”s?

Ans) When the earthly power makes the tree of mercy bear the fruits of justice, it looks like Godly. When the person having earthly power tempers his justice with the mercy, his earthly power looks more like God‘s power.

Q.5) How is mercy alone the “sceptered sway”?

Ans) Mercy is the sceptered sway because it is the quality of God Who is all-encompassing and the most powerful.

Q.6) What happens when mercy seasons justice?

Ans) When mercy seasons justice, the earthly powers look like Godly or divine.


a) Find out the similes and/or metaphors in the poem.

Ans. Some of them found in the poem are; gentle rain, sceptre, doth earthly power. b) Find out poetical words in the poem and also write their names;

Ans. Strain‘d == means- forced

Droppeth == means- drops, descends

‘Tis == means- this

Blesseth == means- blesses or bless


Lesson No. 7: Wrinkles


Raade: a Hindu festival celebrated in Jammu

Tawi: a river of Jammu

make bold: become courageous

uproot : to pull out or remove comeliness attractiveness

Navaratra: a festival celebrating the birth of Lord Shiva
tinsel shining: decorative metallic stripes or threads

Summary of Wrinkles

The poem “Wrinkles” is a Dogri poem written by Arvind and translated by Shivnath. This poem is an extremely emotional account of a son on the subject of his mother. He says that he has been counting the wrinkles on the face of his mother. His mother got her first wrinkle when her father married her and she was uprooted from her home and planted in the courtyard of others. She got her another when she was in the family way. She got her third wrinkle when her son took away the comeliness of her face through lactation. She gets her Fourth wrinkle when her son marries off leaving his mother alone. The narrator longs to see the girl under those wrinkles which once she was when she celebrated Raade festival and went to river Tawi to immerse the seedlings and bathe during the Navratras. He wants to see his mother as a young girl who used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles. The narrator wishes his mother to become that girl once again for a day so that he would bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles from across the river Taw =

Thinking about the poem:

Q1) How many wrinkles does the poet see on the mother”s face?

Ans) The poet finds four wrinkles on his mother’s face.

Q2) What does the first wrinkle represent?

Ans) The first wrinkle on her face represents a sense of loss, mental strain when she was uprooted from her house and planted in the courtyard of others.

Q3) What do the second and the third wrinkles represent?

Ans) She got her second wrinkle when she nourished her child in her womb and she got her third wrinkle when she was being consumed during the process of lactation.

Q4) What is the poet seeking under the wrinkles of the mother?

Ans) The poet wants to see the young girl under the wrinkles which she was used to be in her young age.

Q5) What are the activities the poet”s mother used to do when she was a girl?

Ans) When she was a young girl, the poet’s mother used to celebrate Raade festival and bathe and immerse raade seedlings in the river. She also used to play hopscotch and the game of pebbles.

Q6) How does the poem end?

Ans) At the end of the poem, the poet wants his mother to become a young girl once again for a day. He would then bring colours for Raade, tinsel for her dupatta, and colourful pebbles for her from across the river Tawi.


Write the meaning of the following phrases or expression as used in the poem:

Ans. 1. From the backyard = to separate someone from his/her birthplace or quietly
2. On your blood: to feed on the digested food, to make the host of someone.

3. Nourished me: to grow or develop own self

4. Took me away: to take someone away from the close one or separate someone from a dear one.

5. Taking courage: being courageous

6. Under the skin: beneath or below age, or feel or see something
7. From across the river: to a long distance, with hard work.


Lesson No. 8: Meeting Poet


Disconcerted : Confused (Unsettle; non plus; unnerve)

Wig: a covering of artificial hair which a bald wears

Wasp: a stinging insect (here) bitterness in the speech of poets

Air: manner and appearance

Dankness: unpleasantness

Speckled: covered with speckles (marks)

Thinking about the poem

Q1) Why is the poet confused when she meets poets?

Ans: The poet is confused due to the odd outward appearance of the poets.She is confused because of the colour of their socks, the suspicion of a wig, bitterness in their speech and their unpleasant manner.

Q2) What is the best way to know poets?

Ans: A poet expresses himself through his poems. We can know about the poets through their subjective poems which express their nature and ideas).

Q3) What does the poet compare the poets with?

Ans: The poet compares the poets with “cool speckled shells in which one hears a sad but distant sea”.

Q4) Explain the phrase-“a wasp in the voice”.

Ans: The phrase “Wasp in the voice ” means bitterness in speech.

Lesson No. 9: Stars Speak to Man

Summary of Stars Speak to Man

The poem Stars Speak to Man is written by Abdul Ahad Azad in Kashmiri and rendered into English by Prof. G.R Malik. In the poem Stars Speak to Man, they tell him that he was born with the light of reason but he chose to be fire. Due to his callousness, he became a reason for disgrace for the whole of mankind. The stars tell him that nature had fashioned him to become the fountain of love and affection but he took to buying and selling of religion and his faith. Nature had bestowed all its treasures upon him to share them equally but his materialistic pursuits led him astray. Not only this, man created divisions on the basis of religion and faith. Humanity has fallen into lament due to man‘s misdeeds. What man calls awakening is basically an intoxicating sleep. Man‘s own deeds have eluded him and he complains against fate. It is nothing but a fanciful dream and man needs to come out from it. In the end, the stars tell the man that he breaks the heart of those who are his kin. He should not ravage his own home by acting irresponsibly.

Think about the text:

1. What do the stars say to man in the first two lines of the poem?

Ans: In the first two lines of the poem the stars tell the man that he was the light of reason but he chose to be fire. And the man brought disgrace for his race due to his callousness.

2. Nature had fashioned you to apportion love and affection But you chose to buying and selling of religion and faith instead.

Explain these lines:

Ans: In these lines, stars tell the man that nature had fashioned him to become a fountain of love and affection. But he stooped so low that he fell to selling and buying of religion and faith.

3. Why is man described as a serpent?

Ans. Man amasses wealth and sits like a serpent on the treasures God has bestowed him, Unused remains a treasure upon which serpents find their shelter. A man who amasses wealth and makes no good use of it is like a serpent sitting on the ground with a treasure underneath. He uses these treasures for himself only while he was supposed to share them with his fellow-beings.

4. “That which you call awakening is a stupefying hangover”. Why?

Ans: All human beings are equal. Divisions on the basis of religion and faith are boastfully considered awakening by man. But it is nothing but an intoxicating sleep.

5. Do you think the poem is a wake-up call? Explain.

Ans: Yes, the poem is a wake-up call. The poet wants to awaken those who have created divisions in the name of religion and faith. The poet wants men to recognize their status and regain their loss.


Q1. Fill in the blanks to make a meaningful summary of the poem.

Ans. The poem is addressed to Man. The poet tells Man that he was the light of reason but he put humanity to disgrace. Nature had provided him with treasures of bounties to share them equally, but he sat like a serpent on them. His heart is restlesslyvibrating and his vision clouded by fantasies. In his own garden, he cut the roots while watering twigs and leaves. He has ransacked and ravaged his own home.

Q2. Use the following phrases in your own sentences.


(i). Choose to be: He chooses to be a teacher.

(ii). Take to: He was taken to the hospital for treatment.

(iii). Throw open: The warden throw opens the door for all students to come in.

(iv). Pose to be: He poses to be a genius.

(v). Fall into: I told him not to fall into conversation with them.

(vi). Tear apart: The professor tore apart the paper.


Lesson No. 10: Summer and Winter

Summary of Summer and Winter

The poem Summer and Winter is written by P.B Shelley. In this poem, Summer symbolizes life and happiness, and winter symbolizes death and lifelessness. The poet draws images from the summer season to heighten the effects of life & vigor.

In the section that follows, the poet draws images from the winter which symbolize death and lifelessness. The poet, in a very subtle manner, brings about a contrast between the two natural forces: life & death; symbolized by summer & winter.

Thinking about the poem

Q1) What do the opening lines of the poem describe?

Ans: The opening lines of the poem describe the bright & cheerful afternoon towards the end of the sunny month of June.

Q2) What is the effect of the shining sun on the objects of nature?

Ans: In the summer the sun shines in the clear & cloudless sky making all things rejoice.

Q3) How is winter described in the poem?

Ans: The effect of winter is harsh. The birds die in the forests. The fishes lie stiffened in the translucent ice and people gather around the fire and yet feeling cold.

Q4) Explain the following lines:

All things rejoiced beneath the sun; the weeds,

The river, and the corn-fields, and reeds;

The willow leaves that glanced in the light breeze

Ans: In these lines, the poet says that in the summer the sun shines brightly in the sky. All things the weeds, the river, the corn-fields, and the reeds are full of life and happiness.

Q5) How does the poem end?

Ans: At the end of the poem, the poet describes a family that assembles around the fire but still feel cold. And the poet is sorry for a homeless beggar.


Q1. Write down some visual images from the poem:

Ans. Some visual images from the poem are:

Floating Mountains, Stainless Sky, Wrinkled Clod, Hard as Brick

Q2. Pick out the rhyming words from the poem.

Ans. Rhyming Words:

Weeds …………… Reeds

Breeze …………… Trees

Die ………………. Lie

Cold …………….. Old

Crowds ………….. Clouds

Q3. Write down five adjectives from the poem.

Ans. Five adjectives from the poem are:

1. The Silver Clouds: In summer we see silver clouds floating in the sky.

2. The Stainless Sky: The stainless sky looks attractive in summer.

3. The Lager Tress: The larger trees are found in the forests of Kashmir.

4. The Translucent Ice: In winter the translucent ice floats on the surface of the water.

5. The Homeless Beggar: The homeless beggars are always seen begging in the streets of cities.

Questions of Global Warming

Global Warming Questions and Answers Class 8th

The term global warming refers to the general increase in the average temperature of the earth caused by the presence of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, causing changes in climate patterns throughout the globe.

Working with the Text

Q.1 Why has the Earth’s average surface temperature increased?

Ans: One of the major reasons cited for the increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature is the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestration and burning of fossil fuels. The increase in the carbon footprint by the developed and the developing countries is one of the major causes of global warming.

Questions of global warming

Q. 2 Why is the Himalayan region called the Water Tower of Asia?

Ans: The Himalayan region is called the Water Tower of Asia because it has a glacial coverage of 33000 square kilometers and it provides around 8.6 million cubic meters of water per annum.

Q. 3 What are the main sources of water in the Kashmir Valley?

Ans: The main sources of drinking water and irrigation in the Kashmir Valley are glaciers.

Q. 4 Why is water the most precious natural resource?

Ans: All life forms in general and the human life in particular are not possible without water. Water sustains life besides presenting itself as one of the major energy resources in the formation of electricity.

Q. 5 How has Kashmir been influenced by global warming?

Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in Kashmir are receding at an alarming rate. We have lost 18% of the Kolhai glacier, and about 16% of the glaciers in Suru basin. Besides this Kashmir is witnessing reduction in snowfall, occurance of high velocity wind storms, and drastic changes in prespitation and seasonal changes.

Q. 6 How is global warming the largest threat to humanity?

Ans: Global warming is catastrophic because it is going to render earth barren. Global warming is going to bring droughts, heatwaves and heavy downpour which will have disastrous consequences on the agricultural yields and consequently lead to species extinction. According to Noam Chomsky, after nuclear bomb environmental degradation is the second largest threat faced by man.

Q.7 What do you think is the cause of decrease in snowfall in Kashmir?

Ans: The main cause behind the decrease in snowfall in Kashmir is global warming.

Q. 8 What has been the impact of global warming on J&K so far?

Ans: Due to global warming, the glaciers in J&K are receding at an alarming rate as compared to other glacial regions in the world. J&K has lost about 18% of the Kolhai glacier and about 16% of glaciers in Sure basin alone in the last forty years.

Q. 9 What role do scientists play in J&K to deal with the global warming?

Ans: In Jammu and Kashmir, The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) has selected the Kolhai glacier as one of the index glaciers for long term monitoring. The scientific studies conducted on the glacier will last for five years after which TERI will recommend measures to bring down the glacier‘s recession rate.

Q.10 What do we as individuals need to do to deal with the problem of global warming?

Ans: Besides making people aware about the disastrous consequences of global warming, we should try our best to minimize our carbon footprint that can be done by late minimizing air pollution, encouraging afforestation etc.


Questions of Life Class 8th


This dialogue is gotten from a dramtic ballad initially written in Dogri language, which is interpreted in English by Shiv Nath and has been exhibited here as a prose lesson. The passing wind solicits to various things from universe, for example, stars, moon, clouds, ocean, earth, and the young girl a similar quetion, that is, “What is life?” Everyone gives its very own definition about life in their own particular manner.

Q. No. 1. What answer did the stars give to the wind?

Ans: Since the stars have their own shine, they responded in their own way. They told the wind that shining with one’s own brightness is life. They have got their own light and they are shining with this light to help others to find their way. They are not dependent on others. It there is dependence in life, it is not the life in the real sense of the word. For them, life is to have their own light.
For stars to shine with their own brightness is life. On a moonless night when millions of stars shine brightly, they feel they are released from captivity and are living an independent life. They answered the wind that to shine with one’s own brightness is life.

Questions of life

Q. No. 2. What was the moon’s reply?

Ans: The moon laments for it is not blessed with a light of its own. The borrowed light has lifted indelible spots on its surface. It is a lifeless entity. It replied that its life is dependent on others and feels lifeless entity and child of the ocean.
The moon replied that its life is nothing without stars because it borrows its light from them and this borrowed light is the cause of its black spots. Due to this, its life is like a widow. Its life is dependent on others and feels lifeless entity and child of the ocean.

Q.No. 3 What was the ocean’s response?
Ans: The Ocean replied that the idea of life was to realize one’s limitations and maintain one’s dignity in order to contain all bitter experiences and to take them as pearls and rubies. Life is also a penance or renunciation as if it (ocean) is the cause of somebody’s death, it also regrets it by giving them pearls and rain as its salty water creates pearls and creates rain-filled clouds.
To realize one’s limits and maintain one‘s dignity; to contain all bitter experiences taking them like pearls, is the idea of life for the ocean.

Q.No 4. What was the earth’s reply to the question put forth to her by the wind?

Ans: For earth, the meaning of life is ‘love’. Earth considers herself the mother of all lives and says that the sympathy of the mother is the gift of life. Earth says that it takes water from clouds, rivers, and streams and distributes everything that sprouts from it, so this taking and giving is life for her.
For the earth, life is love: the flow of affection. The earth gets water from different sources, stores it in pure trust and then distributes among the needy. For the earth, this taking and giving is true life.

Q. No. 5. What was the little girl doing when the wind saw her?

Ans: The little girl was lighting new lamps with the lamp that was already alight in her hand. In other words, she was generously spreading light and joy. Thus she was giving real meaning to her life.

Q.No. 6. Why was the Wind impressed by the little girl?
Ans. The wind was impressed by the girl because from the words that the girl told her she found the real meaning of life. The girl had left some lamps unlighted. When she was asked the reason for this, she answered that there was no point in lighting them since they had no oil in them. She was lighting only those who were longing to awake and waiting to be lighted. It impressed the wind. The wind understood that helping those who have a strong desire to live is the real meaning of life.
Upon asking why the girl left some lamps unlighted, the girl said that those lamps did not have oil in them. She said that she would light the lamps which have had oil in them.

Here oil symbolizes desire and yearning. She said she loves this play of life. The girl‘s philosophical answer impresses the wind.

Q.No. 7. Why did the wind join the girl?

Ans: The wind joined the girl because she was greatly impressed by the girl’s action of lighting the lamps and answer given by her.
The wind understood that helping those who have a strong desire to live is the real meaning of life. Thus the Wind forgot everything and joined her.
The wind joined the little girl because the girl’s answer impressed the wind.


captivity = The state of being imprisoned

shroud = a cloth that is used to wrap a dead body (winding sheet, covering)

confront = to face, meet or deal with a difficult situation (challenge)

penance = an act which shows that you regret what you have done, (atonement, expiation, self-mortification, self-punishment)

rumble = to make continuous low sound (boom, thunder, roll, roar, resound, reverberate, echo, grumble)

parched = very thirsty (dried up, arid, desiccated, dehydrated, baked, scorched; opp: soaking)

mamta = motherhood

boon = something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life (blessing, advantage, godsend,

stroke = of luck; opp: curse)

comprehend = to understand (grasp, take in, apprehend, follow, make sense of, decipher, figure out)

meditate = to think deeply (contemplates, think, reflect, deliberate, ruminate, brood mull over, put on one‘s thinking cap)

yearn = to have a strong desire (long, pine, crave, desire, hanker, wish, covet)

renunciation =The act of leaving or abandoning someone or something.


I. Choose appropriate tiller for the following:(Kindly consult your textbook),(Answers Only):

1. He tames because of he

Ans: (c), He is fond of them.

2. He is so lazy that he

Ans: (c), He can seldom complete his work.

3. Whichever way you approach the problem

Ans: (d), It will not be solved.

4. The doctor warns him that unless he gives up smoking

Ans: (d), He will not recover.

II. Write two synonyms of each of the following Words: (Answers Only):

1. Abhor = Hate, Detest, Dislike, Despise

2. Betray = Expose, Reveal, Deceive, Grass

3. Counsel = Advice, Discuss, Guidance, Direction

4. Delight = Please, Satisfy, Pleasure, Happiness, Joy

5. Educate = Amend, Improve, Teach, Instruct

6. Fate = Destiny, Fortune, Luck

7. Generous = Benevolent, Big hearted, Lavish, Liberal

8. Hasty = Quick, Speedy, Hurried, Swift, Rapid, Fast

9. Intellectual = Knowledgeable, Intelligent, Logical, Scholarly

10. Justice = Fairness, Impartiality, Rightfulness, Uprightness

11. Languid = Lazy, weak, Unhurried, Unenergetic, Relaxed

12. Mend = Aid, Patch, Repair, Fix, Restore

13. Nonsense = Senseless, Gibberish, Babble, Drivel

14. Obstacle = The difficulty, Problem, Complication, Hindrance, Restraint

15. Palatable = Edible, Pleasant, Tasty, Satisfying

16. Queer = Unusual, Unexpected, Odd, Expose, Endanger

17. Religious = Sacred, Spiritual, Holy, Pious, Puritan

18. Sober = Temperate, Moderate, Intoxicated, Serious

19. Transient = Fleeting, Passing, Brief, Temporary, Short-lived

20. Urge =Need, Wish, Impulse, Itch, Craving


Write the following sentences inserting ‘to’ wherever necessary before the infinitive in brackets:

1. I have no money (lend) you.

Ans. I have no money to lend you.

2. We saw the thief (run).

Ans. We saw the thief running.

3. We heard her (sing).

Ans. We heard her singing.

4. They watched their team (play).

Ans. They watched their team play.

5. He made us (wait) for a long time.

Ans. He made us wait for a long time.

6. Let him (work).

Ans. Let him work.

7. Need I (come) tomorrow?

Ans. Need I to come tomorrow?

8. Do you wish to make (make) a complaint?

Ans. Do you wish to make a complaint?

9. A heard a cock (crow) and got up. Ans. He heard a cock crowing and got up.

10. How dare you (read my letter? Ans. How dare you to read my letter?

11. It is up to you (increase) your knowledge.

Ans. It is up to you to increase your knowledge.

12. Bid him (go) there.

Ans. Bid him go there.

13. Goodbye! I hope (see) you again. Ans. Goodbye! I hope to see you again.

14. I would like (be) a teacher.

Ans. I would like to be a teacher.

15. He learned (swim) when he was ten years old.

Ans. He learned to swim when he was ten years old.

16. I’m tired. I want (go) to bed.

Ans. I’m tired. I want to go to bed.

17. What have you decided (do)?

Ans. What have you decided to do?

18. We should learn (speak) the truth. Ans. We should learn to speak the truth.

19. Where is Sumaya? I need (ask) her something.

Ans. Where is Sumaya? I need to ask her something.

20. I’m trying (concentrate). Please stop talking.

Ans. I’m trying to concentrate. Please stop talking.

Let’s Write:

1. Write a dialogue (100-150 words) on ‘Life is Gift’.

Shahid: Hello Shabir, how is your life going on?

Shabir: I’m spending my days pretty well.

Shahid: OK Shabir. Now tell me, how were your exams?

Shabir: Oh yes, I’ve done very well. I expect this year I come out as flying colour.

Shahid: Oh that’s great! I wish for your great success. How’s your friend, Mohsin? I’ve not seen him for the last few months.

Shabir: Shahid, as you know our friend had been suffering from Asthma for the last seven years and…..yesterday he died of Asthma.

Shahid: Oh my God! That is terribly sad news. I can’t believe it! I

Shabir: Actually he was living in the pollution-prone area and he was a little careless about his health.
Shahid: Oh yes, it is certainly said that life is a gift and we must take great care of it.

The Passion of The Earth


Summary of The Passion of The Earth

The poem “The Passion of Earth” is written by an American naturalist and peace activist, Harriet Kofalk. This poem appears in the English textbook of Class VIII in which the author talks about peace and hopes it will ultimately return to the world after the prevailing violence meets its end

In the poem, the poet describes the states of the earth in present times and in ancient times. The poet says that in past the mountains, seas, birds, and trees live together in peace. There was no pollution in the atmosphere. But later the people if the next generations built fences, dug mines, cut trees birds became less in number and songless. By this indiscriminate vandalism, the earth lost its charm. However, the peaceful nights of silence and the enchanting songs of frogs sustained us all those years. The poet says that time will again come when the land will be free and we all in nature will share the world as before.

Question /Answers of The Passion of The Earth

Q.1 Read stanza 1 again and describe the state of the earth in ancient times.
Ans. The state of the earth in ancient times was free and the whole creation shared it equally, with mountains, the seas, the birds and the trees. There was no pollution in the atmosphere.

Q. 2 Who are the ‘others of line 9’? What did they do?
Ans. The others of line 9 are the people of the next generation who built fences, cut down trees, dug mines and drained out its blood, that is, oil.

Q. 3 As a result of what others did what happened to the earth?
Ans. The trees were cut, birds became less in number, their songs became less, people became indifferent in planting trees and getting more flowers. The earth lost its charm.

Q. 4 What is that sustained us “through all those years”?
Ans. The nights of silence and the songs of frogs sustained us through all those years.

Q. 5 Does the poem end in hope or despair? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. The poem ends in an optimistic note. In the end, the poet says that the land will again be free, mountains, seas birds, and trees will live in peace.

How Teachers Learn 8th English Solutions


There is no denying of the fact that children learn from teachers but sometimes while talking or dealing with children teachers too learn some useful things from children. This intriguing lesson ‘How Teachers Learn’ talks about the same fact.

In this lesson, the narrator explains how he learned some good things from a five-year-old child named Nora. The narrator who is a teacher says he learned from Nora more about the things children do while they teach themselves to read, the problems they face, and the ways they solve or try to tackle them.

The teacher visited Nora’s house over a weekend. Nora came up to him with a book in her hand and asked him for help. They soon became friends.

Most of the time the teacher sat still. He just observed Nora how she was reading words. However, on rare occasions when Nora was badly stuck he would say anything to help her. Even at that time, he didn’t tell her the word but suggested her how she might figure it out. If she still could not get the word, the teacher would tell her to skip the word and proceed on.

On the day the teacher observed an odd thing happened with Nora. Nora misread a word that she had read rightly previously. Nora performed the mistake a number of times. The teacher was puzzled and upset. The teacher was puzzled because Nora was very smart. She was reading the book with full concentration. Therefore the teacher wondered how could she know one word on one page and forget on the next. It was a puzzle.

The teacher then realized that it is not easy but hard for a child to remember the shape of a word if he has just seen the word for the first time. For a child, it is very difficult to recognise which words on a page are the same or which words are different. We have the expert’s eye for significant detail and can figure out words easily; the child does not have. To explain this the narrator shares one of his wonderful experiences. He says that once he took a sheet of printed paper in some Indian language and tried to find the words that were repeated on the page. It was surprisingly difficult. At first, the page looked nothing but a haphazard jumble of shapes. The narrator found it extremely hard even to concentrate on one short common word. It took him a long time before he could figure out that a word at sight and picked it out of the other. In the same way, it takes some time for a child to get used to the shapes of letters and words, to the point where he can recognise at a glance that this word is like that word.
It is, therefore, necessary that we must try to see things as if through the eyes of the children.

His teachers learn

One of the reasons why children from illiterate homes are at a disadvantage. Children of unlettered homes lack familiarity with the shapes of words and letters from the beginning of their learning. They have is no one to watch and observe who could guide them. So they are at a disadvantage.


Q. 1. Who was Nora? How did she become a friend of the teacher?
Ans: Nora was a small girl child. She was five-year-old. The teacher was visiting her family over a weekend. Nora would come to him with a book in her hand and the teacher guided her to read it. This regular practice soon makes them friends.


Nora was a five-year-old girl who was learning how to read. When the teacher arrived at her home, she asked him for his help. As she was a sociable girl, she made friendship with him.

Q. 2. How did the teacher observe Nora while learning?
Ans: The teacher just sat still and silent most of the time. He would open his mouth only when he found Nora badly stuck on anything. Even then he didn’t tell her the word, only suggested her how she might figure it out. If she still not understand the word, he told her to skip it and proceed on.


At first, the teacher didn’t help Nora reading the text. He just observed her struggling with the words. When she was stuck, the teacher would give a clue. But if that didn’t work, he would read the word for her.

Q. 3. What odd thing happened with Nora? Why was the teacher puzzled?
Ans. While she was reading a strange thing that happened to Nora. She misreads a word that she had read correctly before. This did not happen once but a number of times. This made the teacher feel upset and puzzled because she had read the same word earlier correctly.


The odd thing was that Nora misread a word that previously she had read correctly. It puzzled the teacher as he could not understand the problem with Nora and with his own classroom children.

Q. 4. Was Nora a careless child? How do you know?
Ans. No, Nora was not a careless child. She was very motivated to learn as she came voluntarily to the teacher to help her with learning. The teacher himself said that she was reading the book with complete concentration and interest. She was not pretending or guessing or trying his teacher to do her work.


No, she was not a careless child. The teacher himself admitted that she was reading with full concentration and was not guessing or bluffing.

Q. 5. How should a teacher understand the problems of the children?
Ans. To understand the learning problem of the children, a teacher must strive to see things through their eyes. In other words, he must be able to put his feet in the shoes of the child which is very difficult. For a child who has just only seen the word for the first time, it is not easy but difficult for him to remember the word. However, for a teacher, it is a very easy task. So a teacher should give the children enough time to learn and not be puzzled or annoyed by what looks like slowness or odd things.


A teacher should look at the problems of a child from the child‘s point of view and try to solve them accordingly. He should give them plenty of time to recognize the word and not be upset by their slowness and stupidity.

Q. 6 What experience popped into the teacher’s mind after Nora’s learning problem?
Ans. The teacher has once taken a sheet of printed paper which was written in some Indian language. He had tried to find the words that were repeated on the page. It was surprisingly difficult. At first, the page looked nothing but a haphazard jumble of shapes. The narrator found it extremely hard even to concentrate on one short common word. It took him a long time before he could figure out that a word at sight and picked it out of the other. In the same way, it takes some time for a child to get used to the shapes of letters and words, to the point where he can recognise at a glance that this word is like that word.


The experience was that the teacher had once taken a sheet of printing in some Indian language and tried to mark the words that recurred. It was amazingly difficult.

Q. 7 Why are children of unlettered homes at a disadvantage?
Ans. Children of unlettered homes are at a disadvantage. They lack familiarity with the shapes of words and letters from the beginning of their learning. They have is no one to watch and observe who could guide them. So they are at a disadvantage.


The children of unlettered homes are at a disadvantage because they are not familiar with the shapes of words and letters. Therefore it takes them more time to comprehend and read a word.

Q.No.8. How did the teacher learn from Nora?

Ans. The teacher learned about the children’s problems by watching Nora while she was reading and learning, and from that very experience, he learned what problems the children usually face and the ways with which they solve or try to solve them. In this way, he learned how to deal with issues and problems while teaching the children.


The teacher learnt a great deal from Nora. While teaching Nora, the teacher came to understand a child‘s problems, the reasons behind the problems and more importantly the problem as seen from the child’s perspective. The teacher learnt that one can devise a way out if he understands the nature of the problem.


Word Meaning

Figure out = Understand, comprehend, appreciate, grasp, apprehend

Badly stuck = Finding it very difficult to go on

Skip = To leave, omit

Bluff = To pretend in order to deceive, deception, fake, feint, hoax, fraud, charade

Ad. = Advertisement

Oriental = of the eastern part of the world, e.g., countries such as India and China

Trivial = Unimportant, insignificant, minor, paltry, frivolous

Unlettered = Illiterate, ignorant, unschooled, untutored

Formal instruction = Regular teaching in the class

II. Language work

1. ―to figure out means

a) to guess b) to recognize c) to reason out d) to decide

Ans: b) to recognize

2. Write the following expressions from a different perspective.

a) He loaned me some clothes.
I borrowed some clothes.

b) He sold me an old piano.
I bought an old piano.

c) He chased me.
I ran away from him/ I overtook him.

d) I gave him a glass of water.
He took a glass of water from me.

e) We conquered the enemy.
They lost the battle/ They were defeated .

III. Form adjectives from the nouns.


Noun Adjectives

Alphabet = Alphabetical

Angel = Angelic

Shape = Shapely/shapeless

Book = Bookish

Man = Manly

Government = Governmental

Minister = Ministerial

Elephant = Elephantine

Tiger = Tigerish

Day = Daily

College = Collegial/ Collegiate

NCERT Solutions – Questions and Summary of “Landscape of the Soul ” by Nathalie Trouvero

Landscape of the Soul by Nathalie Trouvero

Eighth – century painter Wu Daozi was asked by the Tang Emperor Xuanzong to paint a landscape to decorate a palace wall. The master hid behind a screen of his work. Only the Emperor could see it. The Emperor admired the wonderful scene. He found forests, high mountains, waterfalls, floating clouds in the huge sky, flying men on hilly paths and birds. Then the painter respectfully asked the king to look at the foot of the mountain in a cave. He said a spirit lived there. The painter was knocking his hands. The cave entrance opened. The painter remarked that the cave was very splendid from inside. He offered to show the way to His Majesty.

The painter entered the cave, but behind him, the entrance was closed. The Emperor was amazed. The painting had disappeared from the wall before he could move or speak a word. There was no sign left of the brush of Wu Daozi. Never again has the artist been seen. It’s been his last painting. Take another famous story about a painter from China. He wasn’t going to draw a dragon’s eye he had painted. He feared the painting would fly out. Such stories played a major role in traditional education in China. Confucius and Zhuangzi’s books are filled with them. They helped the master in the right direction to guide his disciple.

The Landscape of Soul

The Landscape of Soul

These stories reveal the spirit in which art was taken into consideration. Then the writer compares these stories to an old Flanders story from his own country. He finds this story as Western painting’s most representative. A skilled blacksmith named Quinten Metsys fell in love with the daughter of a painter in Antwerp in the 15th century. In such a profession, the girl’s father would not accept a son – in – law. One day, Quinten went secretly to the studio of the painter. He painted a fly on the latest painting by the master. It’s been painted with sensitive realism. The painter was taking it for a real one. He was trying to hit it off. Then the matter was realized. As an apprentice, he took Quinten. Then Quinten got his beloved married.

He became one of his age’s most famous painters. Chinese and Flanders stories above illustrate what each art form is trying to achieve. The goal is a perfect illusionist likeness in Europe. In Asia, the essence of inner life and spirit is stressed. The Emperor of China gets painted a painting. He appreciates his external appearance.

The artist showcases him with the true meaning of his work. The emperor may rule over the region he conquered, but the way is known only to the artist. The painting is gone but his goal has been reached by the artist. He is now beyond the appearance of any material. An actual view is reproduced by Western painting. The European painter wants the beholders to look from a specific angle at a particular landscape, i.e. just as he saw it. The Chinese painter does not select a single viewpoint. His landscape is not a ‘ real’ one. One can enter it from any point and travel in it in a leisurely movement. This is truer in the case of horizontal scroll. Here one slowly opens one section of the painting, then rolls it up and moves on to the other. This adds a real dimension of time.

It also requires the viewer’s active involvement— participation that is both physical and mental. The European painter wants to borrow his eyes from the viewer. The Chinese painter wants him to do that. He wants the spectator to come into his mind. The landscape is a spiritual and conceptual space, an inner space. This concept is expressed as ‘ shanshui ‘ meaning ‘ mountain – water ‘ literally. They represent the word ‘ Landscape ‘ when used together. The mountain, while the water is ‘ yin, ‘ is ‘ yang. ‘ Yin and yang interaction is a basic notion of Daoism.

There’s also a third essential element — the middle void, where they interact. This can be compared with pranayama’s yogic practice of breathing in, retaining, breathing out. Breath suspension is the void in which meditation takes place. The middle void is vital. Without it, nothing can happen. Therefore, the unpainted white space in the Chinese landscape is very important. Man finds a fundamental role in this space—between Heaven and Earth. He becomes the medium of communication between both poles of the universe. His presence is essential. He is the eye of the landscape.

The concept of ‘ art brut ‘ or ‘ raw art ‘ was first created by French painter Jean Dubuffet in the 1940s. Then the visionary’s untrained art was of minority interest. The ‘ outsider art ‘ has gradually become the area of interest in international modern art that is growing face test. This particular type of work is the creation of those who have ‘ no right ‘ to be artists because they have not received any formal training, yet they show artistic insight and talent. Nek Chand’s 80-year – old work is the largest contribution to ‘ outsider art ‘ by India. He made a stone – sculpted garden and recycled material. It is now known to the world as the Chandigarh Rock Garden.

Raw Vision, a UK – based magazine pioneer in an outsider art publication, recently released the 50th scene (spring 2005) features Nek Chand and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘ Women by the Waterfall ‘ on the cover of his anniversary issue. His art has been recognized as an exceptional testimony to the difference that a single man can make in living his dream. The Swiss UNESCO Commission will honour him through an interactive five-month show of his work. Nek Chand says the greatest reward for him is to walk through the garden and watch people enjoy his creation.

The recently released 50th scene (spring 2005) of Raw Vision, a UK-based magazine pioneer in an outsider art publication, features Nek Chand, and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the waterfall’ on its anniversary issue’s cover. His art has been recognised as an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives his dream. The Swiss Commission for UNESCO will be honouring him by way of a five-month interactive show of his works. Nek Chand says that walking through the garden and watching people enjoy his creation is the biggest reward for him.

The Landscape of Soul


1. (i) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples.
Ans. The Chinese paintings are based on an imaginative, inner or spiritual approach whereas the European paintings reproduce an actual view, of an external or real object. The paintings of Wu Daozi and master painters of Europe illustrate the difference.

(ii) Explain the concept of ‘shanshui’.
Ans. ‘Shanshui’ represents two complementary poles of the universe: ‘yang’ and ‘yin’. Literally ‘Sansui means ‘mountain-water’. Mountain is ‘yang’—the vertical stable, warm and dry element. Water is ‘yin’ horizon resting on the earth, fluid and cool. The interaction of yin i.e. the receptive female aspect of universal energy and ‘yang’—the active and masculine energy creates the images.

2. (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘outsider art’ & ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’?

Ans. ‘Outsider art’ refers to the art of those who have no right to be artists as they have received no formal training yet show talent and artistic insight. ‘Art Brut’ or ‘raw art’ are the works of art in their raw state as regards cultural and artistic influences.

(ii) Who was the ‘untutored genius who created a paradise’ and what is the nature of his contribution to art?

Ans. The ‘untutored genius who created a paradise’ is Sh. Nek Chand who created Rock Garden at Chandigarh. He has sculpted a garden with stone and recycled material. His art is recognised as India’s biggest contribution to ‘outsider art’.

B. TALKING ABOUT THE TEXT Answer in 100-125 words)

Discuss the following statements in groups of four:[For Group discussions at the class level. One specimen each of discussions regarding spiritual experiences is given below.]

1. ‘‘The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within.’’

Ans. The Emperor is a symbol of authority and power. His will prevails in the land under his rule. His word is a law for the people spread over the territory he rules. The emperor may get the services of talented persons and master artists. The acquisition of power, pelf and physical objects do not make him superior to the artists. The artists have spiritual insight into the nature of things. He understands the workings of the mysterious ways of the universe. His spiritual enlightenment and vision can help the emperor to attain the goal of life i.e., the liberation of the soul from the framework of the body. It is only the artist who knows the way within the territory the emperor has conquered. The way here means both the path and the method. His approach is purely spiritual which persons, burdened with materialistic approach’ fail to acquire and appreciate

2. ‘‘The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.’’

Ans. A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view as would a Western figurative painting. The European painter aims to create illusionary likeness whereas the Asian artists try to capture the essence of inner life and spirit. For the Chinese painter, the landscape is not a ‘real’ one. He does not choose a single viewpoint. Hence his landscape can be viewed from different angles. One can enter it from any point and then travel in it. The Chinese artist creates a path for our eyes to travel up and down and then back again, in a leisurely movement. These paintings require the active participation of the viewer. This participation is physical as well as mental. We must try not only to see the painting but enter the mind of the painter as well. It is only by understanding the ideas that motivate the painter, that we can understand the true import or the essence. It is because his landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.

THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE (Answer in 30 words)

1. Find out the correlates of Yin and Yang in other cultures.

Ans. The Indian culture lays stress on Nature and God. Nature is the ‘Yin’ or female part whereas God, the creator, is the male or active part. This concept is also known as ‘Maya’ and ‘Brahma’. The combination of the two creates the world and all its objects as well as inhabitants.

2. What is the language spoken in Flanders?
Ans. The language spoken in Flanders is French.


I. The following common words are used in more than one sense: panel studio brush essence material Examine the following sets of sentences to find out what the words mean in different contexts:

1. (i) The masks from Bawa village in Mali, look like long panels of decorated wood.
(ii) Judge H. Hobart Grooms told the jury panel he had heard the reports.
(iii) The panel is laying the groundwork for an international treaty.
(iv) The glass panels of the window were broken.
(v) Through the many round tables, workshops or panel discussions, a consensus was reached.
(vi) The sink in the hinged panel above the bunk drains into the head.
Ans. (i) square or rectangular pieces of wood.
(ii) The members of the jury who offer their opinion to the judge.
(iii) a group of specialists who give their advice or opinion.
(iv) square or rectangular pieces of glass fitted in the window.

(v) discussions among a group of people. (vi) a flat board attached with a hinge.

2. (i) Their repetitive structure must have taught the people around the great composer the essence of music.
(ii) Part of the answer is in the proposition, but the essence is in the meaning.
(iii) The implications of these schools of thoughts are of practical essence for the teacher.
(iv) They had added vanilla essence to the pudding.
Ans. (i) the most important quality or feature of something that makes it what it is.
(ii) the main part.
(iii) practical importance
(iv) the liquid is taken from vanilla that contains its smell and taste in a very strong form.

II. Now collect 5 sentences each for the rest of the words to show the different senses in which each of them is used.
Ans. Studio
(i) Quinten sneaked into the painter’s studio and painted a fly on his latest panel.
(ii) Noida has a television studio which has the latest amenities and equipment.
(iii) Many famous films were shot at Mehboob studio Mumbai.
(iv) She works for a major Bollywood studio.
(v) Sapna runs a dance studio.
(vi) Even a studio format in this area is quite costly.

(i) What material is this shirt made of?
(ii) Oil is the raw material for plastic.
(iii) I am collecting material for my new project.
(iv) Our Principal insists on the extensive use of teaching materials.
(v) The band played all new material at the ball last night.
(i) Not a trace of Wu Daozi’s brush was left there.
(ii) Give your teeth a good brush.
(iii) She blushed at the brush of his lips on her cheek.
(iv) Mohit had a nasty brush with his boss this morning.
(v) He brushed aside my fears.

III. Notice these expressions in the text. Guess the meaning from the context:

 anecdote  illusionistic likeness  delicate realism  conceptual space  figurative painting
Ans.  Anecdote: a short interesting or amusing story
 Delicate realism: careful treatment producing a life-like object
 Figurative painting: painting showing people, animals and objects as they really look.
Illusionistic likeness: a false idea about likeness.
 Conceptual space: space based on ideas.

1. A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to reproduce an actual view, as would a Western figurative painting.
2. Whereas the European painter wants you to borrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle, the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. The above two examples are ways in which contrast may be expressed. Combine the following sets of ideas to show the contrast between them.

1. (i) European art tries to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness.
(ii) Asian art tries to capture the essence of inner life and spirit.
2. (i) The Emperor commissions a painting and appreciates its outer appearance.
(ii) The artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work.
3. (i) The Emperor may rule over the territory he conquered.
(ii) The artist knows the way within.
Ans. (i) Whereas European art tries to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness, Asian art tries to capture the essence of inner life and spirit.
(ii) The Emperor may commission a painting and appreciate its outer appearance while/ whereas the artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work.
(iii) While/Whereas the Emperor may rule over the territory he conquered, the artist knows the way within.

1. Find out about as many Indian schools of painting as you can. Write a short note on the distinctive features of each school.
2. Find out about other experiments in recycling that help in environmental conservation.
Ans. Try yourself.

1. Which parts of the landscape, painted by Wu Daozi, did the Emperor admire and how long?
Ans. The Emperor watched the painting for a long while. He admired the wonderful scene painted by Wu Daozi. He discovered forests, high mountains, waterfalls, clouds floating in the vast sky, men on hilly paths and birds in flight.

2. What did the painter (Wu Daozi) tell the Emperor about the cave?
Ans. The painter told the Emperor that a spirit lived in the cave which was at the foot of the mountain. As he clapped his hands, the entrance to the cave opened. He told the Emperor that the inside of the cave was splendid and offered to show His Majesty the way.

3. What happened to the painter as he entered the cave?
Ans. As the painter entered the cave, the entrance to the cave closed behind him. The Emperor was surprised. Before he could move or speak a word, the painting had disappeared from the wall. There was not even a brush mark left there. The artist (Wu Daozi) was never seen again in the world.

4. Why, do you think, China’s classical education included stories having deep spiritual significance?
Ans. Stories having deep spiritual significance helped the master to guide his disciple in the right direction. The books of great men like Confucious and Zhuangzi are full of them. These stories narrate tales and reveal the spirit in which art was considered at that time.

5. Why did the painter not draw the eye of the dragon he had painted? How far do you agree with him?
Ans. The painter feared that if he drew the eye of the dragon he had painted, the picture would be complete and the dragon might come alive. Then it might fly out of the painting. Since the vision of the artist is spiritual, we agree with him.

6. Why does Nathalie Trouveroy mention Quinten’s trick?
Ans. The writer mentions Quinten’s trick to highlight the aim of art in Europe. The European painters try to achieve a perfect, illusionistic likeness. Quinten had painted a fly with such delicate realism that even the master took it for a real one.

7. How does the Chinese story present the powers and limitations of the Emperor and the painter?
Ans. The Emperor may commission a painting and appreciate its outer appearance, but only the artist reveals to him the true meaning of his work. Secondly, the Emperor may rule
over the region, he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within.

8. ‘‘Let me show the way’’, said Wu Daozi. Explain how the author interprets the word ‘way’.
Ans. The word ‘way’ according to the author has two meanings, (i) path or the method, and (ii) the mysterious works of the universe. The painter tells the king the path to the cave or the method to reach the cave. By entering the cave and disappearing from the world, he explains the mysterious works of the universe.

9. Give three points of contrast between a classical Chinese landscape and a Western One.
Ans. A Western landscape reproduces an actual view whereas a classical Chinese landscape does not. The European painter wants the viewer to look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle, the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. The Chinese landscape is not a real one like the western one, but an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.

10. What do you learn about the Daoist view of the universe from this chapter?
Ans. Daoism recognises two contrasting but complementary elements in the universe namely ‘Yang’ and ‘Yin’. ‘Yang’ is active, masculine, stable, warm and dry whereas ‘yin’ is receptive, feminine, fluid, moist and cool. The interaction of ‘Yang’ and ‘Yin’ is a fundamental notion of Daoism.

11. Which element is often overlooked? How is it essential?
Ans. The Middle void is the third element which is often overlooked. This is essential because the interaction between ‘Yang’ and ‘Yin’ takes place there. Nothing can happen without the middle void. It is as important as the suspension of breath in ‘pranayama’. Meditation occurs only in the void when we retain breath.

12. How does Nathalie Trouveroy define the role of Man?
Ans. The writer assigns a fundamental role to Man. In the space between Heaven and Earth, he becomes the medium of communication between poles of the Universe. His presence is essential as he is ‘‘the eye of the landscape’’. He occupies an important position in the universe. He is not lost or oppressed by the lofty peaks.

13. How would you classify ‘art’ on the basis of your reading the chapter ‘Landscape of the Soul’?
Ans. We may classify art, i.e. paintings and sculpture broadly as ‘mainstream’ offerings and ‘outsider art’. Whereas the former are products of trained artists, the latter are the works of those who have received no formal training, yet show talent and artistic insight. It is the art of the untrained visionary.

14. ‘How has the worth of Nek Chand’s work been recognised abroad?

Ans. Nek Chand’s work is now recognised as India’s biggest contribution to ‘outsider art’. RRevision a UK-based magazine which is a pioneer in outsider art publication has Nek Chand and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the waterfall’ on the cover of its 50th issue. UNESCO is organising a five-month interactive show of his works.
15. How has Nek Chand followed the notions of ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’ in his works?
Ans. The ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’ are the works of art in their raw state as regards cultural and artistic influences. Anything and everything from tin to sink to a broken down car could be material for a work of art. Nek Chand has sculpted a garden with stone and recycled material.

B. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (Answer in 100-125 words)
1. How does the Chinese view of art differ from The European view? Illustrate your answer with examples.

Ans. Western figurative painting is meant to reproduce an actual view of the scene whereas a classical Chinese landscape is based on an imaginative, inner or spiritual approach. The Chinese art aims at achieving the essence of inner life and spirit while the European form of art is trying to achieve a perfect illusionistic likeness. The European painter wants the viewer to borrow his eyes and look at a particular landscape exactly as he saw it, from a specific angle. On the other hand, the Chinese painter does not choose a single viewpoint. His landscape is not a real one. He does not want the viewer to borrow his eyes. He wants the beholder to enter his mind. One can enter a Chinese landscape from any point and move across leisurely and come back. The Chinese view of art also requires the active participation of the viewer. This participation is both physical and mental. The stories about the paintings of Wu Daozi and an old story from Flanders amply illustrate the difference.

2. Explain the concept of Shanshui and the fundamental notions of Daoism.
Ans. ‘Shanshui’ is a Chinese word. It literally means ‘mountain-water’. The two elements used together represent the word ‘landscape’. Mountain and water are two elements of an image. They also reflect the Daoist view of the universe. The mountain is ‘Yang’ whereas water is ‘Yin’. The mountain rises vertically towards Heaven. Mountain is stable, warm and dry in the sun. Water is horizontal and rests on the Earth. Water is fluid, moist and cool. ‘Yin’ is the receptive and feminine aspect of universal energy. ‘Yang’ is its complementary part. ‘Yang’ is active and masculine. The interaction of ‘Yin’ and ‘Yang’ is a fundamental notion of Daoism. There is an essential third element also. It is the Middle Void where the interaction takes place. This Middle Void is essential. Nothing can happen without it. The concept of the Middle Void can be made clear by comparison to the yogic practice of pranayama. We breathe in, retain breath and breathe out. The suspension of breath is the Void where meditation occurs. Hence the white, unpainted space has special importance in Chinese landscape

3. Man is ‘‘the eye of the landscape’’ says Francois Cheng. Discuss this concept on the basis of reading ‘Landscape of the soul’.

Ans. The role of man in this universe can be explained with the help of the Daoist view of the universe. Daoism recognises two contrasting but complementary elements in the universe. These are called ‘Yang’ and ‘Yin’. ‘Yang’ is active, masculine, stable, warm and dry whereas ‘yin’ is receptive, feminine, moist and cool. The interaction of ‘Yang’ and ‘Yin’ occurs in the Middle Void. Hence this Middle Void is essential as nothing can happen without it. The importance of man and his fundamental role in the universe can be explained in the light of Daoism. Man exists in the space between Heaven and Earth. He is the medium of communication between both poles of the universe, even if it is only suggested. He occupies an important position in the universe. He is not lost or oppressed by the lofty peaks. Man’s presence is essential as he is the most important feature or the ‘eye’ of the landscape. We cannot see without the eye. Similarly, the universe is incomplete without a man.

4. What do you understand by ‘outsider art’? Write a note on worldwide recognition of Nek Chand’s contribution to outsider art.

Ans. ‘Outsider art’ refers to the art of those who have no right to be artists as they have received no formal training, yet show talent and artistic insight. Sh. Nek Chand has won worldwide recognition for his unique contribution to outsider art. Using stone and recycled material he has created many sculptures at Rock Garden, Chandigarh. Nek Chand’s work is now recognised as India’s biggest contribution to outsider art. ‘Raw Vision’ a U.K. based magazine, a pioneer in outsider art publication has featured Nek Chand and his Rock Garden sculpture ‘Women by the Waterfall’ on the title cover of its 50th issue (Spring 2005). His art has been acclaimed as ‘‘an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives his dream’’. The Swiss Commissioner for UNESCO has honoured him by organising a five-month interactive show called. ‘Realm of Nek Chand’. In short, Nek Chand has taken outsider art to dizzying heights and richly deserves the worldwide acclaim.

Protect The Environment Essay


The emerging new health problems of present times are owning to the deterioration of the quality of our environment.The scarcity of water is alarming in the present times because no water can be considered safe for drinking including underground water. Besides global warming is changing the pattern of climate and consequently affecting the disease patterns in the world.

Summer arrives too soon this year.Winter was not cold this year. Last year also it was rather hot. Ecological balance is disturbed and global warming is gradually increasing.

How to properly the environment

Most environmental issues are related either to the interaction between human population and natural resources,that is, those caused by taking resources from environment or putting waste into the environment,or factors associated with the sheer growth of the human population. Every year the summer prolongs and winter ends too soon. Rains have become scanty in several states of India. All the events are on account of man’s callous actions. Trees are disappearing to expand land for constructing houses to meet the needs of an ever increasing population. Nobody seems to have realised the adverse effects of deforestation. If this is not stopped soil erosion can’t be checked. Trees are our lifeline. They provide life-giving oxygen to breathe which keeps people healthy.

Save the environment

Different movements were started from time to time to address the environmental problems.The Chipko Movement initiated by women in India had a remarkable effect. This simple gesture had woken up the conscience of an entire nation. Now tree falling is comparatively minimised. The young people can contribute a lot towards this. They can spread the message with the urgency that is required to salvage whatever is left of the environment. It is a question of ‘Now or Never’.The future belongs to the youth. So they must take an active interest in saving the environment and ensuring a healthy life.The concept of sustainable development was advanced for the first time in the Bruntland Report of 1987.It emphasis the connection between development and environmental problems. It also promotes the need for political and economic changes locally, regionally and globally to tackle the issues.

Finally risk communication can help in avoiding many of the environmental hazards. It is important to invite and encourage public participation and make them understand the nature and extent of the risk.If the background information is shared fully, all the affected groups would help to make it possible to arrive at an informed estimate of the risk and wise approach to its management.