#WritingPrompts – 01
1. Talent in winters is to save your matting when kangri falls on it, even if it takes your marks cards in firefighting, the issue is to save yourself from family wrath, marks card will come at the end of the day.
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2. You were just made a powerful immortal entity and appointed the youngest real. You are responsible for protecting each fictional universe that has ever been created. This includes all kinds of fiction, including fan fiction and other work by fans. This often means that you must enter the worlds indefinitely to ensure that safety is tight. However, changing everything to the timeline will destroy it. Should it be easy, right? One problem: you still keep falling in love with the main characters.
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3. When you, an author, are kidnapped by aliens, you are let out into the world of aliens. They put you in a little apartment, and leave you mostly alone. You need to make money to survive, you begin to write books. Books of self- help. For outsiders, Write about your adventures becoming the best self- helper on an alien planet.
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4. You always thought as a child that dolls grew their hair back, as children so often. Of course, none of them grew back, and you got a shelf of bald dolls. Looking back on a photo album for your childhood, you find a picture of your favourite doll, the only one you kept. It has short choppy hair, however, unlike the long, normal hair it now has.
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5. To avoid the omnipotence of God, Satan has made it so that the Antichrist is not born until the host of men is ten years old. You are a guardian angel and your human ward has just turned ten, and there are troubling omens around you.
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6. You look at your phone and it seems that somebody has been calling you for 20 minutes without stopping. You’re calling and telling them your name. On the other hand, you hear it: ” Listen and listen very well. I’ve got your two best friends held at gunpoint. Any friend you choose will be set free. The other is going to be killed. If you hang up, both of them will be killed. If you call the cops, both of them will be killed. If somebody asks why you are on the phone and tell them the truth, both of them will be killed. You have 30 minutes to decide.”
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7. You live in a world in which you can buy knowledge literally with money. Rumour has it that the world’s biggest secret is at a low price, but it’s not easy to get it.
➡Send Your Story:
8. The world turns out to be a simulation. You were just promoted to admin.
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9. You lose your vision, and the last thing somebody says is ” finally!”
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10. You wake up as an orc and see two more orcs watching you. One of them says:’ You woken up from your coma at last.’
11. Today in English class we had to write little prompt about how it would feel if we were in love and I shared mines out and everyone was just saying how good it was and my teacher legit told me about how good of a writer I would be but little did they know half of the prompt was just filled with some song lyrics that were changed a little.
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12. Today, you wake up as Bill Gates. You have everything that Bill Gates had. The only thing that you own different than Bill Gated is your ideas.
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Category : LESSONS
The capacity to express the desired message in a few words is a hallmark of effective writers. Great writers use language which is clear and to-the-point.However, it is also a heart-felt desire of every educated person in india and abroad to write effectively. In order to write correct English one needs to master the ins and outs of the language.
One who can explore all the possibilities and potentialities of the language can write it in an Inimitable style. Most of the sentences written by such an Inimitate knower and practitioner are the sentences that will live and play on the lips of the readers.
Language is not merely play or jugglery of words. Words in themselves are nothing although the famous writer, E. M. Forester has called them “The wine of life “.Before the words can really become the wine of life; they must come from heart which has responded to and communicated with the world at large. Words are dead but they are brought to life by the magic touch of man of genius. A very rich and all embracing experience must precede a good and impressive writing. Language can develop in society alone. So, correct English can be written only by the person who has studied life with his ears open and heart feeling sympathetic. Wide and careful reading goes a long way in developing a beautiful and effective style.
Words are of primary importance in any kind of writing. Words can work wonders and blunders. We Should be doubly cautious with words as compared to swords. The use of words should always be judicious and well-tuned.Anyone who wishes to become a good writer should endeavour before he falls into the trip of ostentation in addition affectation, to be direct, simple brief and lucid. The familiar words should always be given precedence over abstract words. Words must take the reader most delightfully by surprise and leave him with a catch in the breath, wondering. He can then appreciate Tennyson’s famous line.
“All the charm of all the muses often flowering in a lonely wood. ”
A word is often made effective by contrast. They should be used to express different shades of thought. From the word, we proceed to ‘Harmony’ and ‘Proportion’. Every writer must have a nice sense of proportion that will tell him where to begin and when to stop. Form and appropriateness of detail are also paramount. Closely connected with the selection of detail is the question of accuracy. Accuracy and Harmony must give rise to unity which is very basic of effective writing. Harmonious contrasts creates but discordant contrasts destroys. By the one, our impressions are built up and strengthened;by the other, they are knocked down like proverbial ‘ninepins’.
This blog is mainly designed for those who want to learn the art of correct English. The site is divided into many sections. Some sections deal with Grammar and How to Write or Speak Effectively and other sections with written composition, analysis and answering questions etc. It is that knowledge of grammar that can teach us how to write correctly and speak effectively. Flowery expression of effective expression may not be grammatically correct. So grammar is the root and expression is the fruit Many new sections have been introduced to make the blog more comprehensive and beneficial. Writing prompts have been given in some sections. These exercises will be very useful to the learners. They can easily give wings to their thoughts.
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1. Your language must be correct and clear. Your article must be written in Proper English. It must ensure proper spelling, correct grammar and correct punctuation.
2. Words can work wonders and blunders. You must not fall in the trap of ostentation and affectation but to be direct, simple, brief and lucid.
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9. Above all , your article must speak YOU not anybody else. You must give wings to your own thoughts because we want to know you and your style. God Bless You!
A well-developed academic paragraph can be hard to write. The following is a recipe for drafting, extending, improving and describing your ideas so that you can write clearly, well-developed paragraphs and discussion posts.
You should know what you are writing before you start writing. First of all, look immediately at the assigned topic or writing prompt. Note all key terms or repeated phrases as soon as you see them because you want to use them in your response. Then ask yourself:
• What topic have I to write about?
• What do I already know about this topic?
• If I do not know how to answer this assignment, where can I go to find some answers?
• What does this prompt mean to me? How am I related to it?
After looking at the topic and following some extra reading and research, you should better understand your assignment and what you need to talk.
Before writing the paragraph, first of all, it is necessary to think about the topic and then what you want to say about this topic. Most often, the topic is simple, but the question turns into what you want to say about the topic. This concept is sometimes called controlling idea.
Strong paragraphs are usually about one important idea or topic, which is often described clearly in a subject sentence. Good topics always have both
(1) a topic and
(2) a controlling idea.
➡ The Topic -The paragraph contains a major theme or idea that is discussed in the paragraph
➡ Controlling idea – This idea focuses on the theme by providing direction to the paragraph.
Read the following topic sentences. All of them contain a topic and a controlling idea. When your paragraph contains a clearly described topic like one of the following, your readers will know what is expected and, therefore, understand your thoughts better.
Examples of topical sentences
• There are many benefits of online education.
• Effective leadership needs specific features that anyone can develop.
• People can avoid smoking by taking some precautions.
After describing your topic sentence, you need to provide information and description to explain, and/or clarify your viewpoint.
• What best examples can I use to support my point?
• What information can I provide to explain my thoughts?
• How can I support my view with specific data, experiences, or other realistic content?
• What information does the reader need to know to see my point?
➡ Here is a list of the kinds of information you can add to your paragraph:
• Facts, subtleties, reasons, examples
• Information from the readings or class talks
• Paraphrases or short citations
• Statistics, surveys, rates, information from research studies.
• Personal experience, stories, accounts, models from your life Sometimes, including transitional or introductory expressions like: for instance, for example, first, second, or last can help direct the reader. Likewise, ensure you are referring to your sources properly.
After you have given the reader enough data to see and comprehend your point, you have to clarify why this data is applicable, important, or interesting.
• What does the given data mean?
• How can it relate with your general point, contention, or postulation?
• Why is this data critical/noteworthy/significant?
• How does this data relate with the assignment or course I am taking?
After describing your point with pertinent data, include a concluding sentence. Concluding sentences connect one section to the following and provide another tool for helping you guarantee your passage is bound together. While not all sections incorporate a closing sentence, you should always think about one which is suitable.
Concluding sentences have two critical jobs in paragraph writing:
➡ First, they draw together the data you have introduced to expound your controlling idea by
• Summarizing the point(s) you have made.
• Repeating words or expressions from the topic sentence.
• Using linking words that demonstrate that ends are being drawn (e.g., therefore, consequently, resulting).
➡ Second, they frequently connect the present paragraph to the following passage. They may foresee the topic sentence of the following passage by:
• Introducing a word/expression or new idea which will at that point be gotten in the topic sentence of the following section.
• Using words or expressions that point ahead (e.g., the following, another, other).
The last important step in the great paragraph is editing and correction. Before you present your composition, investigate your work at least one more time. Read your passage aloud so anyone can hear to ensure it makes sense well. Moreover, put forth these questions to yourself:
• Does my passage answer the prompt and bolster my assignment?
• Does it bode well? Does it use the appropriate scholarly voice?
Many students do not realize that the final stages of the writing process are proofreading and editing. Every task– a discussion board post, essay, proposal, etc. – should be reviewed and edited before it is submitted to the instructor. There are some revision and editing strategies that work well to guide you in this process:
Allow yourself some time to read and write. Even a five- minute break can be productive because it allows you to distance yourself from what you wrote so that you can return to your paper with a fresh eye and mind.
When you read aloud what you have written by yourself, you can catch both grammatical errors and awkward organization or ideas.
If you ask a friend or family member to read your paper, you will have a different view of your writing. A new reader can also help you to catch errors you may have overlooked.
The Microsoft Word Spell Check function can help you quickly detect spelling and grammar errors in the Word document. You can also use Grammarly to discover your mistakes.
Afforestation means planting more and more trees. Trees are very important. They give us many amenities. If we want to live happily, we have to preserve our forests. It is time to remind ourselves of our dependence on the forest. Where would be the modern man without wood? Even the most cursory look at your surroundings in enough to show its importance. Most of the furniture, homes and offices are more or less made up of wood. Many tools like boxes, vessels, bridges and other implements are made up of wood. The benefits of trees are unlimited. Can you imagine life without paper? The life would be halted without paper which is also obtained from the trees. Not only this there are so many other useful things like medicines, rubber and wax which are a few out of limitless blessings obtained from the trees. Trees further bestow us firewood which is called the best friend of the poor. Above all, trees also protect our environment and make it beautiful. They maintain environmental balance and decorate our surroundings with lush greenery and keep it afresh.
NCERT Solutions For Class 11 English
The poem “Trees” written by Joyce Kilmer, is proposing that trees are the most wonderful thing “no one but God can make a tree”. He wants people to appreciate nature and God. He uses personification to demonstrate that trees are wonderful as people.
Trees by Joyce Kilmer
The poem Trees is an outstanding poem written by Joyce Kilmer. The “Trees” is one of the many poems written by him. His other beautiful poems are “Summer Love” and “Main Street”.
Joyce Kilmer did not write this poem all of a sudden. It is believed that he had got the inspiration to write this wonderful poem one morning when he opened the window and was fascinated by the trees. The wonderfulness of the trees struck him with an idea to personify the attributes of the trees. The poet seems to be so charmed by the trees that he says, he” Shall never see a poem as lovely as the tree”.
The trees obtain water and other nourishment from the soil which are inevitable for its survival. The poet has used a lot of imagery to make his point. The line “A tree whose hungry mouth is pressed” symbolises that the roots of the tree are anchored to the ground to obtain its sustenance. The poet says that the roots drink the “earth’s sweet flowing” that is the water which keeps the tree alive and fresh. In this way, the life of a tree relies on the earth, the same is true for human beings who also depend on the earth for its rich sources. The earth contains all the rich sources in abundance needed for survival. Thus, the earth sustains all living beings including the trees.
The trees are spread everywhere making the earth beautiful. They grow upwards. They appear as if they are looking towards God. The post poet also says the same thing, “A tree looks at God all day”. As the tree grows upwards it seems to be trying to realise God. In the next line, the poet says the tree ” lifts her leafy arms to pray” this symbolises that the different people on the earth are praying to God. The people pray and worship God for the abundant blessings that God bestows from the earth.
The post also praises the robustness of the tree. In severe winter the trunks of the tree usually remain covered with snow. The poet writes, “under whose bosom snow has lain”. Bosom alludes to the trunk of the tree. The trees are capable to bear the cold due to their robustness. The tree even thrives during the rains.
The wonderful trees are not made by man they are created by God. This reflects the omnipotence of God. The poet describes himself and other poets as fools. The poems are created by the poets using their imagination but trees are real creation of God. By this, the post expresses his inferiority to the works of God. The poet says,
Poems are made by fools like me,
But only God can make a tree
In a deeper sense, it alludes the human cannot create things but discover or praise the created things of God.
Identify 2 examples of personification in the poem and discuss what ideas about trees/nature that personification conveys.
In the poem “Trees”, by Joyce Kilmer, the most common poetic device used in this poem is a personification, yet there’s two that really identify the writer’s thoughts of nature. One example of personification is, “A tree that looks at God all day”, which gives the tree the human capability of being able to “look” at its surroundings. The tree “looks at God” specifically, which suggests that trees and nature, in general, are transcendent and spiritual. The idea of “God” gives off a holy presence of divine power, therefore by mentioning that the tree looks to “God” suggests that trees and nature should be treated like they are divine and sacred forms, with similar respect to that of our own God. As well, another personified statement in the poem is that the tree, “may in summer wear a nest of robins in her hair”. The tree “wears” the nest of robins means that the tree homes the lives of robins which live and depend on the tree given that they’ve established their nest/home in the tree. This depicts how in nature life is created and nourished like that of the robins living in the tree, and nature is a place that is home to all types of life. Just how we look to our environment and daily lives as a community and home, nature provides that for many living beings within it. Nature is a home, a home which is both spiritual and deserving of respect.
Question: What ideas about Nature are conveyed in this poem? Choose one idea and explain how you came to that idea. Use quotes in your response.
In the poem “Trees”, by Joyce Kilmer, the author conveys the connection between God and his creations, in a form of a tree. He praises God’s power and ability to create such magnificent objects that outshines the other elements on this planet. The quote in line 6, “And lifts her heavy arms to pray,” represents a tree as a woman, who prays to God for creating such an enticement for the world to ponder. Furthermore, this poem reveals that beauty is outside the tree, but the roots are what give it the power. The author illustrates that nature which has been created by God himself is incomparable to other manmade objects. It can be inferred the poet is very religious and strongly believes in a supernatural entity known as God. Ultimately, the poem depicts nature is very powerful and enticing due to being a direct creation of God.
There is a family in London. The name of the family is grammar. In the family, there lives a couple Mr Noun and Mrs Verb who always agree with each other. The couple has three children: a son and two daughters. The name of the son is Pronoun and the names of two daughters are Adjective and Adverb. The son( Pronoun) has all the work of his father ( noun) in his absence. The two daughters love each other but there is a difference in them. Adjective loves her father and brother and keeps praising them. While Adverb loves her mother more and she always modifies her when there is a need. There are also two servants in the family: Preposition and Conjunction. The Proposition is the chief servant. He is the official servant of his master. Conjunction is a family servant and joins every member of the family. The interjection looks after the family in times of joy and sorrow.
“If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant; if what is said is not what is meant, then what must be done remains undone; if this remains undone, morals and art will deteriorate; if justice goes astray, the people will stand about in helpless “
Learning is the only weapon which opens all the shackles of ignorance and makes life beautiful and meaningful. It not only helps to meet the desired goals of life but also makes us able to serve all the creation on the earth thus blesses us with satisfaction and joy. It is such a glorious thing which make to realize the real purpose of life by broadening our mental horizon and vision. The object of this site is to make available the learning opportunity and the content required for all students in general and to adult students in particular in the manner that it can always make the readers learn something new and useful, that too, in a simple and easy way. The experts and advanced learners can also help us by sending their instructional articles containing their wonderful ideas so that all can benefit and deepen their understanding.
The content here has been or is to be written and made available purely in lucid and simple language so that the communication of the concepts can invariably modify the reader’s behaviour and boost their knowledge about the general English skills. This site has been endeavoured to deliver things on one and only subject only i.e., English so that we can pinpoint the facts about it in an informative and productive manner.
Most importantly the blog has been created in a magnetic way because the users can actively participate in the site and shout questions in the Ask2Answer section or submit the writings in the site for review and improvement.If you are skilled writer you can submit your instructional articles so that the learners can get a lot of help. This will offer you opportunities not only to add your own knowledge and understanding, but also to encourage others to deepen their understanding and promote their learning. We encourage you to interact and engage with discussions as a way to gather and to share our expertise and experiences. However, you need to know what kinds of things on the site you can and can not write about.
The site which was earlier confined to certain targeted group is now expanded and includes various additional sections as:
➡ Shout Your Question
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➡ Writing Prompts
Dearest students, it is our firm conviction that the readers shall find here a lot of help and satisfaction as it ensures the following unique features:
1. The content communicates the points or views pertaining to the English language only and that too in simple and lucid language. It will inevitably help in the development of the language. The intricate jargon is not be used because life tends to be simple
2. The content has been written or is to be written with a special focus on conceptual learning not as a useless congregation of words in a wayward manner. The content inevitably can help you in one way or the other. This has been made possible by designing the content in an innovative manner which involves the learners capacity to apply knowledge, analyse knowledge critically, evaluate knowledge and above all create new things based on the knowledge and instruction.
4. The content counts it that this site is primarily intended to learn the language not to add the knowledge that is its a secondary object.
5. We have also included a special sections in which you can send your unique articles containing your wonderful notions. This will not enhance your linguistic ability and knowledge but also expand our mental horizon tremendously. In addition, it will award you satisfaction and boost your confidence amazingly. So share your knowledge with us and be part of our endeavour.
6. Above all, it is a sincere venture to help one another in learning better things and in a better manner. We wholeheartedly encourage you to send your queries and questions to us or if your expert, answer the questions that other friends send to us.
Note: The above description is the subject of correction and improvement. Your invaluable suggestions are eagerly welcomed. Kindly make me grateful by sending your innovative ideas and suggestions for further improvement.
Best wishes from Mir Afzal
We firmly believe that each student is unique and has some beautiful talent in him or her. To groom that very talent, in the present scenario, the students need not only to work hard but to work smart to exceed themselves. Hence, access to learning opportunities and other tools that will take them to the next level must be accessible. There are so many sites but most of them are beating around the bush, that is, they have written or are writing the content that is so intricate and vague that the students do not reach to the point. Moreover, they are not involving the learner but believe in one side traffic. In this way, they spoil the precious time of the students. Keeping the same thing in mind, we have prepared the best site, which we think will be the nitro to race your way to the distant sky.
This blog is mainly designed for those who want to learn the art of correct English. The site is divided into many sections. Some sections deal with Grammar and How to Write or Speak Effectively and other sections with written composition, analysis and answering questions etc. It is the knowledge of grammar that can teach us how to write correctly and speak effectively. Flowery expression or effective expression may not be grammatically correct. So, grammar is the root and expression is the fruit. Many new sections have been introduced to make the blog more comprehensive and beneficial. Writing prompts have been given in some sections. These exercises will be very useful for learners. They can easily give wings to their thoughts.
This blog has been prepared to help the adult students in particular and others in general in their studies especially in learning the English language subject. We have tried to provide quality notes that cover almost all the topics of general English language and literature targeting the major linguistic skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. Our object isn’t to urge the students to cram the content for exams but to assist them with understanding the concepts and to clear their questions and doubts they are facing. The different sections of the site have been created and notes are written in a manner that can purely help and remove the doubts of the students with the goal that they can excel expectations in their studies.
Learning is the only weapon which opens all the shackles of ignorance and makes life beautiful and meaningful. It not only helps to meet the desired goals of life but also makes us able to serve all the creation on the earth thus blesses us with satisfaction and joy. It is such a glorious thing which make to realize the real purpose of life by broadening our mental horizon and vision. The object of this site is to make available the learning opportunity and the required content for all students in general and to adult students in particular in the manner that it can always make the readers learn something new and useful, that too, in a simple and easy way. The experts and advanced learners can also help us by sending their instructional articles containing their wonderful ideas so that all can benefit and deepen their understanding.
The blog has been created in an attractive way as you can actively participate in the site and ask your questions in Shout Your Question section or you can submit your writing in Submit Your Article section of the site. If you are a skilled writer you can submit your instructional articles so that the learners can get a lot of help. This will not only offer you opportunities to add in your own knowledge and understanding but also encourage others to deepen their understanding and promote their learning. We encourage you to interact and engage with discussions as a way to gather and to share your expertise and experiences. However, you need to know what kinds of things on the site you can and can not write about.
Thus, the site which was earlier confined to the certain targeted group is now expanded and includes various other useful sections which make the learners interactive and engaging. These new sections include:
Dearest students, it is our firm conviction that you shall find here a lot of help and satisfaction as it ensures the following unique features:
1. The content communicates the points or views pertaining to English skills only and that too in simple and lucid language. It will inevitably help in the development of the language. The intricate jargon is not be used because life tends to be simple.
2. The content has been written or is to be written with a special focus on conceptual learning not encouraging you to cram like a useless congregation of words in a wayward manner. All the content and exercises will boost you in one way or the other. This has been made possible as instructional material has been created in an innovative manner for it involves the learners capacity to apply knowledge, analyse knowledge critically, evaluate knowledge and above all create new things based on the knowledge and instruction.
The site offers you the opportunity to share your understanding and experience with us regarding the enhancement of general English skills.
If you are not skilled enough yet you can send submit your writings for peer review or we are always ready to beat your obstacles.
We also give you writing prompts which can help you to brainstorm your mind and create wonderful stories or essays based on your knowledge and experience.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12th English
SUMMARY OF THE ADVENTURE
Professor Gaitonde, who is a historian, is on his way to lecturing in The Third Battle of Panipat on the implications of catastrophe theory when his car collides with a truck and he goes into a coma where he is now experiencing a completely changed history that is different from the real world. The Marathas were defeated in the real world in the Third Battle of Panipat Afghans and their leader Vishwas Ra was killed. But as Vishwas Rao narrowly escapes the bullet and survives, the parallel world in which the Professor now sees things for him Marathas won the war. According to him, this victory brought significant changes and reforms to the country.
When he regains his consciousness back, his friend Rajendra Deshpande tries to rationalize his experience based on two theories that are Catastrophe Theory and Quantum Theory’s lack of determinism. The narrator, meanwhile, is still talking about the parallel world in which Professor Gaitonde is on his way from Pune to Bombay. It’s a pre-independent India where he finds Anglo, Indians and Jack from Union.
The professor goes to the library where he reads four volumes of history books from the Asoka period up to Panipat’s Third Battle. Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’s fifth volume that he read tells a different story where Marathas won Panipat’s Third Battle. Absent as a proof, Professor tucks a copy of the book into his pocket and reaches Azad Maidan where a lecture is taking place. Without the chairman, the meeting is taking place and he decides to go on stage and snatch the mike he begins to speak. He wasn’t welcomed by the crowd and he was finally thrown out with eggs and tomatoes showered on him and then he gets lost in the crowd. After this strange experience, we find the Professor talking to his friend Rajendra in the real world.
Rajendra describes the two scientific theories responsible for Professor’s strange behaviour. According to the theory of Catastrophe, a small change can bring about a sudden shift in behaviour, and if the same is implied in the battle of Panipat, it can be seen that the Marathas went through a crucial time when their two leaders Vishwas Rao and Bhausaheb died, leading to a loss of morality. So, another way that the crucial event has gone may change the course of history. So, the copy of the book he’s supposed to keep in the pocket is nothing but the notes he’d prepared for his lecture where he’d imagined the battle’s fate would be different. The bullet hitting Viswas Rao was a catastrophic event and the present has been reached because of such a catastrophic incident in the battle.
According to the Lack of determinism in Quantum theory the behaviour of electrons orbiting the nucleus in an atom cannot be predicted. They are in higher and lower state and can jump from high to low energy level and send out a pulse of radiation that can knock it out from state number 2 to state number 1 and these can apply to the world too and therefore Professor Gaitonde made a transition from the world we live into a parallel world. He neither travelled to the past nor to the future in the fact he was experiencing a different world in present itself. At the time of the collision with the truck, he was thinking about the catastrophe theory and its implications in war. He was probably wondering about the battle of Panipat. Perhaps the neurons in his brain acted as a trigger and he made a jump from this world to the parallel world.
1. In which language do you think Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other? Which language did Gangadharpant use to talk to the English receptionist?
Ans. Gangadharpant and Khan Sahib talked to each other in Urdu or Persian. Gangadharpant used English while talking to the English receptionist.
2. In which language do you think ‘Bhausahebanchi Bakhar’ was written?
Ans. ‘Bhansahebanchi Bakhar’ was written in Marathi.
3. There is mention of three communities in the story, the Marathas, the Mughals, the Anglo-Indians. What language do you think they used within their communities and while speaking to the other groups?
Ans. Within their communities, the Marathas used Marathi, the Mughals used Urdu and the Anglo-Indians used English. While speaking to the other groups they used the language which was intelligible to the listener and helped them to express their thoughts. Sometimes it could be a mixture of two languages.
4. Do you think that the ruled always adopt the language of the rulers?
Ans. The masses do not always adopt the language of the rulers, but the classes always do so. It is because in courts, offices, banks, educational institutions, etc. the language of the rulers gets the place of pride. So, that section of the ruled who want to get any benefit from the rulers do adopt the language of the rulers.
I. Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the given phrases:
1. to take issue with (i) to accept (ii) to discuss (iii) to disagree (iv) to add
2. to give vent to (i) to express (ii) to emphasise (iii) to suppress (iv) to dismiss
3. to stand on one’s feet
(i) to be physically strong (ii) to be independent (iii) to stand erect (iv) to be successful
4. to be wound up (i) to become active (ii) to stop operating (iii) to be transformed (iv) to be destroyed
5. to meet one’s match (i) to meet a partner who has similar tastes (ii) to meet an opponent (iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself (iv) to meet defeat.
Answers 1. (iii) to disagree, 2. (i) to express, 3. (ii) to be independent, 4. (ii) to stop operating, 5. (iii) to meet someone who is equally able as oneself.
II. Distinguish between the following pairs of sentences:
1. (i) He was visibly moved.
Ans. He was moved in a way that was easily noticeable.
(ii) He was visually impaired.
Ans. His sight was impaired.
2. (i) Green and black stripes were used alternately.
Ans. Green and black stripes were used one after the other.
(ii) Green stripes could be used to alternatively black ones.
Ans. Either green stripes or black ones could be used.
3. (i) The team played the two matches successfully.
Ans. The team achieved success in the two matches it played.
(ii) The team played two matches successively.
Ans. The team played two matches one after the other.
4. (i) The librarian spoke respectfully to the learned scholar.
Ans. The librarian spoke with respect to the learned scholar.
(ii) You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum respectively.
Ans. You will find the historian and the scientist in the archaeology and natural science sections of the museum in the same order as the people or thing already mentioned.
III. Notice these expressions in the text. Guess the meaning from the context:
blow by blow account
gave vent to
Ans. blow by blow account: a description of an event which gives you all the details in the order in which they happen
morale booster: encouraging/increasing confidence
relegated to: ignored/pushed to lower position
political acumen: political sharpness
de facto: real, actual, in fact
astute: shrewd, crafty
doctored accounts: manipulated (false) descriptions
gave vent to: expressed.
The story deals with unreal condition and hypothetical situations. Some of the sentences used to express this notion are given below:
1. If I fire a bullet from a gun in a given direction at a given speed, I know where it will be at a later time.
2. If I knew the answer I would solve a great problem.
3. If he himself were dead in this world, what guarantee had he that his son would be alive.
4. What course would history have taken if the battle had gone the other way? Notice that in an unreal condition, it is clearly expected that the condition will not be fulfilled.
I. Read the following passage on the Catastrophe Theory downloaded from the Internet.
Originated by the French mathematician, Rene Thom, in the 1960s, catastrophe theory is a special branch of dynamical systems theory. It studies and classifies phenomena characterized by sudden shifts in behaviour arising from small changes in circumstances. Catastrophes are bifurcations between different equilibria, or fixed point attractors. Due to their restricted nature, catastrophes can be classified based on the basis of how many control parameters are being simultaneously varied. For example, if there are two controls, then one finds the most common type, called a ‘‘cusp’’ catastrophe. If, however, there are more than five controls, there is no classification.Catastrophe theory has been applied to a number of different phenomena, such as the stability of ships at sea and their capsizing, bridge collapse, and, with some less convincing success, the fight-or-flight behaviour of animals and prison riots.
II. Look up the internet or an encyclopedia for information on the following theories: (i) Quantum theory (ii) Theory of relativity (iii) Big Bang theory (iv) Theory of evolution.
Answers (i) Quantum Theory. Quantum means a very small quantity of electromagnetic energy. Quantum theory is based on the idea that energy exists in units that can’t be divided.
(ii) Theory of relativity. Einstein’s 1905 paper ‘‘On the Electro dynamics of Moving Bodies’’ introduced the special theory of relativity. Special relativity considers that observers in inertial reference frames, which are in uniform motion relative to one another, cannot perform any experiment to determine which one of them is stationary. This is known as the principle of relativity. Einstein’s theory of relativity is his theory of universe which states that all motion is relative and treats time as a fourth dimension related to space.
(iii) Big Bang theory. The Big Bang theory is an effort to explain what happened at the very beginning of our universe. Discoveries in astronomy and physics have shown beyond a reasonable doubt that our universe did in fact have a beginning. Prior to that moment there was nothing; during and after that moment there was something: our universe. The big bang theory is an effort to explain what happened during and after that moment. After its initial appearance, it (the ‘‘Big Bang’’), apparently inflated, expanded and cooled, going from very, very small and very, very hot, to the size and temperature of our current universe. It continues to expand and cool to this day and we are inside of it: incredible creatures living on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos, all of which is inside an expanding universe that began as an infinitesimal singularity which appeared out of nowhere for reasons unknown. This is the Big Bang theory.
(iv) Theory of Evolution. Biological evolution ia s genetic change in a population from one generation to another. The speed and direction of changareis variable with different species lines and at different times. Continuous evolution over many generations can result in thdevelopmentnt of new varieties and species. Likewise, failure to evolve in response to environmental changes can, and often does, lead to extinction. Charles Darwin modified his religious beliefs, as a result of the discovery of convincing proof of evolution. In his famous book, ‘On the Origin of Species’, Darwin states his theory of evolution. Simply put evolution is the process of gradual development of plants, animals features over many years from simple to more complex forms.
1. What plan of action had Professor Gaitonde arrived at?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde had decided to go to a big library at Bombay and browse through history books. Then he would find out how the present state of affairs was reached. On his return to Pune, he would have a long talk with Rajendra Deshpande. He hoped that Rajendra would help him understand what had happened.
2. Gangadhar Pant had not been to ‘this Bomabay before’. How was ‘the Bombay’ different?
Ans. This Bombay was under the British Raj. An Anglo-Indian in uniform checked permits. Each of the blue carriages of GBMR had the tiny Union Jack painted on it. The Victoria Terminus station looked very neat and clean. The staff was mostly of Anglo-Indians and Parsis along with a handful of British officers.
3. What led Professor Gaitonde to believe that ‘history has taken a different turn, perhaps before 1857?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde noticed an imposing building facing Bombay V.T. It was called East India House, Headquarters of the East India Company. He knew that the East India Company had been wound up shortly after the events of 1857. Yet here it was not only alive but also flourishing. So he concluded that history had taken a different turn.
4. How did the shops and office buildings along Hornby Road differ from those he knew well?
Ans. The Bombay he knew had a tower of OCS building. It peeped above the shorter victorian buildings. There was Handloom House also. There were no such buildings along the Road. Instead there were Boots and Woolworth department stores and offices of Lloyds, Barclays and other British banks.
5. ‘‘This was a blow, not totally unexpected.’’ What was the blow and how was it not totally unexpected?
Ans. At Forbes building, Professor Gaitonde made enquiries about his son Vinay Gaitonde. The English receptionist searched through the telephone list, the staff list and directory of employees of all the branches. She told him that she could not find his name there. This was a blow, but not totally unexpected one. If he himself were dead in this world, his son might not be alive or he might not even have been born.
6. Which according to Gangadharpant was the precise moment where history had taken a different turn?
Ans. The victory of the Marathas in the Battle of Panipat was very important. Abdali was defeated completely and pursued back to Kabul by the triumphant Maratha army led by Sadashivrao Bhau and his nephew, the young Vishwasrao.
7. ‘‘Gangdharpant read through the account avidly.’’ Which account is referred to here? Why did he read it avidly?
Ans. It was not blow by blow account of the battle itself, but its consequences for the power struggle in India. The style of writing was unmistakably Gangadharpant’s own, yet he was reading this account for the first time. So he read it eagerly.
8. How did the Victory in the Battle of Panipat affect the balance of power?
Ans. It was a great morale booster to the Marathas. It established their supremacy in northern India. The influence of Bhausaheb and Vishwasrao increased. The East India Company postponed its expansionist programme. Vishwasrao and his brother Madhavrao had political sharpness and bravery. The Company’s influence was reduced to small areas near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
9. How was the balance of power maintained in the nineteenth century?
Ans. The Peshwas kept the puppet regime alive in Delhi. There were political reasons for it. The Peshwas were the real rulers from Pune. They recognised the importance of the technological age beginning in Europe. They set up their centres for science and technology. East India Company saw an opportunity to increase its influence. It offered aid and experts. These were accepted only to make the local centres self-sufficient.
10. What was the state of India Gangadharpant had seen during the twentieth century?
Ans. India moved towards a democracy. The Peshwas lost their enterprise. They were gradually replaced by democratically elected bodies. The Sultanate at Delhi survived even this change because it exercised no real influence. The Shahenshah of Delhi held a high position but no real power. He simply gave official approval to the ‘recommendations’ made by the central parliament.
11. Why do you think Gangadharpant appreciated the India he had seen recently?
Ans. It was an independent and self-respecting country. It had never been enslaved by the white men. It was self-sufficient. It has allowed the British to retain Bombay as their sole outpost. This was due to purely commercial reasons. The treaty was signed in 1908. That lease was to expire in the year 2001.
12. Where from did Gangadhar Pant get the clue for the question. ‘‘How did the Marathas win the battle?’’ and what did he think about it?
Ans. He got the clue from a book called Bhausahebanchi Bakhar. He found the Bakhars interesting to read, but he seldom relied on them for historical evidence. The detailed but falsified accounts were quite vivid but truth lay hidden somewhere.
13. Which lines revealed that Vishwasrao had come quite close to being killed?
Ans. The lines read: Then Vishwasrao guided his horse to the melee. Elite troops were fighting there. He attacked them. God was merciful. A shot passed by his ear touching it lightly. Even the difference of a til (sesame) would have led to his death.
14. Why was Professor Gaitonde staring at the platform in Azad Maidan as if mesmerized?
Ans. He found a lecture in progress there. He saw a table and a chair on the platform, but the presidential chair was unoccupied. The sight stirred him to the depths. He could not approve of the public lecture without a presiding dignitary. For him it was a sacrilege.
15. How did the audience react to Professor Gaitonde’s remarks: ‘‘an unchaired lecture is like Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ without the Prince of Denmark’’?
Ans. The audience reacted sharply. They were sick of remarks from the chair, of vote of thanks and of long introductions. They had abolished the old customs long ago. Hence that lecture series had no chairperson. The chair was symbolic. They only wanted to listen to the speaker. They asked him to vacate the chair and keep the platform empty.
16. What happened as Professor Gaitonde kept on trying valiantly to correct the sacrilege?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde kept on talking and reminding the audience of the importance of presiding dignitary. The hostile audience reacted sharply. First they showered tomatoes, eggs and other objects on him. Then they rushed to the stage to eject him bodily. He was lost in the crowd.
17. Why do you think Rajendra’s ‘smile’ was replaced by a ‘grave expression’?
Ans. Rajendra had smiled on hearing Professor Gaitonde’s strange narrative. Perhaps he thought that Gaitonde’s mind was playing tricks and his imagination was over excited. He became serious as he read a page torn out of a book. This page from Bakhar contained vital evidence about the different turn history had taken.
18. What do you think made Rajendra realize that ‘‘facts can be stranger than fantasies’’?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde presented two totally different written accounts of the Battle of Panipat as contained in Bhausahebanchi Bakhar. The one he had come across in the other world described how Vishwasrao narrowly missed the bullet. The other account which he had in the familiar world, described that Vishwasrao was hit by the bullet.
19. How does Rajendra explain the disparity in the two accounts of the same crucial event in the Battle of Panipat?
Ans. Rajendra applies catastrophe theory to the Battle of Panipat. The outcome of the battle depended on the leadership and the morale of the troops at the critical juncture. In one of them, the troops lost their morale and fighting spirit at the loss of their leaders. In the other, the bullet missed Vishwasrao and this boosted the morale of troops and they won.
20. ‘‘We live in a unique world which has a unique history,’’ says Professor Gaitonde. What prompts him to make this remark?
Ans. Rajendra tries to explain the outcome of the Battle of Panipat with the help of catastrophe theory. The Marathas might have won it, but actually they lost it. Napoleon could also have won the Battle of Waterloo, but he was defeated. The idea of ‘it might have been’ is all right for the sake of speculation but not for reality.
21. What do you know about ‘reality’ on the basis of your study of Jayant Narlikar’s ‘The Advanture’?
Ans. We can experience reality directly with our senses and indirectly via instruments. Reality is not limited to what we see. It may have other forms. Reality may not be unique. This has been found from experiments on very small systems such as atoms and their smallest parts.
22. What do you understand by, ‘‘The lack of determinism in quantum theory’’?
Ans. Quantum theory is based on the idea that energy exists in units that can’t be divided. Determinism is the doctrine that all events and actions are determined by external forces acting on the will. The phrase thus means that the energy contained in electrons is not determined by the external forces that fire it.
23. How, according to Rajendra, was Gangadharpant able to experience two worlds?
Ans. According to Rajendra, Gangadharpant made a transition from one world to another and back again. By doing so, he was able to experience two worlds, although one at a time. One has the history we know, the other a different history. The separation or bifurcation took place in the Battle of Panipat.
24. ‘‘But why did I make the transition?’’ asks Gangadharpant. How does Rajendra try to convince him with guess work?
Ans. Rajendra has no readymade answer or explanation for this query. He makes a guess. Some interaction is needed to cause a transition. Perhaps Gangadharpant was then thinking about the catastrophe theroy and its role in war. Or he may be wondering about the Battle of Panipat. The neurons in his brain triggered the transition.
25. What had Professor Gaitonde been thinking at the time of collision?
Ans. At the time of his collision with the truck, Professor Gaitonde was thinking about the Battle of Panipat. He was wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the battle had gone the other way, i.e. if the Marathas had won the battle.
26. What do you learn about Professor Gaitonde’s thousandth presidential address?
Ans. His thousandth presidential address was made on the Azad Maidan. He was then rudely interrupted. He wanted to tell the audience what might had happened if Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat. Since people had misbehaved, he could not deliver this address.
1. ‘‘Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.’’ Elucidate.
Ans. Gangadharpant was an eminent historian of Pune. He had written the History of India in five volumes. During his train journey he was wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the Battle of Panipat had gone the other way. This helped him to make a transition to the other world. India was altogether different country in this world. Unlike the India he knew so well, the India he was witnessing around him was self-sufficient and self-respecting. It was independent. It had never been enslaved by thwhite menmen. It had allowed the British to retain Bombay as their sole outpost. This was done for purely commercial reasons. The buildings and offices in this British Bombay were the same as in typical high street of a town in England. East India House, thheadquartersrs of the East India Company was housed in an imposing building outside Bombay’s VT. The station itself looked remarkably neat and clean. The staff mostly comprised of Anglo-Indians and Parsees along with a handful of British officers. The Bombay he knew was altogether different. The tower of OCS building peeped above the shorter Victorian buildings. There was Handloom House as well22. What, according to Gangadharpant, would have been the consequences if the Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat?
Ans. The consequences of Maratha victory in the Battle of Panipat would have beefafar-reaching. It would have boosted their morale and established their supremacy in northern India. The expansionist programme of the East India Company would have been shelved. The political cleverness and bravery of Maratha rulers would have helped them to expand their influence all over India. The East India Company would have been reduced to pockets of influence near Bombay, Calcutta and Madras, just like its European rivals, the Portuguese and the French. The Peshwas would have been real rulers of India. They would have kept the puppet Mughal government in office for political reasons. Recognising the importance of technological age in Europe, they would have set up their own centres for science and technology. The twentieth century would have moved India towards democracy. The Peshwas would have been replaced by democratically elected bodies. The Shahenshah of Delhi would then merely approve the recommendations made by the central parliament.
3. How does Rajendra Deshpande try to rationalize the experience of Professor Gaitonde about his transition to another world and back?
Ans. According to Rajendra, Professor Gaitonde had passed through a fantastic experience, or more correctly, a catastrophic experience. He tried to rationalize it on the basis of two scientific theories that were current then. One was the catastrophe theory. The result of the battle would have been determined by the acts of the leaders and the morale of troops at the critical juncture. The blow of losing the leaders would have led the o loss of morale and fighting spirit. An utter rout would have followed. If the crucial event had gone the other way, its effect on the troops would also have been the opposite. Their morale would have been boosted and they might have won. The course of history would have been different. The other explanation is through the lack of determinism in quantum theory. Catastrophic situations offer radically different alternatives for the world to proceed. All alternatives are viable so far as reality is concerned. However, the observer can experience only one of them at a time. Professor Gaitonde made a transition from one world to the other as he had been thinking about the catastrophe theory and Battle of Panipat. The neurons in his brain acted aa s trigger.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 English
Robert Lynd is an exceptionally humorous and great writer. His articles are simple, amusing and satirical. His style of composing is rich and enchanting. In his essay “Forgetting”, Robert Lynd expounds on the main causes of forgetting and furthermore clarifies what things are usually forgotten by individuals.
1. What are the most common things we often forget? OR
What does Robert Lynd say in defence of forgetfulness?
Ans. Forgetting is a very important lesson by Robert Lynd. Forgetting is also good merit of man’s life.
The writer says that there are certain things about which people are generally forgetful. The reason is not due to the weakness of their memory but we often forget the things in our daily life. It is the common habit of every person. Forgetting is not mental weakness. It is a boon as well as a curse.
Some people forget to take their medicines timely. There are few people who remember to take them regularly. Posting letter is another thing which people forget easily. They hold their letters in hands but forget to drop it into the post boxes.
People also forget their books, walking sticks and umbrellas. The young men also forget their articles on trains and taxies. The sportsmen forget their football and bats because their minds are full of the victory or defeat. Generally, anglers forget they’re fishing- rod.
The modern man remembers telephone numbers, addresses, time for lunch and dinner etc. It is said that great men often forget small things. We can’t hope from Socrates or any great poet like Thomas grey to remember to post a letter. After forgetting small things, man achieves great things.
The moment of forgetfulness is the moment of great joy and excitement. For example, the sportsmen forget their bats and balls when they leave the train. But a man who is like a remembering machine is never a wise man.
Thus, the writer advises us that we should forget some common things, then we will be able to remember some noble things in life. Forgetting results in higher things. It is a virtue and makes a man wiser and happier in life.
2. What according to Robert Lynd, are the advantages of forgetfulness?
Ans. Forgetfulness has its own advantages. It makes a man happy. It enables him to reach the object of his greater interest. The movement of forgetfulness is the moment of great joy. Such a man lives in imagination.
Failures and disappointment make a man unhappy. he forgets ordinary things. But due to it, forgetful people are able to create something new and original. They enjoy a better life than those who have strong memories.
The absent-minded man makes the best of his life. People who most often shows a forgetful nature include poets, composers of music, philosophers, anglers, sportsmen and statesmen. The reason behind it might be that they are lost thoughts of higher value things, so they forget small matter things.
3. What are the things, which modern man, generally forgets in daily life? Who are the people, who most often show a forgetful nature?
Ans. A modern man remembers a lot of things. Still, there are a lot of things, which he forgets. He forgets to take medicine. He loses walking sticks, books, umbrellas, bats, balls, fishing rods. Posting letters are also forgotten.
People, ho most often show a forgetful nature include poets, composers of music, philosophers, anglers, sportsmen and statesmen. The reason behind it might be that they are lost in thoughts of higher value things, so they forget small matter things.
4. Why does writer consider the absent mindedness in people such as anglers and poets a virtue?
Ans. Robert Lynd gives a list of people who are generally absent-minded. He says that anglers are lost in the dreams of their imaginary achievements. So, they forget their fishing rods. Poets have more responsibility for writing good poetry. So, they forget small things like posting letters.
The reason behind it might be that they are lost in thoughts of higher value things, so they forget small matter things. So, the writer considers the absent mindedness in people such as anglers and poets a virtue because their minds are filled with more glorious matters.
5. “It is the efficiency rather than the inefficiency of human memory that compels my wonder”— What instances of an efficient human memory are given by Lynd in Forgetting? Name a few of the ‘matters’ regarding which memory works inefficiently.
Ans. In his essay on Forgetting Robert Lynd gives a number of examples of efficient human memory. A modern man keeps many things in his memory; names of actors, actresses, sportspersons, addresses of friends, appointments for lunch and dinner and telephone numbers. In his everyday living, he does everything he has to do. He even switched off the light before going to bed.
But despite such efficient memory, man forgets to make medicines regularly, post letters in time and keep umbrellas, walking sticks and books in mind.
6. What, after the writer of Forgetting, is the commonest form of forgetfulness? Show how this form of forgetfulness affects all including the writer.
Ans. In his essay Forgetting, Lynd says that the commonest form of forgetfulness occurs in the matter of posting letters. It is so common that Lynd cannot trust his departing guest to post his letter. Even if he does, he puts his guest under oath to post his letter. He humorously says about himself: “anyone who asks me to post a letter is a poor judge of character”. He carries the letter in his hand. But he remembers to post it always after passing the first letter-box. Weary of holding it, Lynd puts the letter in his pocket. Soon he forgets all about it. The unposted letter leads an unadventurous life in his pocket. At home, he faces embarrassing questions. And the guilt is brought out of his pocket.
7. What made many people wonder at their fellows’ absentmindedness?
Ans. Robert Lynd says that he is astonished by the efficiency of human memory. A present man remembers even phone numbers and names of performing artists and on-screen characters and cricketers and footballers and murderers. Hence he can recollect nearly everything in his life. For instance, modern man does not forget a single thing of his apparel when dressing. So also, nobody forgets to close the front door when going out. Lynd says that the institution of the family survives in modern societies since common individuals have effective memory power.
8. “There are it must be admitted, some matters in regard to which the memory works with less than its usual perfection” –mention a few instances OR
Chemists make their fortunes out of the medicines people forget to take!”
Ans. Robert Lynd says that in a few matters human memory works not as much as its typical perfection. For instance, a great number of people neglect to take the drug. Be that as it may, they keep in mind to take dinners and medications are typically taken before or after or amid meals. Psychologists state that we forget things since we wish to forget them. So, people don’t care for prescriptions and that is the reason they forget them. In this specific circumstance, Robert Lynd amusingly comments that chemists profit since individuals forget to take prescriptions and their disease isn’t restored and they purchase more and more meds.
9. What is the commonest form of forgetfulness referred to by Lynd? OR
“This, it might be thought, must be due to a lack of interest in other people’s letters” – What is Lynd’s remarks on this? – OR
What articles does Lynd forget most often?
Ans. To Robert Lynd, the commonest type of absent-mindedness is in posting letters. The vast majority neglect to post letters. In this way, Robert Lynd interestingly comments that if anybody requests him to post a letter is a poor judge of character since Robert Lynd never posts the letter regardless of whether he keeps it in his pocket for a long time. Essentially, the author leaves walking sticks and umbrellas amid his journey.
10. “They had souls above such things!” Who?
Ans. Lynd says that a rundown of articles lost by railway travellers has been published and numerous individuals who read the list have been surprised at the inattentiveness of the general population on the grounds that a large portion of these voyagers is young sportsmen. They have forgotten their cricket-bats and footballs. Lynd says that these young men coming back from the games have their creative energies loaded up with the vision of the playing field. The vanquished players are extremely miserable and they think their lost chances and disappointments. The successful young men have their heads among the stars, contemplating their accomplishments. In any case, both the two groups of young men remain in a fantasy world and they neglect to take their cricket bats and footballs when leaving the train. They are people of dreamland.
11. “Memory indeed is half the substance of their art”
Ans. The anglers like sportsmen are also the citizens of dreamland. They are daydreamers. They neglect to take the fishing rod when they return home at night. Their mind is loaded up with things more fantastic. In this way, both the sportsmen and fishermen are absentminded individuals. Lynd comments that such absentmindedness is a gift in light of the fact that these individuals forget their despondency and live in a fantasy universe of Utopia. Great philosophers, artists, poets and thinkers were absentminded people because their brains were brimming with high beliefs and creative energies. Socrates, the incomparable Greek Philosopher and S.T.Coleridge, the great English artist were absentminded people.
12. What prompts Lynd to believe that the world has not yet begun to produce ideal statesmen?
Ans. Robert Lynd mentions that the ownership of a decent memory is a great thing for all. Numerous incredible writers, poets and music composers have an incredibly decent memory. Memory is half of the substance of their art. On the other hand, statesmen have remarkably bad memories. Mostly the facts in the autobiographies and speeches of statesmen are tested. It demonstrates that they have an exceptionally poor memory. In this specific situation, Robert Lynd comments that the world has not yet delivered a perfect statesman.
13. “How many men below the rank of a philosopher would be capable of such absent-mindedness as this?” What is the absentmindedness referred to here?
Ans. A good memory is usually very common. So if a man does not have a decent memory, we may consider him a whimsical. Lynd portrays an extremely clever story of a father who takes his child out in a perambulator in the morning time. When he was running with his child in the perambulator, he strolled into a public house for a glass of beer. The young child was sitting in the perambulator outside in the road. After some time, his wife came that path for shopping. She was shocked to see her infant sleeping in the perambulator. She was so furious with her husband that she chose to teach him a lesson and wheeled away from the perambulator. At noon, the husband got back home grinning happily. He has totally forgotten his child and the perambulator. Lynd comments that not many men below the position of a scholar would be able to do such absentmindedness as this man in the story.
1. What has been published at a great London station?
Ans. A list of articles lost by railway travellers has been published at a great London station.
2. Give a few examples of forgetting.
Ans. The quality of forgetting is common in every man’s life. There are some people who forget to turn off the lights of their houses. Someone forget to take medicine timely and someone forget to post the letters.
3 What were the articles on sale at a great London station?
Ans. There were some umbrellas, walking sticks, bags, bottles and sometimes boxes on sale at a great London station.
4. What is the thing that a modern man usually remember?
Ans. A modern man remembers all the things that he is expected to remember like telephone numbers, the name of cricketers and addresses of friends etc.
5. Why is the memory of sportsmen is worse than that of other ordinary people?
Ans. The memory of sportsmen is worse than that of other ordinary people because they lost in a daydream and recall their errors. Their heads are among the stars and they are cut off from the world outside them.
6. Who remembers to take their medicine regularly?
Ans. Only the methodical man remember to take their medicine regularly.
7. What do certain psychologists tell us?
Ans. certain psychologists tell us that we forget things because we wish to forget them.
8. Where do the players forget their footballs and bats?
Ans. The players forget their footballs and bats on the trains and buses while returning from the games.
9. What compels the wonder of the writer?
Ans. Forgetting is more efficient than human memory. It compels the wonder of the writer.
10 What is quite impossible for the writer to remember?
Ans. The writer fails to remember his walking sticks and books when he goes on a visit.
11. What is the commonest form of forgetfulness?
Ans. The commonest form of forgetfulness occurs in the matter of posting letters.
12. Why do many people fail to remember to take their medicine at the appointed time?
Ans. Many people fail to remember to take medicine at the appointed time because they wish to forget it. They are not interested in taking pills and potions.
13. Why may an angler forget his fishing- rod?
Ans. The writer says that the anglers are the most imaginative persons. Every time they invent good lies on their journey home. So they forget the fishing -rod.
14. What does the author say about the memory of statesmen?
Ans. The writer says that the memory of statesmen is like a sieve or he is a liar. Their memory is not sharp and good.
15. Who is more forgetful- the young or the adults?
Ans. The young are more forgetful than the adults. As the young people forget their bats and footballs in the trains while the adults reach their places without forgetting anything.
Explanation With Reference to Context
1. Certain psychologists tell us……………………………forget to take.
Reference: These lines have been taken from the lesson ‘Forgetting’ written by Robert Lynd.
Context: Here the writer is telling us about the good and evils of Forgetting. He also says that the quality of forgetting is common in every man’s life. It is very good merit as well as bad of the man.
Explanation: In this passage, the writer describes the notion of the psychologists about forgetting. The situation of taking medicine at the right time, take place in psychologists. The doctor fixes the time of medicines to be taken before, during or after meals. Thus the time of meal itself remind the person to take the medicine.
Even then people generally forget it. In fact, we remember to take the medicine at the right time till we are sick because our interest is in the recovery of heath. As soon as we improve our health, our interest in taking medicines becomes less. So we start forgetting to take medicines at a fixed time. Thus it shows that forgetfulness is the result of a lack of our interest. That is why the writer says that we forget things because we want to forget them.
2. The commonest form…………………………………….letter to him.
Reference-context: The same as the above.
Explanation: The quality of forgetting is very common among all kind of people. The commonest form of forgetfulness occurs in the matter of posting a letter. As an example, a large number of people forget to post the letter. The writer also has felt that even his visitors forget to post his important letters. So he does not believe in them. If sometimes he hands over them his important letters, he asks them to take an oath that they will not forget to post them.
1. His loss of memory……………………………such things.
1. Why is his of loss memory really a tribute?
Ans. His loss of memory is really a tribute because he is lost in the enjoyment of his sport and the enjoyment is greater than the finishing rod.
2. How does the writer justify fishermen’s forgetting the fishing rod and the poet’s to post a letter?
Ans. The writer justifies fisherman’s forgetting the fishing rod and the poet’s to post a letter because both of them forget the things which are ordinary to them while their minds are full of more glorious matter.
3. what do you mean by the sentence “Who would have trusted Socrates or Coleridge to post a letter?”
Ans. The given sentence means that Socrates and Coleridge were so great men that posting of the letter was a very ordinary thing for them. When their minds are full of lofty ideas, how they would remember an ordinary thing of posting a letter.
4 What does the word ‘Mediocre’ stand for?
Ans. The word ‘Mediocre’ stand for the second rate.
2.I have heard………………………sleeping baby.
1 Describe the story of the father, the baby and the perambulator in brief.
Ans. Once a man took his baby in a perambulator for an outing. On his way, he slipped into a public-house for a glass of beer leaving the baby outside perambulator. By chance, his wife happened to be there. She was horrified to find her sleeping baby in the perambulator.
2. Where did the father go leaving the baby in the perambulator?
Ans. The father went into the public-house for a glass of beer, leaving the baby alone in the perambulator.
3. When did the wife see her baby?
Ans. The wife saw her baby when she passed from the public-house on her way to the market.
4. Why was the wife full of horror?
Ans. The wife was full of horror as the baby was left alone outside the public-house in a perambulator.
Fill in the blanks
1. Anglers are generally called the most imaginative of men.
2. The commonest form of forgetfulness occurs in the matter of posting letters.
3. I find quite impossible to keep my walking stick.
4. A list of articles lost by railway traveller has been published.